The mechanism of action of beta-galactosidase. Effect of aglycone nature and -deuterium substitution on the hydrolysis of aryl galactosides.
ABSTRACT: 1. Steady-state kinetic parameters for the beta-galactosidase-catalysed hydrolysis of 13 aryl beta-d-galactopyranosides show no simple dependence on aglycone acidity. 2. alpha-Deuterium kinetic isotope effects (k(H)/k(D)) for seven of these substrates, measured under steady-state conditions with [S]>>K(m), vary from 1.00 for poor substrates to 1.25 for hydrolysis of the galactosyl-enzyme. 3. Methanolysis of the galactosyl-enzyme in 1.5m-methanol increases K(H)/k(D) for degalactosylation, but leaves that for hydrolysis of ;slow' substrates unchanged. 4. These data are incompatible with a simple two-step mechanism. A scheme consisting of a conformation change, liberation of a galactopyranosyl cation in an intimate ion-pair, non-productive but preferential collapse of the ion-pair to a covalent species and reaction of the galactosyl enzyme through the ion-paired form is proposed. 5. This scheme is used to rationalize previously puzzling data about the enzyme mechanism.
Project description:1. The effect of methanol on the beta-galactosidase-catalysed hydrolysis of some nitrophenyl beta-d-galactopyranosides has been studied under steady-state conditions. 2. The initial fractional rate of increase of k(cat.) as a function of methanol concentration with 2,4- and 3,5-dinitrophenyl beta-d-galactopyranosides, but not with the other substrates studied, indicated that degalactosylation of the enzyme was rate-limiting. 3. The decrease in k(cat.) at high methanol concentrations for these substrates is considered to arise from causes other than galactosylation becoming rate-limiting. 4. Both galactosylation and degalactosylation of the enzyme require protonation of a group of pK(a) approx. 9.
Project description:1. Removal of Mg2+ from Escherichia coli (lacZ) beta-galactosidase slightly increases the rate of hydrolysis of galactosyl pyridinium salts, but decreases the rate of hydrolysis of arylgalactosides. 2. Fair correlation of logkcat. and log (Km) with the pKa of aglycone is now observed for arglygalactosides, as well as for glycosyl pyridinium salts. 3. Degalactosylation of Mg2+-free enzyme is the rate-limiting step in the hydrolysis of 2,4-dinitrophenyl galactoside. 4. alpha-Deuterium kinetic isotope effects for both sets of substrates are consistent with the rate-determining generation of a glycosyl cation. 5. The pH-independent, SNl hydrolysis of 3,4-dinitrophenyl galactoside has been measured: it is as fast as that of the galactosyl 3-chloropyridinium ion. 6. Hydrolysis of these two substrates by Mg2+-free enzyme proceeds at very similar rates. 7. It is concluded that loss of both types of aglycone takes place, without acid catalysis, from the first ES complex of substrate and apoenzyme. 8. Data for galactosyl azide and thiopicrate confirm that neither charge nor change of atom is the cause of the differences in behavior between aryl galactosides and galactosylpyridinium salts.
Project description:The kinetics of hydrolysis of a series of synthetic substrates by two experimentally evolved forms ('evolvants'), ebgabcd and ebgabcde, of the second beta-galactosidase of Escherichia coli have been measured. The ebgabcd enzyme differs from the wild-type (ebgo) enzyme by Asp92-->Asn (a) and Trp977-->Cys (b) changes in the large subunit, as well as two changes hitherto considered to have no kinetic effect, Ser979-->Gly in the large subunit (c) and Glu122-->Gly in the small subunit (d). The enzyme ebgabcde contains in addition a Glu93-->Lys change in the large subunit (e). Comparison of ebgabcd with ebgab [Elliott, K, Sinnott, Smith, Bommuswamy, Guo, Hall and Zhang (1992) Biochem. J. 282, 155-164] indicates that the c and d changes in fact accelerate the hydrolysis of the glycosyl-enzyme intermediate by a factor of 2.5, and also decrease the charge on the aglycone oxygen atom at the first transition state; the charge on the glycone, however, is unaltered [see K, Konstantinidis, Sinnott and Hall (1993) Biochem. J. 291, 15-17]. The e mutation causes a fall in the degalactosylation rate of about a factor of 3, and its occurrence only together with c and d mutations [Hall, Betts and Wootton (1989) Genetics 123, 635-648] suggests that degalactosylation of a hypothetical ebgabe enzyme would be so slow that the enzyme would have no biological advantage over the ancestral ebgab. The transfer products from galactosyl-ebgabcd and galactosyl-ebgabcde to high concentrations to glucose have been measured; the predominant product is allolactose, but significant quantities of lactose are also formed; however, at apparent kinetic saturation of the galactosyl-enzyme, hydrolysis rather than transfer is the preponderant pathway. A knowledge of the rates of enzyme-catalysed exchange of 18O from [1-18O]galactose to water permits the construction of the free-energy profiles for hydrolysis of lactose by begabcd and ebgabcde. As with the other evolvants, changes in the profile away from the rate-determining transition state are essentially random, and there is no correlation between the changes in the free energies of intermediates and of their flanking transition states. We consider the aggregate of our kinetic data on the ebg system to be telling experimental support for the theoretical objections of Pettersson [Pettersson (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 206, 289-295 and previous papers] to the Albery-Knowles theory of the evolution of enzyme kinetic activity.
Project description:A novel D-galactosyl-?1-3-N-acetyl-D-hexosamine phosphorylase cloned from Bifidobacterium infantis (BiGalHexNAcP) was used with a recombinant E. coli K-12 galactokinase (GalK) for efficient one-pot two-enzyme synthesis of T-antigens, galacto-N-biose (Gal?1-3GalNAc), lacto-N-biose (Gal?1-3GlcNAc), and their derivatives.
Project description:Experimental evidence is provided for p-methylbenzyl-D-galactonoamidine to function as a true transition state analog for the enzymatic hydrolysis of aryl-?-D-galactopyranosides by ?-galactosidase (A. oryzae). The compound exhibits inhibition constants in the low nanomolar concentration range (12-56 nM) for a selection of substrates. Along these lines, a streamlined synthetic method based on phase-transfer catalysis was optimized to afford the required variety of new aryl-?-D-galactopyranosides. Last, the stability of the galactonoamidines under the assay conditions was confirmed.
Project description:1. The first chemical step in the hydrolysis of galactosylpyridinium ions by the evolvant ebg enzyme is less sensitive to leaving-group acidity than in the case of the wild-type ebg enzyme, implying less glycone-aglycone-bond fission at the transition state. 2. The first chemical step in the hydrolysis of aryl galactosides by ebg enzyme is probably less sensitive to leaving-group acidity than in the case of ebg enzyme, possibly as a consequence of resulting in more effective proton donation to the leaving aglycone. 3. alpha-Deuterium kinetic isotope effects of 1.1(0) and beta-deuterium kinetic isotope effects of 1.0(0) were measured for the hydrolysis of galactosyl-enzyme intermediates derived from ebg and ebg enzymes: these effects are not compatible with reaction of the sugar ring through a 4C1-like conformation, or with an ionic glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. 4. The variation with pH of steady-state kinetic parameters for hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl galactoside by ebg and ebg enzymes and of 3-methylphenyl beta-galactoside, 3,4-dinitrophenyl beta-galactoside and beta-galactosyl-3-bromopyridinium ion by ebg enzyme was measured. The steep, non-classical, fall in activity against p-nitrophenyl galactoside at low pH observed with ebg and ebg enzymes is not observed with ebg enzymes.
Project description:Plasmids containing the ebgAo and ebgAa genes of Escherichia coli under the control of the lac repressor and promoter have been constructed and inserted into Salmonella typhimurium CH3. This system expresses the large subunit of the ebgo and ebga beta-galactosidase in high yield (20-60% of total protein). The large subunits have been purified to homogeneity. As isolated they are tetramers of significant catalytic activity; the N-terminal amino acid residue is Met, but it is not formylated. The kcat. values for a series of aryl galactosides were 6-200-fold reduced from the corresponding values for the holoenzymes. kcat/Km Values for glycosides of acidic aglycones, though, were unchanged, whilst kcat./Km values for galactosides of less acidic aglycones showed a modest (up to 10-fold) decrease. The kcat. values for glycosides of acidic aglycones hydrolysed by ebgo and ebga large subunits were essentially invariant with aglycone pK, suggesting that hydrolysis of the galactosyl-enzyme intermediate had become rate-determining for these substrates. Rate-determining hydrolysis of the glycosyl-enzyme intermediate was confirmed by pre-steady-state measurements and nucleophilic competition with methanol. Absence of the small subunit was thus estimated to cause a 200-fold decrease in degalactosylation rate for ebgo and a 20-fold one for ebga. beta 1g(V/K) values of -0.57 +/- 0.08 for ebgo and -0.54 +/- 0.08 for ebga isolated subunits were significantly more negative than for holoenzymes. It is suggested that the small subunit is associated with the optimal positioning of the electrophilic Mg2+ ions in these enzymes. Use of PCR in the construction of the plasmid also inadvertently led to the production of psi ebgo large subunit in which there was a PCR-introduced Leu9-->His change. Values of kcat. for aryl galactosides, calculated on the assumption that the psi ebgo large subunit, like the ebgo and ebga large subunits, was 100% active as isolated, were about an order of magnitude lower than for true ebgo large subunit, whilst Km values were similar. The very significant kinetic effect of this inadvertant site-undirected mutagenesis indicates that quite large kinetic effects of amino-acid replacements in enzymes may have no obvious mechanistic significance.
Project description:Beta-galactosidase (EC 18.104.22.168), a commercially important enzyme, catalyses the hydrolysis of β-1,3- and β-1,4-galactosyl bonds of polymer or oligosaccharidesas well as transglycosylation of β-galactopyranosides. Due to catalytic properties; β-galactosidase might be useful in the milk industry to hydrolyze lactose and produce prebiotic GOS. The purpose of this study is to characterize β-galactosidase mutants from B. subtilis.Using error prone rolling circle amplification (epRCA) to characterize some random mutants of the β-galactosidase (LacA) from B. subtilisVTCC-DVN-12-01, amino acid A301 and F361 has been demonstrated significantly effect on hydrolysis activity of LacA. Mutants A301V and F361Y had markedly reduced hydrolysis activity to 23.69 and 43.22 %, respectively. Mutants the site-saturation of A301 reduced catalysis efficiency of LacA to 20-50 %, while the substitution of F361 by difference amino acids (except tyrosine) lost all of enzymatic activity, indicating that A301 and F361 are important for the catalytic function. Interestingly, the mutant F361Y exhibited enhanced significantly thermostability of enzyme at 45-50 °C. At 45 °C, LacA-361Y retained over 93 % of its original activity for 48 h of incubation, whereas LacA-WT and LacA-301Vwere lost completely after 12 and 24 h of incubation, respectively. The half-life times of LacA-361Y and LacA-301 V were about 26.8 and 2.4 times higher, respectively, in comparison to the half-life time of LacA-WT. At temperature optimum 50 °C, LacA-361Y shows more stable than LacA-WT and LacA-301 V, retaining 79.88 % of its original activities after 2 h of incubation, while the LacA-WT and LacA-301 V lost all essential activities. The half-life time of LacA-361Y was higher 12.7 and 9.39 times than that of LacA-WT and LacA-301 V, respectively. LacA-WT and mutant enzymes were stability at pH 5-9, retained over 90 % activity for 72 h of incubation at 30 °C. However, LacA-WT showed a little bit more stability than LacA-301 V and LacA-361Y at pH 4.Our findings demonstrated that the amino acids A301V and F361 play important role in hydrolysis activity of β -galactosidase from B. subtilis. Specially, amino acid F361 had noteworthy effect on both catalytic and thermostability of LacA enzyme, suggesting that F361 is responsible for functional requirement of the GH42 family.
Project description:1. The ratio of ebgA-gene product of ebgC-gene product in the functional aggregate of ebg beta-galactosidases was determined to be 1:1 by isolation of the enzyme from bacteria grown on uniformly radiolabelled amino acids and separation of the subunits by gel-permeation chromatography under denaturing conditions. 2. This datum, taken together with a recalculation of the previous ultracentrifuge data [Hall (1976) J. Mol. Biol. 107, 71-84], analytical gel-permeation chromatography and electron microscopy, strongly suggests an alpha 4 beta 4 quaternary structure for the enzyme. 3. The second chemical step in the enzyme turnover sequence, hydrolysis of the galactosyl-enzyme intermediate, is markedly slower for ebgab, having both Asp-97----Asn and Trp-977----Cys changes in the large subunit, than for ebga (having only the first change) and ebgb (having only the second), and is so slow as to be rate-determining even for an S-glycoside, beta-D-galactopyranosyl thiopicrate, as is shown by nucleophilic competition with methanol. 4. The selectivity of galactosyl-ebgab between water and methanol on a molar basis is 57, similar to the value for galactosyl-ebgb. 5. The equilibrium constant for the hydrolysis of lactose at 37 degrees C is 152 +/- 19 M, that for hydrolysis of allolactose is approx. 44 M and that for hydrolysis of lactulose is approx. 40 M. 6. A comparison of the free-energy profiles for the hydrolyses of lactose catalysed by the double mutant with those for the wild-type and the single mutants reveals that free-energy changes from the two mutations are not in general independently additive, but that the changes generally are in the direction predicted by the theory of Burbaum, Raines, Albery & Knowles [(1989) Biochemistry 28, 9283-9305] for an enzyme catalysing a thermodynamically irreversible reaction. 7. Michaelis-Menten parameters for the hydrolysis of six beta-D-galactopyranosylpyridinium ions and ten aryl beta-galactosides by ebgab were measured. 8. The derived beta 1g values are the same as those for ebgb (which has only the Trp-977----Cys change) and significantly different from those for ebgo (the wild-type enzyme) and ebga. 9. The alpha- and beta-deuterium secondary isotope effects on the hydrolysis of the galactosyl-enzyme of 1.08 and 1.00 are difficult to reconcile with the pyranose ring in this intermediate being in the 4C1 conformation.
Project description:A gene encoding an exo-beta-1,3-galactanase from Clostridium thermocellum, Ct1,3Gal43A, was isolated. The sequence has similarity with an exo-beta-1,3-galactanase of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Pc1,3Gal43A). The gene encodes a modular protein consisting of an N-terminal glycoside hydrolase family 43 (GH43) module, a family 13 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM13), and a C-terminal dockerin domain. The gene corresponding to the GH43 module was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product was characterized. The recombinant enzyme shows optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 50 degrees C and catalyzes hydrolysis only of beta-1,3-linked galactosyl oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the hydrolysis products demonstrated that the enzyme produces galactose from beta-1,3-galactan in an exo-acting manner. When the enzyme acted on arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), the enzyme produced oligosaccharides together with galactose, suggesting that the enzyme is able to accommodate a beta-1,6-linked galactosyl side chain. The substrate specificity of the enzyme is very similar to that of Pc1,3Gal43A, suggesting that the enzyme is an exo-beta-1,3-galactanase. Affinity gel electrophoresis of the C-terminal CBM13 did not show any affinity for polysaccharides, including beta-1,3-galactan. However, frontal affinity chromatography for the CBM13 indicated that the CBM13 specifically interacts with oligosaccharides containing a beta-1,3-galactobiose, beta-1,4-galactosyl glucose, or beta-1,4-galactosyl N-acetylglucosaminide moiety at the nonreducing end. Interestingly, CBM13 in the C terminus of Ct1,3Gal43A appeared to interfere with the enzyme activity toward beta-1,3-galactan and alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase-treated AGP.