Ribosomal ribonucleic acid synthesis in Bacillus subtilis.
ABSTRACT: The mode of biosynthesis of the 16S and 23S ribosomal ribonucleic acids (rRNA) was studied in Bacillus subtilis 168thy(-). Three criteria were used to define the characteristics of the rRNA species: (i) the time required at 37 degrees C to synthesize 16S and 23S rRNA chains de novo in growing cultures; (ii) the degree of reactivity of the 3'-terminal groups of the rRNA molecules with periodate and [carbonyl-(14)C]isonicotinic acid hydrazide; and (iii) the reactivity of the 5'-terminal regions of the rRNA molecules with the bacterial exonuclease purified by Riley (1969). The 16S and 23S chains of B. subtilis were synthesized at rates of 22+/-2 and 21+/-2 nucleotides added/s. The periodate-[(14)C]isonicotinic acid hydrazide and the exonuclease techniques for estimating apparent chain lengths of RNA indicated that the chain length of the 23S rRNA was 1.8 times that of the 16S fraction. The apparent chain lengths of each rRNA species were: 16S rRNA, 1650+/-50 nucleotide residues; 23S rRNA, 3050+/-90 nucleotide residues. It appears that, the 16S and 23S rRNA molecules in B. subtilis are synthesized in the expected manner, by simple polymerization of the final products on independent cistrons.
Project description:We amplified the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and obtained two specific PCR products in different sizes. We have sequenced both PCR products and found that one of them has sequence homologous to the spacer tRNA genes in Bacillus subtilis. This is the first evidence of tRNA genes between the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions in members of the class Mollicutes.
Project description:A column-chromatographic system using DEAE-cellulose and gradient elution with triethylammonium formate at pH4.0-3.5 is described. It is capable of separating the oligonucleotide isonicotinoyl hydrazones that are produced by nuclease digestion of RNA oxidized with periodate and coupled with isonicotinic acid hydrazide. Fifteen dinucleoside monophosphate isonicotinoyl hydrazones were characterized by their elution positions on the columns, so that all but two of them could readily be identified. Twelve trinucleoside diphosphate hydrazones were also characterized by their elution positions on the column. The application of this method of fractionation to terminal-sequence studies of RNA is discussed.
Project description:PCR-ribotyping, a typing method based on size variation in 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ISR), has been used widely for molecular epidemiological investigations of C. difficile infections. In the present study, we describe the sequence diversity of ISRs from 43 C. difficile strains, representing different PCR-ribotypes and suggest homologous recombination as a possible mechanism driving the evolution of 16S-23S rRNA ISRs. ISRs of 45 different lengths (ranging from 185 bp to 564 bp) were found among 458 ISRs. All ISRs could be described with one of the 22 different structural groups defined by the presence or absence of different sequence modules; tRNAAla genes and different combinations of spacers of different lengths (33 bp, 53 bp or 20 bp) and 9 bp direct repeats separating the spacers. The ISR structural group, in most cases, coincided with the sequence length. ISRs that were of the same lengths had also very similar nucleotide sequence, suggesting that ISRs were not suitable for discriminating between different strains based only on the ISR sequence. Despite large variations in the length, the alignment of ISR sequences, based on the primary sequence and secondary structure information, revealed many conserved regions which were mainly involved in maturation of pre-rRNA. Phylogenetic analysis of the ISR alignment yielded strong evidence for intra- and inter-homologous recombination which could be one of the mechanisms driving the evolution of C. difficile 16S-23S ISRs. The modular structure of the ISR, the high sequence similarities of ISRs of the same sizes and the presence of homologous recombination also suggest that different copies of C. difficile 16S-23S rRNA ISR are evolving in concert.
Project description:1. The specific NAD-glycohydrolase activity is increased 70 and 50% over the normal in lung and liver tissues respectively of tuberculous mice. 2. Concomitant with the increase in the NAD-glycohydrolase activity, the NAD-isonicotinic acid hydrazide-exchange activity also is increased in infection. The isonicotinic acid hydrazide analogue of NAD formed by the lung enzyme from tuberculous mice has been isolated and identified. 3. The increased NAD-glycohydrolase activity in infection has been shown to be of host-tissue origin and not due to the activation of the bacterial enzyme on growth of the organism in vivo. 4. In addition to NAD, NMN and NADP also participate in the exchange reaction with isonicotinic acid hydrazide catalysed by NAD glycohydrolase. The interference of the drug at the nucleotide level of metabolism is therefore suggested.
Project description:Ribosomal RNAs are processed from primary transcripts containing 16S, 23S and 5S rRNAs in most bacteria. Maturation generally occurs in a two-step process, consisting of a first crude separation of the major species by RNase III during transcription, followed by precise trimming of 5' and 3' extensions on each species upon accurate completion of subunit assembly. The various endo- and exoribonucleases involved in the final processing reactions are strikingly different in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, the two best studied representatives of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Here, we show that the one exception to this rule is the protein involved in the maturation of the 3' end of 16S rRNA. Cells depleted for the essential B. subtilis YqfG protein, a homologue of E. coli YbeY, specifically accumulate 16S rRNA precursors bearing 3' extensions. Remarkably, the essential nature of YqfG can be suppressed by deleting the ribosomal RNA degrading enzyme RNase R, i.e. a ?yqfG ?rnr mutant is viable. Our data suggest that 70S ribosomes containing 30S subunits with 3' extensions of 16S rRNA are functional to a degree, but become substrates for degradation by RNase R and are eliminated.
Project description:A 6.0-kb SalI DNA fragment containing an entire rRNA operon (rrnB) was cloned from a cosmid gene bank of the phytopathogenic strain Rhodococcus fascians D188. The nucleotide sequence of the 6-kb fragment was determined and had the organization 16S rRNA-spacer-23S rRNA-spacer-5S rRNA without tRNA-encoding genes in the spacer regions. The 5' and 3' ends of the mature 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNAs were determined by alignment with the rrn operons of Bacillus subtilis and other gram-positive bacteria. Four copies of the rrn operons were identified by hybridization with an rrnB probe in R. fascians type strain ATCC 12974 and in the virulent strain R. fascians D188. However, another isolate, CECT 3001 (= NRRL B15096), also classified as R. fascians, produced five rrn-hybridizing bands. An integrative vector containing a 2.5-kb DNA fragment internal to rrnB was constructed for targeted integration of exogenous genes at the rrn loci. Transformants carrying the exogenous chloramphenicol resistance gene (cmr) integrated in different rrn operons were obtained. These transformants had normal growth rates in complex medium and minimal medium and were fully stable for the integrated marker.
Project description:From analyses of the hybridization of Escherichia coli rRNA (ribosomal RNA) to homologous denatured DNA, the following conclusions were drawn. (1) When a fixed amount of DNA was hybridized with increasing amounts of RNA, only 0.35+/-0.02% of E. coli DNA was capable of binding (16s+23s) rRNA. Although preparations of 16s and 23s rRNA were virtually free from cross-contamination, the hybridization curves for purified 16s or 23s rRNA were almost identical with that of the parent specimen containing 1 weight unit of 16s rRNA mixed with 2 weight units of 23s rRNA. The 16s and 23s rRNA also competed effectively for the same specific DNA sites. It appears that these RNA species each possess all hybridizing species typical of the parent (16s+23s) rRNA specimen, though probably in different relative amounts. (2) By using hybridization-efficiency analysis of DNA-RNA hybridization curves (Avery & Midgley, 1969) it was found that (a) 0.45% of the DNA would hybridize total rRNA and (b) when so little RNA was added to unit weight of DNA that the DNA sites were not saturated, only 70-75% of the input RNA would form hybrids. The reasons for the discrepancy between the results obtained by the two alternative analytical approaches were discussed. (3) For either 16s or 23s rRNA, hybridization analysis indicated that two principal weight fractions of rRNA may exist, hybridizing to two distinct groups of DNA sites. However, these groups seem to be incompletely divided between the 16s and 23s fractions. Analysis suggested that (a) 85% of the 16s rRNA was hybridized to about half the DNA that specifically binds rRNA (0.23% of the total DNA). (b) 70% of the 23s rRNA hybridized to a further 0.23% of the DNA and (c) the minor fraction (15%) of 16s rRNA may be competitive with the major fraction (70%) of 23s rRNA. Conversely, the minor fraction (30%) of the 23s rRNA may compete with the major fraction (85%) of 16s rRNA. Models were proposed to explain the apparent lack of segregation of distinct RNA species in the two subfractions of rRNA. (4) If protein synthesis and ribosome maturation were inhibited in cells of an RC(rel) mutant, E. coli W 1665, by depriving them of an amino acid (methionine) essential for growth, the inhibition had no discernible effect on the relative rates of synthesis of rRNA species. The rRNA that accumulates in RC(rel) strains of E. coli after amino acid deprivation is apparently identical in its content of RNA species with that of the pre-existing mature RNA in the ribosomes. On the other hand, the messenger RNA is stabilized, and accumulates as about 15% of the RNA formed after withdrawal of the amino acid.
Project description:Many members of the Staphylococcus genus are clinically relevant opportunistic pathogens that warrant accurate and rapid identification for targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to develop a careful assignment scheme for staphylococcal species based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S-23S rRNA region. All reference staphylococcal strains were identified at the species level using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA, sodA, tuf, and rpoB genes and NGS of the 16S-23S rRNA region. To broaden the database, an additional 100 staphylococcal strains, including 29 species, were identified by routine diagnostic methods, 16S rRNA Sanger sequencing and NGS of the 16S-23S rRNA region. The results enabled development of reference sequences encompassing the 16S-23S rRNA region for 50 species (including one newly proposed species) and 6 subspecies of the Staphylococcus genus. This study showed sodA and rpoB targets were the most discriminative but NGS of the 16S-23S rRNA region was more discriminative than tuf gene sequencing and much more discriminative than 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Almost all Staphylococcus species could be distinguished when the max score was 99.0% or higher and the sequence similarity between the best and second best species was equal to or >0.2% (min. 9 nucleotides). This study allowed development of reference sequences for 21 staphylococcal species and enrichment for 29 species for which sequences were publicly available. We confirmed the usefulness of NGS of the 16S-23S rRNA region by identifying the whole species content in 45 clinical samples and comparing the results to those obtained using routine diagnostic methods. Based on the developed reference database, all staphylococcal species can be reliably detected based on the 16S-23S rRNA sequences in samples composed of both single species and more complex polymicrobial communities. This study will be useful for introduction of a novel diagnostic tool, which undoubtedly is an improvement for reliable species identification in polymicrobial samples. The introduction of this new method is hindered by a lack of reference sequences for the 16S-23S rRNA region for many bacterial species. The results will allow identification of all Staphylococcus species, which are clinically relevant pathogens.
Project description:Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences has become the primary method for determining prokaryotic phylogeny. Phylogeny is currently the basis for prokaryotic systematics. Therefore, the validity of 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analyses is of fundamental importance for prokaryotic systematics. Discrepancies between 16S rRNA gene analyses and DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic analyses have been noted in the genus Helicobacter. To clarify these discrepancies, we sequenced the 23S rRNA genes for 55 helicobacter strains representing 41 taxa (>2,700 bases per sequence). Phylogenetic-tree construction using neighbor-joining, parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods for 23S rRNA gene sequence data yielded stable trees which were consistent with other phenotypic and genotypic methods. The 16S rRNA gene sequence-derived trees were discordant with the 23S rRNA gene trees and other data. Discrepant 16S rRNA gene sequence data for the helicobacters are consistent with the horizontal transfer of 16S rRNA gene fragments and the creation of mosaic molecules with loss of phylogenetic information. These results suggest that taxonomic decisions must be supported by other phylogenetically informative macromolecules, such as the 23S rRNA gene, when 16S rRNA gene-derived phylogeny is discordant with other credible phenotypic and genotypic methods. This study found Wolinella succinogenes to branch with the unsheathed-flagellum cluster of helicobacters by 23S rRNA gene analyses and whole-genome comparisons. This study also found intervening sequences (IVSs) in the 23S rRNA genes of strains of 12 Helicobacter species. IVSs were found in helices 10, 25, and 45, as well as between helices 31' and 27'. Simultaneous insertion of IVSs at three sites was found in H. mesocricetorum.
Project description:In most bacteria, ribosomal RNA is transcribed as a single polycistronic precursor that is first processed by RNase III. This double-stranded specific RNase cleaves two large stems flanking the 23S and 16S rRNA mature sequences, liberating three 16S, 23S and 5S rRNA precursors, which are further processed by other ribonucleases. Here, we investigate the rRNA maturation pathway of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. This bacterium has an unusual arrangement of its rRNA genes, the 16S rRNA gene being separated from a 23S-5S rRNA cluster. We show that RNase III also initiates processing in this organism, by cleaving two typical stem structures encompassing 16S and 23S rRNAs and an atypical stem-loop located upstream of the 5S rRNA. Deletion of RNase III leads to the accumulation of a large 23S-5S precursor that is found in polysomes, suggesting that it can function in translation. Finally, we characterize a cis-encoded antisense RNA overlapping the leader of the 23S-5S rRNA precursor. We present evidence that this antisense RNA interacts with this precursor, forming an intermolecular complex that is cleaved by RNase III. This pairing induces additional specific cleavages of the rRNA precursor coupled with a rapid degradation of the antisense RNA.