[The relationship between palmitoyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity and esterification of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate in rat liver mitochondria.]
ABSTRACT: 1. The specific activities for palmitoyl-CoA synthetase and for sn-glycerol 3-phosphate esterification, with palmitoyl-CoA generated either by the endogenous synthetase or from palmitoyl-(-)-carnitine, CoA and excess of carnitine palmitoyltransferase, were measured with rat liver mitochondria. 2. The mean specific activity of palmitoyl-CoA synthetase was approximately five- and seven-fold the rates of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate esterification from palmitate and palmitoyl-(-)-carnitine respectively. No significant correlation was found in different rats between the activities of palmitoyl-CoA synthetase and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate esterification from either acyl precursor. However, there was a significant correlation (r=0.83, P<0.001) between the rates of glycerolipid synthesis from palmitate and palmitoyl-(-)-carnitine. 3. The mean molar composition of the glycerolipid synthesized from palmitate was 58% lysophosphatidate, 31% phosphatidate and 11% neutral lipid. With palmitoyl-(-)-carnitine the equivalent values were 70, 23 and 7%, which were significantly different. 4. When palmitoyl-CoA synthetase had been inactivated by 60-70% after preincubation of mitochondria at 37 degrees C, it became rate-limiting in glycerolipid biosynthesis. Additions of 1-5mm-ATP prevented inactivation of palmitoyl-CoA synthetase. 5. Preincubation also inhibited the oxidation of palmitate, palmitoyl-CoA, palmitoyl-(-)-carnitine and malate plus glutamate. These inhibitions could not be prevented by addition of ATP. 6. Diversion of palmitoyl-CoA to form palmitoyl-(-)-carnitine did not inhibit sn-glycerol 3-phosphate esterification. 7. The palmitoyl-CoA pool synthesized by the palmitoyl-CoA synthetase was augmented by adding partially purified synthetase or carnitine palmitoyltransferase and palmitoyl-(-)-carnitine. No stimulation of palmitate incorporation into glycerolipids occurred. 8. At low concentrations of Mg(2+), palmitate, ATP and CoA the velocity with palmitoyl-CoA synthetase decreased more than that of glycerolipid synthesis from palmitate. 9. It is concluded that in the presence of optimum substrate concentrations the activity of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase and not of palmitoyl-CoA synthetase is rate-limiting in the synthesis of phosphatidate and lysophosphatidate in isolated rat liver mitochondria.
Project description:Palmitoyl-CoA synthetase activity in the microsomal fraction of rat liver was measured directly by palmitoyl-CoA production, and indirectly by converting the palmitoyl-CoA into palmitoylcarnitine under optimum conditions. Even in the latter system, palmitoyl-CoA accumulated. The rate of palmitoyl-CoA hydrolysis and the inhibition of palmitoyl-CoA synthetase by palmitoyl-CoA were each estimated to be less than 10% of the maximum rate of palmitoyl-CoA production. The concentration of palmitoyl-CoA present in the assay systems used for measuring palmitate esterification to glycerol phosphate and the activity of palmitoyl-CoA synthetase by using the carnitine-linked determination were measured. These concentrations were not altered by the addition of glycerol phosphate, or of carnitine plus carnitine palmitoyltransferase. The relationship between the activity of palmitoyl-CoA synthetase and the rate of glycerolipid synthesis was investigated. The latter activity was measured by using palmitoyl-CoA generated from palmitate, palmitoyl--AMP or palmitoylcarnitine. It is concluded that, at optimum substrate concentrations, the activity of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase is rate-limiting in the synthesis of phosphatidate by rat liver microsomal fractions. The implications of these results in the measurement of palmitoyl-CoA synthetase and in the control of glycerolipid synthesis are discussed.
Project description:1. With microsomal fractions of guinea-pig intestinal mucosa the mean specific activity of palmitoyl-CoA synthetase was approx. 1.3-fold the esterification of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate with palmitoyl-CoA generated by the endogenous synthetase. The latter activity was approx. 2.5- and 5-fold that when palmitoyl-CoA was generated from palmitoylcarnitine or when it was added directly to the assay system. 2. There were significant correlations (P<0.001) between the specific activities of palmitoyl-CoA synthetase and glycerolipid synthesis from either palmitate or palmitoylcarnitine. 3. The mean molar composition of glycerolipid synthesized from palmitate or palmitoylcarnitine was approx. 18% lysophosphatidate, 75% phosphatidate and 7% neutral lipid. 4. Glycerolipid synthesis from palmitate was inhibited by 80-90% after preincubation of microsomal fractions at 37 degrees C for 40min and was caused by inactivation of palmitoyl-CoA synthetase. 5. Addition of 100-400mm-KCl inhibited palmitoyl-CoA synthetase activity and glycerolipid synthesis from palmitate but stimulated glycerol phosphate acyltransferase activity. 6. Diversion of palmitoyl-CoA synthesized by the endogenous synthetase to palmitoylcarnitine resulted in an almost stoicheiometric decrease in glycerolipid synthesis. 7. Addition of rac-1-monopalmitin promoted utilization of palmitoyl-CoA by the monoglyceride pathway but did not inhibit phosphatidate biosynthesis. 8. With rate-limiting concentrations of CoA and Mg(2+) the relative decreases in velocity for palmitoyl-CoA synthetase and glycerolipid synthesis from palmitate were almost identical. However, low concentrations of palmitate and ATP produced greater decreases in synthetase activity than in glycerolipid synthesis. 9. There appears to be a fine balance between the activities of palmitoyl-CoA synthetase and glycerol phosphate acyltransferase, with neither activity being in excess with respect to phosphatidate synthesis.
Project description:The effects of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone on fatty acid and pyruvate metabolism were studied in rat hepatocyte cultures. Parenchymal hepatocytes were cultured for 24 h with nanomolar concentrations of dexamethasone in either the absence or the presence of insulin (10 nM) or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (1 microM BcAMP). Dexamethasone (1-100 nM) increased the rate of formation of ketone bodies from 0.5 mM-palmitate in both the absence and the presence of BcAMP, but inhibited ketogenesis in the presence of insulin. Dexamethasone increased the proportion of the palmitate metabolized that was partitioned towards oxidation to ketone bodies, and decreased the cellular [glycerol 3-phosphate]. The latter suggests that the increased partitioning of palmitate to ketone bodies may be associated with decreased esterification to glycerolipid. The Vmax. of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) and the affinity of CPT for palmitoyl-CoA were not affected by dexamethasone, indicating that the increased ketogenesis was not due to an increase in enzymic capacity for long-chain acylcarnitine formation. Dexamethasone and BcAMP, separately and in combination, increased gluconeogenesis. In the presence of insulin, however, dexamethasone inhibited gluconeogenesis. Changes in gluconeogenesis thus paralleled changes in ketogenesis. Dexamethasone decreased the [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio, despite increasing the rate of ketogenesis and presumably the mitochondrial production of reducing equivalents. The more oxidized mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ redox couple with dexamethasone is probably due either to an increased rate of electron transport or to increased transfer of mitochondrial reducing equivalents to the cytoplasm.
Project description:The acyl specificities of several acyltransferases located in the microsomal fraction of lactating rat mammary gland have been investigated using palmitate and oleate as substrates along with CoA, ATP and Mg(2+), bovine serum albumin and NaF. With either sn-glycerol 3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate (plus NADPH) as acyl acceptor, phosphatidic acid containing palmitate preferentially esterified at position-2 and oleate at position-1 was the major product. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate competitively inhibited each other's acylations, suggesting that a single enzyme might be responsible for both esterifications and oleate was the preferred substrate for the formation of acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate. The specificities of the acyl-CoA-1-monoacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and the acyl-CoA-2-monoacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferases were also studied. The specificities observed combined with the relative velocities of these reactions suggest that phosphatidic acid is formed in the mammary gland with the first acylation occurring at position-1 favouring oleate followed by the second acylation at position-2 favouring palmitate. This is consistent with the unusual structure found in the triacylglycerols of rat milk. When a mouse liver microsomal fraction was used the opposite specificities were observed consistent with the structure of the triacylglycerols of mouse liver. The microsomal acylation of the monoacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphocholines was also investigated. Although no marked acyl specificity could be detected when the 2-monoacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphocholine was used as the acyl acceptor, both oleate and linoleate were esterified in preference to palmitate to the 1-monoacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphocholine.
Project description:Isolated liver cells prepared from starved sheep converted palmitate into ketone bodies at twice the rate seen with cells from fed animals. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation only in liver cells from fed sheep, and completely abolished the difference between fed and starved animals in palmitate oxidation. The rates of palmitate oxidation to CO2 and of octanoate oxidation to ketone bodies and CO2 were not affected by starvation or carnitine. Neither starvation nor carnitine altered the ratio of 3-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate or the rate of esterification of [1-14C]palmitate. Propionate, lactate, pyruvate and fructose inhibited ketogenesis from palmitate in cells from fed sheep. Starvation or the addition of carnitine decreased the antiketogenic effectiveness of gluconeogenic precursors. Propionate was the most potent inhibitor of ketogenesis, 0.8 mM producing 50% inhibition. Propionate, lactate, fructose and glycerol increased palmitate esterification under all conditions examined. Lactate, pyruvate and fructose stimulated oxidation of palmitate and octanoate to CO2. Starvation and the addition of gluconeogenic precursors stimulated apparent palmitate utilization by cells. Propionate, lactate and pyruvate decreased cellular long-chain acylcarnitine concentrations. Propionate decreased cell contents of CoA and acyl-CoA. It is suggested that propionate may control hepatic ketogenesis by acting at some point in the beta-oxidation sequence. The results are discussed in relation to the differences in the regulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism between sheep and rats.
Project description:Rat hepatocytes were treated with Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin to permeabilize their plasma membrane for low-molecular-mass compounds. During incubation with 1 mM labelled fatty acid, phosphatidate and, less clearly, lysophosphatidate rapidly reached a steady state, whereas labelled diacylglycerol accumulated to some extent, at least in the absence of exogenous CDP-choline. Esterification and oxidation were linearly related to the fatty acid concentration, and there was no indication for saturation with acyl-CoA. However, when permeabilized cells were incubated with labelled sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and 1 mM unlabelled fatty acid, glycerolipid synthesis and the level of esterification intermediates reached a plateau between 0.25 and 0.50 mumol of the triose phosphate/ml. The synthesis of phosphatidylcholine was dependent on addition of CDP-choline. In presence of the latter, diacylglycerol no longer accumulated and triacylglycerol synthesis was suppressed, although the sum of synthesized diacylglycerol, triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine remained constant. This indicates that the same pool of diacylglycerol is shared by choline-phosphotransferase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase and that the relative activity of these enzymes depends on the CDP-choline supply. Comparison of the levels of the esterification intermediates with the activity of the respective steps of the pathway reveals that, at a fixed fatty acid concentration, glycerophosphate acyltransferase determines the esterification rate, whereas lysophosphatidate acyltransferase and, at low CDP-choline levels, diacylglycerol acyltransferase approach saturation at elevated sn-glycerol 3-phosphate concentration. There is, however, no indication for a regulatory role of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase in this system. The significance of these findings for the regulation of triacylglycerol synthesis under conditions in vivo is discussed.
Project description:1. The CoA and carnitine esters of 2-bromopalmitate are extremely powerful and specific inhibitors of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. 2. 2-Bromopalmitoyl-CoA, added as such or formed from 2-bromopalmitate, inhibits the carnitine-dependent oxidation of palmitate or palmitoyl-CoA, but not the oxidation of palmitoylcarnitine, by intact liver mitochondria. 3. 2-Bromopalmitoylcarnitine inhibits the oxidation of palmitoylcarnitine as well as that of palmitate or palmitoyl-CoA. It has no effect on succinate oxidation, but inhibits that of pyruvate, 2-oxoglutarate or hexanoate; however, the oxidation of these substrates (but not of palmitate, palmitoyl-CoA or palmitoyl-carnitine) is restored by carnitine. 4. In damaged mitochondria, added 2-bromopalmitoyl-CoA does inhibit palmitoylcarnitine oxidation; pyruvate oxidation is unaffected by the inhibitor alone, but is impaired if palmitoylcarnitine is subsequently added. 5. The findings have been interpreted as follows. 2-Bromopalmitoyl-CoA inactivates (in a carnitine-dependent manner) a pool of carnitine palmitoyltransferase which is accessible to external acyl-CoA. This results in inhibition of palmitate or palmitoyl-CoA oxidation. A second pool of carnitine palmitoyltransferase, inaccessible to added acyl-CoA in intact mitochondria, can generate bromopalmitoyl-CoA within the matrix from external 2-bromopalmitoylcarnitine; this reaction is reversible. Such internal 2-bromopalmitoyl-CoA inactivates long-chain beta-oxidation (as does added 2-bromopalmitoyl-CoA if the mitochondria are damaged) and its formation also sequesters intramitochondrial CoA. Since this CoA is shared by pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenases, the oxidation of their substrates is depressed by 2-bromopalmitoylcarnitine, unless free carnitine is available to act as a ;sink' for long-chain acyl groups. 6. These effects are compared with those reported for other inhibitors of fatty acid oxidation.
Project description:1. The synthesis of pent-4-enoyl-l-carnitine, cyclopropanecarbonyl-l-carnitine and cyclobutanecarbonyl-l-carnitine is described. 2. Pent-4-enoate strongly inhibits palmitoyl-l-carnitine oxidation in coupled but not in uncoupled mitochondria. Pent-4-enoyl-l-carnitine strongly inhibits palmitoyl-l-carnitine oxidation in uncoupled mitochondria. Prior intramitochondrial formation of pent-4-enoyl-CoA is therefore necessary for inhibition. 3. There was a small self-limiting pulse of oxidation of pent-4-enoyl-l-carnitine during which the ability to inhibit the oxidation of subsequently added palmitoyl-l-carnitine developed. 4. Pent-4-enoate and pent-4-enoyl-l-carnitine are equally effective inhibitors of the oxidation of all even-chain acylcarnitines of chain length C(4)-C(16). Pent-4-enoyl-l-carnitine also inhibits the oxidation of pyruvate and of 2-oxoglutarate. 5. Pent-4-enoate strongly inhibits the oxidation of palmitate but not that of octanoate. This is presumably due to competition between octanoate and pent-4-enoate for medium-chain acyl-CoA ligase. 6. There was less inhibition of the oxidation of pyruvate by pent-4-enoyl-l-carnitine, and of palmitoyl-l-carnitine by cyclopropanecarbonyl-l-carnitine, after pre-incubation with 10mm-arsenate. This suggests that these inhibitions were caused either by depletion of free CoA or by increase of acyl-CoA concentrations, since arsenate deacylates intramitochondrial acyl-CoA. There was little effect on the inhibition of palmitoyl-l-carnitine oxidation by pent-4-enoyl-l-carnitine. 7. Penta-2,4-dienoate strongly inhibited palmitoyl-l-carnitine oxidation in coupled mitochondria; acrylate only inhibited slightly. 8. Pent-4-enoate (0.1mm) caused a rapid and almost complete decrease in free CoA and a large increase in acid-soluble acyl-CoA when incubated with coupled mitochondria. Cyclopropanecarboxylate caused a similar decrease in CoA, with an equivalent rise in acid-soluble acyl-CoA concentrations. n-Pentanoate caused extensive lowering of CoA and a large increase in acid-soluble acyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA concentrations. Octanoate caused a 50% lowering of CoA and an increase in acid-soluble acyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA concentrations. 9. Cyclopropanecarboxylate and n-pentanoate were less potent inhibitors of palmitate oxidation than was pent-4-enoate. 10. It is concluded that pent-4-enoate causes a specific inhibition of beta-oxidation after the formation intramitochondrially of its metabolites.
Project description:Acyl exchange between acyl-CoA and position 2 of sn-phosphatidylcholine occurs in the microsomal preparations of developing safflower cotyledons. Evidence is presented to show that the acyl exchange is catalysed by the combined back and forward reactions of an acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (EC 220.127.116.11). The back reaction of the enzyme was demonstrated by the stimulation of the acyl exchange with free CoA and by the observation that the added CoA was acylated with acyl groups from position 2 of sn-phosphatidylcholine. Re-acylation of the, endogenously produced, lysophosphatidylcholine with added acyl-CoA occurred with the same specificity as that observed with added palmitoyl lysophosphatidylcholine. A similar acyl exchange, catalysed by an acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase, occurred in microsomal preparations of rat liver. The enzyme from safflower had a high specificity for oleate and linoleate, whereas arachidonate was the preferred acyl group in the rat liver microsomal preparations. The rate of the back reaction was 3-5% and 0.2-0.4% of the forward reaction in the microsomal preparations of safflower and rat liver respectively. Previous observations, that the acyl exchange in safflower microsomal preparations was stimulated by bovine serum albumin and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, can now be explained by the lowered acyl-CoA concentrations in the incubation mixture with albumin and in the increase in free CoA in the presence of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (by rapid acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate with acyl groups from acyl-CoA to yield phosphatidic acid). Bovine serum albumin and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, therefore, shift the equilibrium in acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase-catalysed reactions towards the rate-limiting step in the acyl exchange process, namely the removal of acyl groups from phosphatidylcholine. The possible role of the acyl exchange in the transfer of acyl groups between complex lipids is discussed.
Project description:Glycerolipid synthesis was studied in intact chloroplasts isolated from three different plant species. The sequential acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and lysophosphatidate (1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate) was confirmed by monitoring the incorporation of oleate synthesized in situ into lysophosphatidate, phosphatidate and diacylglycerol. Lysophosphatidate was not only readily detected in these experiments, but was also present in the chloroplasts at the beginning of the time courses. The rate of glycerolipid synthesis depended primarily on sn-glycerol 3-phosphate supply, and given adequate sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, the proportion of newly synthesized fatty acids diverted into glycerolipids appeared to be determined by differing acyltransferase activities in the chloroplasts isolated from different plant species.