The reversibility of adenosine triphosphate cleavage by myosin.
ABSTRACT: For the simplest kinetic model the reverse rate constants (k(-1) and k(-2)) associated with ATP binding and cleavage on purified heavy meromyosin and heavy meromyosin subfragment 1 from rabbit skeletal muscle in the presence of 5mm-MgCl(2), 50mm-KCl and 20mm-Tris-HCl buffer at pH8.0 and 22 degrees C are: k(-1)<0.02s(-1) and k(-1)=16s(-1). Apparently, higher values of k(-1) and k(-2) are found with less-purified protein preparations. The values of k(-1) and k(-2) satisfy conditions required by previous (18)O-incorporation studies of H(2) (18)O into the P(i) moiety on ATP hydrolysis and suggest that the cleavage step does involve hydrolysis of ATP or formation of an adduct between ATP and water. The equilibrium constant for the cleavage step at the myosin active site is 9. If the cycle of events during muscle contraction is described by the model proposed by Lymn & Taylor (1971), the fact that there is only a small negative standard free-energy change for the cleavage step is advantageous for efficient chemical to mechanical energy exchange during muscle contraction.
Project description:Amrinone is a bipyridine compound with characteristic effects on the force-velocity relationship of fast skeletal muscle, including a reduction in the maximum shortening velocity and increased maximum isometric force. Here we performed experiments to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for these effects, with the additional aim to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the force-velocity relationship. In vitro motility assays established that amrinone reduces the sliding velocity of heavy meromyosin-propelled actin filaments by 30% at different ionic strengths of the assay solution. Stopped-flow studies of myofibrils, heavy meromyosin and myosin subfragment 1, showed that the effects on sliding speed were not because of a reduced rate of ATP-induced actomyosin dissociation because the rate of this process was increased by amrinone. Moreover, optical tweezers studies could not detect any amrinone-induced changes in the working stroke length. In contrast, the ADP affinity of acto-heavy meromyosin was increased about 2-fold by 1 mm amrinone. Similar effects were not observed for acto-subfragment 1. Together with the other findings, this suggests that the amrinone-induced reduction in sliding velocity is attributed to inhibition of a strain-dependent ADP release step. Modeling results show that such an effect may account for the amrinone-induced changes of the force-velocity relationship. The data emphasize the importance of the rate of a strain-dependent ADP release step in influencing the maximum sliding velocity in fast skeletal muscle. The data also lead us to discuss the possible importance of cooperative interactions between the two myosin heads in muscle contraction.
Project description:1. Hydrolysis of the myosins from smooth and from skeletal muscle by a rat trypsin-like serine proteinase and by bovine trypsin at pH 7 is compared. 2. Proteolysis of the heavy chains of both myosins by the rat enzyme proceeds at rates approx. 20 times faster than those obtained with bovine trypsin. Whereas cleavage of skeletal-muscle myosin heavy chain by both enzymes results in the generation of conventional products i.e. heavy meromyosin and light meromyosin, the heavy chain of smooth-muscle myosin is degraded into a fragment of mol. wt. 150000. This is dissimilar from heavy meromyosin and cannot be converted into heavy meromyosin. It is shown that proteolysis of the heavy chain takes place in the head region. 3. The 'regulatory' light chain (20kDa) of smooth-muscle myosin is degraded very rapidly by the rat proteinase. 4. The ability of smooth-muscle myosin to have its ATPase activity activated by actin in the presence of a crude tropomyosin fraction on introduction of Ca2+ is diminished progressively during exposure to the rat proteinase. The rate of loss of the Ca2+-activated actomyosin ATPase activity is very similar to the rate observed for proteolysis of the heavy chain and 3-4 times slower than the rate of removal of the so-called 'regulatory' light chain. 5. The significance of these findings in terms of the functional organization of the smooth muscle myosin molecule is discussed. 6. Since the degraded myosin obtained after exposure to very small amounts of the rat proteinase is no longer able to respond to Ca2+, i.e. the functional activity of the molecule has been removed, the implications of a similar type of proteolysis operating in vivo are considered for myofibrillar protein turnover in general, but particularly with regard to the initiation of myosin degradation, which is known to take place outside the lysosome (i.e. at neutral pH).
Project description:Myosin powers contraction in heart and skeletal muscle and is a leading target for mutations implicated in inheritable muscle diseases. During contraction, myosin transduces ATP free energy into the work of muscle shortening against resisting force. Muscle shortening involves relative sliding of myosin and actin filaments. Skeletal actin filaments were fluorescently labeled with a streptavidin conjugate quantum dot (Qdot) binding biotin-phalloidin on actin. Single Qdots were imaged in time with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and then spatially localized to 1-3 nm using a super-resolution algorithm as they translated with actin over a surface coated with skeletal heavy meromyosin (sHMM) or full-length ?-cardiac myosin (MYH7). The average Qdot-actin velocity matches measurements with rhodamine-phalloidin-labeled actin. The sHMM Qdot-actin velocity histogram contains low-velocity events corresponding to actin translation in quantized steps of ~5 nm. The MYH7 velocity histogram has quantized steps at 3 and 8 nm in addition to 5 nm and larger compliance compared to that of sHMM depending on the MYH7 surface concentration. Low-duty cycle skeletal and cardiac myosin present challenges for a single-molecule assay because actomyosin dissociates quickly and the freely moving element diffuses away. The in vitro motility assay has modestly more actomyosin interactions, and methylcellulose inhibited diffusion to sustain the complex while preserving a subset of encounters that do not overlap in time on a single actin filament. A single myosin step is isolated in time and space and then characterized using super-resolution. The approach provides a quick, quantitative, and inexpensive step size measurement for low-duty cycle muscle myosin.
Project description:Transient kinetic studies of Mg(2+)-dependent heavy-meromyosin ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) were done by monitoring the release of both ADP and P(i) into the reaction medium by using linked assay systems. The release of P(i) was monitored by its quantitative transfer to ADP, with concomitant reduction of NAD(+) in the presence of d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphoglycerate kinase. The dissociation rates of the products, ADP and P(i), from heavy meromyosin were shown to be faster than the rate-controlling process, which occurs after the initial bond cleavage of ATP. The chromophoric ATP analogue, 6-mercapto-9-beta-d-ribofuranosylpurine 5'-triphosphate (thioATP) was used as a substrate and spectral changes associated with a single turnover of heavy meromyosin could be assigned to elementary processes of the mechanism. It was shown that the dissociation rate of thioADP was not the rate-controlling process of the thioATPase, whose catalytic-centre activity was 7.6 times that of the ATPase at pH8. The dissociation rate of ADP from heavy meromyosin was measured by using thioATP as displacing agent and was found to be 2.3s(-1), which is about 50 times the catalytic-centre activity of the ATPase at pH8. Transient kinetic studies with chromophoric adenosine phosphate analogues have general application for kinases and ATPases both in characterizing the chemical states of the intermediates and in delineating the elementary processes of the enzyme mechanism.
Project description:Fluorescence stopped-flow experiments were performed to elucidate the elementary steps of the ATPase mechanism of scallop heavy meromyosin in the presence and in the absence of Ca2+. ATP binding and hydrolysis, as monitored by the change in tryptophan fluorescence, appear to be Ca2+-insensitive, whereas both Pi release and ADP release are markedly suppressed in the absence of Ca2+. Rate constants for Pi release are 0.2 s-1 and 0.002 s-1 and for ADP release are 6 s-1 and 0.01 s-1 in the presence and in the absence of Ca2+ respectively. Ca2+ binding to the specific site of the regulatory domain is rapid and its release occurs at 25 s-1, consistent with the time scale of a twitch of the striated adductor muscle. Nucleotide binding is a multi-step process requiring a minimum of three states. In such a model Ca2+ controls the rate of conformational changes at the active site in both the forward and the reverse direction, leading to a large dependence of the rate of nucleotide release, but a lesser effect on the overall equilibrium position. The kinetic trapping of nucleotides and Pi at the active site, in the absence of Ca2+, appears to be a fundamental step in suppressing the interaction of the myosin head with the thin filaments in relaxed molluscan muscle.
Project description:1. At low ionic strength, when turbidity and viscosity measurements indicated dissociation of acto-heavy-meromyosin, its adenosine triphosphatase was strongly activated by Mg(2+) and Ca(2+). 2. The characteristics of the adenosine triphosphatase of dissociated acto-heavy-meromyosin in the presence of Mg(2+) were similar to those reported for myofibrils and actomyosin. 3. In the presence of Ca(2+) the adenosine-triphosphatase activity was much less sensitive to ionic strength than was the case with Mg(2+). 4. At low ionic strength Mg(2+) was more effective in maintaining the dissociation of acto-heavy-meromyosin in the presence of ATP than was Ca(2+). This difference was not apparent when ATP was replaced by ITP. 5. Although the recovery of viscosity was complete on reassociation of acto-heavy-meromyosin the turbidity did not return to the original value. 6. The general implications of Mg(2+) activation of acto-heavy-meromyosin when classical interpretation indicates dissociation of the complex are discussed.
Project description:The structural dynamics of actin, including the tilting motion between the small and large domains, are essential for proper interactions with actin-binding proteins. Gly146 is situated at the hinge between the two domains, and we previously showed that a G146V mutation leads to severe motility defects in skeletal myosin but has no effect on motility of myosin V. The present study tested the hypothesis that G146V mutation impaired rotation between the two domains, leading to such functional defects. First, our study showed that depolymerization of G146V filaments was slower than that of wild-type filaments. This result is consistent with the distinction of structural states of G146V filaments from those of the wild type, considering the recent report that stabilization of actin filaments involves rotation of the two domains. Next, we measured intramolecular FRET efficiencies between two fluorophores in the two domains with or without skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin or the heavy meromyosin equivalent of myosin V in the presence of ATP. Single-molecule FRET measurements showed that the conformations of actin subunits of control and G146V actin filaments were different in the presence of skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin. This altered conformation of G146V subunits may lead to motility defects in myosin II. In contrast, distributions of FRET efficiencies of control and G146V subunits were similar in the presence of myosin V, consistent with the lack of motility defects in G146V actin with myosin V. The distribution of FRET efficiencies in the presence of myosin V was different from that in the presence of skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin, implying that the roles of actin conformation in myosin motility depend on the type of myosin.
Project description:The binding of the Ca2+-regulated native thin filaments from vascular smooth muscle to vascular smooth-muscle heavy meromyosin was measured in the presence of 3 mM-MgATP. At 25 degrees C and I 0.25 binding had an affinity of 1 X 10(-6)-0.3 X 10(-6) M-1 with a stoichiometry of one molecule bound to one actin monomer. The Km for the activation of heavy-meromyosin ATPase was 20-50 microM. Thin filament-heavy meromyosin binding was not altered by Ca2+ (pCa 9-4) or the extent of myosin phosphorylation. With skeletal-muscle heavy meromyosin affinity was 0.023 X 10(6) M-1 in parallel with activation of the ATPase (Km 54 microM). It is concluded that tight binding is specific to smooth-muscle proteins and that it is not related to the ATPase activation site.
Project description:The preparation of ox heart myosin and its partial digestion with cellulose-bound papain is described. A procedure is outlined by which heavy meromyosin subfragment 1 can be covalently bound to a cellulose ion-exchange matrix. Attachment of heavy meromyosin subfragment 1 to the insoluble matrix results in a change in the ion specificity towards ATP hydrolysis. Unlike the soluble enzyme the bound form is activated by both Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Maximal activation by Ca(2+) occurred at a lower concentration for the bound enzyme. Mg(2+) activates at a concentration which causes near-maximal inhibition of the Ca(2+)-activated adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) of the non-bound enzyme. The Mg(2+)-activated ATPase of the bound enzyme was in turn inhibited by the presence of Ca(2+). The activation by Mg(2+) resembles the characteristic enzymic action of the actin-subfragment 1 complex.
Project description:Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates S19 of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), which is required to activate myosin's ATPase activity and contraction. Smooth muscles are known to display plasticity in response to factors such as inflammation, developmental stage, or stress, which lead to differential expression of nonmuscle and smooth muscle isoforms. Here, we compare steady-state kinetics parameters for phosphorylation of different MLCK substrates: (1) nonmuscle RLC, (2) smooth muscle RLC, and heavy meromyosin subfragments of (3) nonmuscle myosin IIB, and (4) smooth muscle myosin II. We show that MLCK has a ~2-fold higher kcat for both smooth muscle myosin II substrates compared with nonmuscle myosin IIB substrates, whereas Km values were very similar. Myosin light chain kinase has a 1.6-fold and 1.5-fold higher specificity (kcat /Km ) for smooth versus nonmuscle-free RLC and heavy meromyosin, respectively, suggesting that differences in specificity are dictated by RLC sequences. Of the 10 non-identical RLC residues, we ruled out 7 as possible underlying causes of different MLCK kinetics. The remaining 3 residues were found to be surface exposed in the N-terminal half of the RLC, consistent with their importance in substrate recognition. These data are consistent with prior deletion/chimera studies and significantly add to understanding of MLCK myosin interactions.Phosphorylation of nonmuscle and smooth muscle myosin by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is required for activation of myosin's ATPase activity. In smooth muscles, nonmuscle myosin coexists with smooth muscle myosin, but the two myosins have very different chemo-mechanical properties relating to their ability to maintain force. Differences in specificity of MLCK for different myosin isoforms had not been previously investigated. We show that the MLCK prefers smooth muscle myosin by a significant factor. These data suggest that nonmuscle myosin is phosphorylated more slowly than smooth muscle myosin during a contraction cycle.