A reappraisal of the effects of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate on the function and morphology of the rat prostate gland.
ABSTRACT: 1. A comparison was made of the binding of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one) and cyclic AMP in the rat prostate gland. Distinct binding mechanisms exist for these compounds, and cyclic AMP cannot serve as a competitor for the 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone-binding sites and vice versa. In contrast with the results obtained with 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, very small amounts of cyclic AMP are retained in nuclear chromatin and the overall binding of this cyclic nucleotide is not markedly affected by castration. 2. Androgenic stimulation does not lead to major increases in the adenylate cyclase activities associated with any subcellular fraction of the prostate gland. Accordingly, changes in the concentration of cyclic AMP in the prostate gland after hormonal treatment are likely to be small, but these were not measured directly. 3. When administered to whole animals in vivo, small amounts of non-degraded cyclic AMP are found in the prostate gland but sufficient to promote an activation of certain carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes in the cell supernatant fraction. The stimulatory effects of cyclic AMP were not evident with cytoplasmic enzymes engaged in polyamine synthesis or nuclear RNA polymerases. These latter enzymes were stimulated solely by the administration of testosterone. 4. By making use of antiandrogens, a distinction can be drawn between the biochemical responses attributable to the binding of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone but not of cyclic AMP. Evidence is presented to suggest that the stimulation of RNA polymerase, ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase is a consequence of the selective binding of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Only the stimulation of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase can be attributed to cyclic AMP or other metabolites of testosterone. 5. Overall, this study indicates that the formation of cyclic AMP is not a major feature of the androgenic response and affects only a restricted number of biochemical processes. Certainly, cyclic AMP cannot be considered as interchangeable with testosterone and its metabolites in the control of the function of the prostate gland. This difference is additionally emphasized by the failure of cyclic AMP to restore the morphology of the prostate gland in castrated animals; morphological restoration only follows the administration of androgens.
Project description:1. The ribosome content of the rat ventral prostate gland is controlled by the concentrations of circulating androgens and the polyribosomal complement of the total population of ribosomes is acutely dependent on androgenic stimulation. After the administration of testosterone to castrated rats in vivo, there is a pronounced increase in the amounts of heavy (150-240S) polyribosomes. 2. These results are consistent with a pronounced increase in the mRNA and rRNA content of the prostate gland after the administration of testosterone in vivo. 3. From studies conducted both in vitro, the heavy prostate polyribosomes formed after androgenic stimulation are particularly active in protein synthesis. 4. The androgen-stimulated increase in the formation of prostate polyribosomes has a mandatory requirement for sustained RNA and protein synthesis. 5. Since the androgen-mediated increase in prostate polyribosomes may also be suppressed by the concomitant administration of certain anti-androgenic steroids in vivo, the response in polyribosome formation is probably initiated by the binding of a metabolite of testosterone, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, in the prostate gland. 6. The relevance of these findings to the pronounced increase in protein synthesis in androgen-dependent tissues after hormonal stimulation is discussed.
Project description:Hyperplastic and adenocarcinomatous human prostatic tissue was superfused in vitro with radioactively labelled androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one), with and without addition of the anti-androgens cyproterone and cyproterone acetate. Cyproterone competitively inhibited the entry of the androgens into the majority of the tissues, whereas cyproterone acetate increased this entry. These findings indicated that transport of androstenedione, testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone into prostatic tissue is performed by a specific mechanism, possibly involving a carrier situated in the cell membrane. The extent of metabolism of the three androgens was also modified: formation of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone from testosterone, and of the latter from androstenedione, was decreased by cyproterone and increased by the acetate. Acetate was more effective than cyproterone in decreasing the ;uptake' of the perfused androgens by the tissue; at the same time, it increased the androgen clearance from the tissue. As cyproterone acetate is the more potent of the two anti-androgens, the possibility that these findings in vitro are related to the different anti-androgenic potency exhibited by the two compounds in vivo is discussed. ;Uptake' of the two anti-androgens and the response to their action on androgen dynamics were similar in adenocarcinomatous and hyperplastic glands.
Project description:The restoration of mitosis and growth of the prostate gland of castrated animals by androgens provides a favourable experimental system for studying the hormonal regulation of enzymes engaged in DNA replication. 2. Many DNA polymerase activities were identified in the prostate gland, but only a 9S form with a particular preference for denatured DNA as template was conspicuously enhanced by androgenic stimulation. 3. Thymidine kinase also provided a sensitive indicator of the hormonal regulation of DNA replication, and on electrophoretic criteria, one discrete form of the enzyme appeared precisely with the onset of mitoris. 4. Evidence is presented to support the view that DNA ligase activity is intimately associated in the process of DNA replication in the prostate gland. 5. A spectrum of deoxyribonuclease activities is present in the prostate gland, but only one form (pI7.0) can safely be said to be implicated in the process of DNA replication. 6. Androgenic stimulation of the prostate gland leads to the appearance of a component capable of denaturing or unwinding prostate DNA. This component is seemingly distinct from RNA or DNA polymerase activities on the basis of several distince physicochemical characteristics. 7. The conspicuous feature of all the changes in enzyme activities evoked by androgens in the prostate gland is their acute tissue- and steroid-specificity. Such changes could not be mimicked in liver or spleen and the regulatory role of androgens could not be simulated by other classes of steroid hormones. Particularly on the basis of studies with the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate, it is concluded that the changes are initially mediated by the androgen-receptor system and the high-affinity binding of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone in the prostate gland. 8. The results are discussed in the context of the mechanism of action of androgens.
Project description:The regulatory mechanisms involved in the control of the nuclear NADPH-dependent 3-ketosteroid 5alpha-reductase (5alpha-reductase) activity were studied in liver, kidney and prostate. The substrate used was [1,2-(3)H]androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (androstenedione) (for liver and kidney) or [4-(14)C]androstenedione (for prostate). The hepatic nuclear 5alpha-reductase activity was greater in female than in male rats, was greater in adult than in prepubertal female rats, increased after castration of male rats, but was not affected by treatment with testosterone propionate or oestradiol benzoate. These regulatory characteristics are in part different from those previously described for the hepatic microsomal 5alpha-reductase. The renal nuclear metabolism of androstenedione, i.e. 5alpha reduction and 17beta-hydroxy steroid reduction, was relatively unaffected by sex, age, castration and treatment with testosterone propionate. However, treatment of castrated male rats with oestradiol benzoate led to a significant increase in the 5alpha-reductase activity and a significant decrease in the 17beta-hydroxy steroid reductase activity. Finally, the nuclear 5alpha-reductase activity in prostate was androgen-dependent, decreasing after castration and increasing after treatment with testosterone propionate. In conclusion, the nuclear 5alpha-reductase activities in liver, kidney and prostate seem to be under the control of distinctly different regulatory mechanisms. The hypothesis is presented that whereas the prostatic nuclear 5alpha-reductase participates in the formation of a physiologically active androgen, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, this may not be the true function of the nuclear 5alpha-reductase in liver and kidney. These enzymes might rather serve to protect the androgen target sites in the chromatin from active androgens (e.g. testosterone) by transforming them into less active androgens (e.g. 5alpha-androstane-3,17-dione and/or 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone).
Project description:Recent reports have indicated that the prior metabolism of testosterone by the secondary sexual tissues may be necessary for its androgenic effect. The effects of two anti-androgens, diethylstilboestrol and cyproterone acetate (17alpha-acetoxy-6-chloro-1,2alpha-methylenepregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione) used in the chemotherapy of human prostatic carcinoma, have been examined on both the metabolism of testosterone and the retention of its metabolites by the rat ventral prostate gland. Cyproterone acetate was found to inhibit the retention of labelled metabolites of [(3)H]-testosterone by prostatic nuclei, both in vivo and in vitro. This inhibition appeared to be competitive. In contrast with its effect on nuclear retention of metabolites of testosterone, cyproterone acetate had no significant effect on the metabolism of [(3)H]testosterone by rat ventral prostate tissue. Diethylstilboestrol similarly had little effect on the metabolism of [(3)H]testosterone by prostatic tissue, although it did appear partially to inhibit its initial metabolism in all the incubation systems used. Diethylstilboestrol inhibited the nuclear retention of dihydrotestosterone when both [(3)H]testosterone and diethylstilboestrol were injected intraperitoneally in vivo, but had no effect on dihydrotestosterone retention when both testosterone and diethylstilboestrol were supplied directly to the prostate either in vivo or in vitro. It was concluded that if diethylstilboestrol has an anti-androgenic effect at the level of the target organ as distinct from its effect on androgen production by the testes, then it is probably due to a mechanism differing from that of cyproterone acetate.
Project description:The dynamics of uptake and metabolism in vitro of androgens by normal and hyperplastic human prostate glands was studied by means of a new experimental design proposed by Gurpide & Welch (1969). Prostate slices were perfused with a medium containing [(3)H]testosterone and [(14)C]androstenedione, or 5alpha-dihydro-[(3)H]testosterone and [(14)C]testosterone. The entry into the slices, the irreversible metabolism, the conversion between the compounds and the tissue retention or ;uptake' of the steroids were measured at the steady state. A similar portion of the three androgens entered the tissue and was irreversibly metabolized. Conversion of testosterone into 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone was much greater than the interconversion of testosterone and androstenedione. The prostate slices retained 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone at a concentration three times that in the medium, whereas testosterone and androstenedione were retained to a smaller extent. At a steroid concentration of 0.11mumol/l in the medium, the various parameters did not differ significantly in experiments performed with slices from normal and hyperplastic glands. When the steroid concentration in the medium was increased tenfold, however, a difference between normal and hyperplastic glands was evident. The normal glands increased the uptake and metabolism proportionally to the elevation of the steroid concentration in the medium. In the hyperplastic glands the entry and metabolism lagged behind the increase in steroid supply, whereas the tissue uptake became disproportionately high. The possible causes of this finding are discussed.
Project description:1. The activities of l-ornithine decarboxylase (EC 126.96.36.199) and S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase (EC 188.8.131.52) were dramatically enhanced in both the ventral prostate and the seminal vesicle of castrated rats in response to androgenic stimulation. The time course of the stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase together with the quantitatively different response of adenosylmethionine decarboxylase to testosterone treatment in the prostate gland and seminal vesicle indicated that the enhancement in polyamine synthesis in the ventral prostate may reflect both cellular proliferation and the restoration of the secretory functions of the organ. In the seminal vesicle, however, the stimulation of the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway more closely resembled the pattern found in other rat tissues, such as regenerating liver, undergoing compensatory growth. 2. Ornithine decarboxylase activity in the ventral prostate and especially in the seminal vesicle of sexually mature rat was diminished in vivo by various short-chain diamines such as 1,2-diaminoethane, 1,3-diaminopropane and putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane). These diamines had no direct effect on the enzyme activity in vitro. 3. In contrast with the marginal decrease in ornithine decarboxylase activity produced by diaminoethane in the ventral prostate of non-castrated animals, repeated injections of the latter amine completely prevented the intense stimulation of the enzyme activity in the ventral prostate and seminal vesicle of castrated rats at 24h after the commencement of testosterone treatment. 4. The decrease in ornithine decarboxylase activity observed after injections of diamines (putrescine) in the ventral prostate was apparently associated with a similar decrease in the amount of immunoreactive protein as revealed by immunotitration of the enzyme with antiserum to rat ornithine decarboxylase.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Androgens cause non-genomic relaxation in several smooth muscle preparations. However, such an effect has not been investigated in rat vas deferens yet. Our purpose was to study the effect of testosterone and derivatives in this tissue. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The influence of androgens was tested on contraction and translocation of intracellular Ca(2+) induced by KCl in rat vas deferens in vitro. KEY RESULTS: The testosterone derivative 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone produced a rapid and reversible concentration-dependent relaxation of KCl-induced contractions. Other androgens were also effective, showing the following rank order of potency: androsterone >5beta-dihydrotestosterone >androstenedione >5alpha-dihydrotestosterone >testosterone. Calcium-induced contractions were also inhibited (about 45%) by 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (30 microM). Moreover 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone blocked the increase of intracellular Ca(2+) induced by KCl, measured by the fluorescent dye fura-2. Relaxation to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone was resistant to the K(+) channel antagonists glibenclamide, 4-aminopyridine and charybdotoxin. It was not affected by removal of epithelium or by L-NNA (300 microM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide biosynthesis, nor by selective inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase, ODQ or LY 83583, indicating that nitrergic or cGMP mediated mechanisms were not involved. The androgen-induced relaxation was also not blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (300 microM) or by the classical androgen receptor flutamide (up to 100 microM), corroborating that the effect is non-genomic. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Testosterone derivatives caused relaxation of the rat vas deferens, that did not involve epithelial tissue, K(+) channels, or nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms, but was related to a partial blockade of Ca(2+) influx.
Project description:1. The ability of exogenously administered cyclic AMP (adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate) to exert andromimetic action on certain carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes was investigated in the rat prostate gland and seminal vesicles. 2. Cyclic AMP, when injected concurrently with theophylline, produced marked increases in hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, and two hexose monophosphate-shunt enzymes, as well as alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity in accessory sexual tissues of castrated rats. The 6-N,2'-O-dibutyryl analogue of cyclic AMP caused increases of enzyme activity that were greater than those induced by the parent compound. 3. Time-course studies demonstrated that, whereas significant increases in the activities of most enzymes occurred within 4h after the injection of cyclic AMP, maximal increases were attained at 16-24h. 4. Increase in the activity of the various prostatic and vesicular enzymes was dependent on the dose of cyclic AMP; in most instances, 2.5mg of the cyclic nucleotide/rat was sufficient to elicit a statistically significant response. 5. Administration of cyclic AMP and theophylline also produced stimulation of enzyme activities in secondary sexual tissues of immature rats. 6. Cyclic AMP and theophylline did not affect significantly any of the enzymes studied in hepatic tissue. 7. Stimulation of various carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes in the prostate gland and seminal vesicles by cyclic AMP was independent of adrenal function. 8. Concurrent treatment with actinomycin or cycloheximide prevented the cyclic AMP- and theophylline-induced increases in enzyme activities in both castrated and adrenalectomized-castrated animals. 9. Administration of a single dose of testosterone propionate (5.0mg/100g) to castrated rats caused a significant increase in cyclic AMP concentration in both accessory sexual tissues. 10. In addition, treatment with theophylline potentiated the effects of a submaximal dose of testosterone (1.0mg/100g) on all those prostatic and seminal-vesicular enzymes that are increased by exogenous cyclic AMP. 11. The evidence indicates that cyclic AMP may be involved in triggering the known metabolic actions of androgens on secondary sexual tissues of the rat.
Project description:The kinetic parameters, steroid substrate specificity and identities of reaction products were determined for four homogeneous recombinant human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD) isoforms of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. The enzymes correspond to type 1 3alpha-HSD (AKR1C4), type 2 3alpha(17beta)-HSD (AKR1C3), type 3 3alpha-HSD (AKR1C2) and 20alpha(3alpha)-HSD (AKR1C1), and share at least 84% amino acid sequence identity. All enzymes acted as NAD(P)(H)-dependent 3-, 17- and 20-ketosteroid reductases and as 3alpha-, 17beta- and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidases. The functional plasticity of these isoforms highlights their ability to modulate the levels of active androgens, oestrogens and progestins. Salient features were that AKR1C4 was the most catalytically efficient, with k(cat)/K(m) values for substrates that exceeded those obtained with other isoforms by 10-30-fold. In the reduction direction, all isoforms inactivated 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one; 5alpha-DHT) to yield 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (3alpha-androstanediol). However, only AKR1C3 reduced Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione to produce significant amounts of testosterone. All isoforms reduced oestrone to 17beta-oestradiol, and progesterone to 20alpha-hydroxy-pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone). In the oxidation direction, only AKR1C2 converted 3alpha-androstanediol to the active hormone 5alpha-DHT. AKR1C3 and AKR1C4 oxidized testosterone to Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione. All isoforms oxidized 17beta-oestradiol to oestrone, and 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone to progesterone. Discrete tissue distribution of these AKR1C enzymes was observed using isoform-specific reverse transcriptase-PCR. AKR1C4 was virtually liver-specific and its high k(cat)/K(m) allows this enzyme to form 5alpha/5beta-tetrahydrosteroids robustly. AKR1C3 was most prominent in the prostate and mammary glands. The ability of AKR1C3 to interconvert testosterone with Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione, but to inactivate 5alpha-DHT, is consistent with this enzyme eliminating active androgens from the prostate. In the mammary gland, AKR1C3 will convert Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione to testosterone (a substrate aromatizable to 17beta-oestradiol), oestrone to 17beta-oestradiol, and progesterone to 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and this concerted reductive activity may yield a pro-oesterogenic state. AKR1C3 is also the dominant form in the uterus and is responsible for the synthesis of 3alpha-androstanediol which has been implicated as a parturition hormone. The major isoforms in the brain, capable of synthesizing anxiolytic steroids, are AKR1C1 and AKR1C2. These studies are in stark contrast with those in rat where only a single AKR with positional- and stereo-specificity for 3alpha-hydroxysteroids exists.