Influence of glucagon, 6-N,2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate and triamcinolone on the arginine synthetase system in perinatal rat liver.
ABSTRACT: 1. The administration of triamcinolone (19-190mug/animal) to postnatal rats increased the arginine synthetase system activity 1.2-2.5-fold above control values 24h after exposure to the hormone. Cortisol (hydrocortisone), however, increased the arginine synthetase system activity only when larger (190mug/animal) or repeated daily doses were given. Glucagon (100mug/animal) stimulated arginine synthetase system activity only after the second postnatal day. None of these agents increased the activity in 19.5-21.5-day foetuses after intrauterine administration. 2. The viability of foetal rat liver explants maintained in organ culture for up to 54h was validated both by ultramicroscopic examination and by incorporation of radioactive leucine and orotic acid. 3. In organ cultures of foetal rat liver explants (18.5 days to term), triamcinolone (20mug/ml of medium) evoked a 2.8-4.3-fold increase after 24h of incubation. This increase was completely inhibited by actinomycin D (25mug/ml) or cycloheximide (10mug/ml). Cortisol (5-50mug/ml) or glucagon (0.067-67mug/ml) also increased the arginine synthetase system activity above the respective control values, but there was no increase in activity with insulin (0.05-0.25i.u./ml). 4. Maximum concentrations of glucagon (67mug/ml), dibutyryl cyclic AMP (6-N,2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate) (0.1mm) and triamcinolone (20mug/ml) incubated for 24h with foetal rat liver explants each produced between a two-and three-fold increase in the activity of the arginine synthetase system. Combinations of maximum amounts of glucagon and the cyclic nucleotide did not produce a greater effect than either agent alone. However, the combination of dibutyryl cyclic AMP with triamcinolone appeared to produce somewhat less than additive effects. 5. The effects of the cyclic nucleotide and triamcinolone were evident after 12h of incubation and increased steadily throughout the 24h of observation. This time-course of increased enzyme activity is very much slower than that reported for the induction of other enzymes in explant cultures of foetal rat liver.
Project description:Liver explants from 19-day foetal rats were maintained in organ culture, in a defined medium, for up to 48h. Both 6-N,2'-O-dibutyryl cyclic AMP, in the presence of theophylline, and dexamethasone caused an increase in the activities of carbamoyl phosphate synthase, argininosuccinate synthetase, argininosuccinate lyase and arginase. These increases could be abolished by simultaneously incubating the explants with cycloheximide. No change in the activity of ornithine transcarbamoylase was found with either hormone. Previous work has shown that injection of corticosteroids into 19.5-day foetal rats in utero did not cause an increase in the arginine synthetase system. Present results suggest that this lack of effect is not due to any incompetence of the foetal rat liver at this stage to respond to this agent. The observations on ornithine transcarbamoylase activity suggest that this enzyme is induced in the liver of the perinatal rat by neither corticosteroids nor hormones acting via cyclic AMP, and it may be that all the enzymes of the urea cycle are induced physiologically by an agent or agents as yet unidentified.
Project description:1. The development of active and inactive phosphorylase was determined in rat liver during the perinatal period. No inactive form could be found in tissues from animals less than 19 days gestation or older than the fifth postnatal day. 2. The regulation of phosphorylase in organ cultures of foetal rat liver was examined. None of the agents examined [glucagon, insulin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (6-N,2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate)] changed the amount of phosphorylase activity. 3. Glycogen concentration in these explants were nevertheless decreased more than twofold by 4h of incubation with glucagon or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Incubation with insulin for 4h increased the glycogen content twofold. 4. Glycogen synthetase activity was examined in these explants. I-form activity (without glucose 6-phosphate) was found to decrease by a factor of two after 4h of incubation with dibutyryl cyclic AMP, whereas I+D activity (with glucose 6-phosphate) remained nearly constant. Incubation for 4h with insulin increased I-form activity threefold, with only a slight increase in I+D activity. 5. When explants were incubated with insulin followed by addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, the effects of insulin on glycogen concentration and glycogen synthetase activity were reversed. 6. These results indicate that the regulation of glycogen synthesis may be the major factor in the hormonal control of glycogen metabolism in neonatal rat liver.
Project description:1. The activities of enzymes of the urea cycle, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, argininosuccinate synthetase, argininosuccinase (the last two comprising the arginine synthetase system) and arginase, were measured in the liver during development of the rat. All five enzymes exhibited relatively low activities in foetal liver and a rapid postnatal increase was found. The rate-limiting enzyme of urea synthesis in the rat, the condensing enzyme of the arginine synthetase system, showed the lowest activity at birth and the most rapid postnatal increase, a fivefold increase within 24hr. after birth. A second increase of activity was noted after the tenth day. These results suggest that the postnatal increase of arginine synthetase activity initiates the ability for urea synthesis in the rat. 2. Some factors influencing the development of the rate-limiting arginine synthetase system were studied in more detail. (a) Intraperitoneal administration of puromycin inhibited the postnatal increaseof the enzyme activity. (b) Starvation of newborn animals for 24hr. after birth had no effect on the postnatal development of the enzyme. (c) Bilateral adrenalectomy at birth caused a marked diminution in the postnatal increase of the enzyme activity and injections of triamcinolone were effective in preventing the effect of adrenalectomy. (d) Administration of triamcinolone alone had a marked stimulatory effect on the postnatal development of this enzyme. (e) Premature and postmature birth had virtually no effect on the developmental pattern of the arginine synthetase activity, suggesting that the increase of this enzyme activity after birth is not initiated by the birth process.
Project description:The sensitivity of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase to glucagon and cyclic AMP was studied during the perinatal period. In liver homogenates from foetal and neonatal rats, incubation with cyclic AMP produced inactivation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase 3 h after birth. The maximal effect was obtained 12 h after birth. In primary cultures of hepatocytes from 22-day-old foetuses, glucogon induced an inhibition of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase that required 45 min to reach the half-maximal effect. Cycloheximide prevented the glucagon-induced changes in this activity from cultured foetal hepatocytes. These results suggest that the adult form of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase is rapidly induced after birth, probably by the hormonal changes that occur in this period.
Project description:1. During the normal development of the rat, the specific activity of liver ornithine-keto acid aminotransferase exhibits a transient elevation around term, and subsequently increases to adult activity levels during the third postnatal week. 2. The synthetic glucocorticoid triamcinolone, administered as a single injection, produces a marked elevation of the ornithine-keto acid aminotransferase activity within 24hr. if given postnatally before the natural increase in ornithine-keto acid aminotransferase activity has occurred. In foetal and adult animals, triamcinolone does not induce any increase in this enzyme activity. 3. The repeated administration of puromycin completely prevents the rise in ornithine-keto acid aminotransferase activity that follows triamcinolone administration. 4. If adult rats are fed with a protein-free carbohydrate diet, or one free of arginine, the ornithine-keto acid aminotransferase activity diminishes to a fraction of the normal. When such diets are given, a single injection of triamcinolone does not increase the enzyme activity within 24hr. 5. Partial hepatectomy, and repeated injections of growth hormone, depress the ornithine-keto acid aminotransferase activity in adult rats. 6. The findings are discussed in relation to the mechanisms concerned with developmental and adaptive changes in enzyme activities in the liver.
Project description:1. The normal development of the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis in rat liver, glucose 6-phosphatase, hexose diphosphatase, phosphopyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase, was measured during the neonatal period. 2. Glucose 6-phosphatase, hexose diphosphatase and pyruvate carboxylase are all present in the late foetal liver, but all the enzymes show an increase in activity after birth. 3. Phosphopyruvate carboxylase is not present in liver extracts from foetal rats, but activity appears immediately after birth and increases rapidly over the first day and then more slowly to reach its maximum at the fourth postnatal day. 4. The fluorinated synthetic glucocorticoid, triamcinolone, was administered to foetal rats at various gestation times by intraperitoneal injection in utero and the animals were killed at intervals between 4 and 48hr. later. 5. The administration of triamcinolone results in slight depression of glucose 6-phosphatase, and a more significant depression of hexose diphosphatase to about one-half its normal activity in foetal rat liver. 6. Triamcinolone injection is without effect on pyruvate carboxylase activity and does not result in premature appearance of phosphopyruvate carboxylase in foetal rat liver. 7. Pyruvate kinase and aspartate amino-transferase activities in foetal rat liver are both depressed by triamcinolone treatment, whereas phosphofructokinase activity is elevated. 8. Tyrosine amino-transferase activity in foetal rat liver is markedly elevated in animals exposed to triamcinolone for 10hr. or more, but the effect is only observed in animals close to term. 9. The results are discussed in relation to mechanisms involved in the initial synthesis of tissue-specific enzymes in developing tissues, and it is concluded that glucocorticoids do not initiate the synthesis of the gluconeogenic enzymes.
Project description:Foetal-rat hepatocytes were cultured in primary monolayer culture, and activity changes of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS, EC 22.214.171.124) and argininosuccinase (ASL, EC 126.96.36.199) were followed under defined hormone conditions. In hormone-free medium, cultured cells maintained the enzyme activities at values equal to those of freshly isolated cells for at least 3 days. Continuous addition of dexamethasone produced the development of the two enzyme activities, but only after the first 20h of culture. Under these conditions, urea production by the foetal hepatocytes was concomitantly increased in the culture medium. Pretreatment with dexamethasone for 20h was sufficient to produce the development of ASL activity within the 2 following days. Introduced alone, glucagon induced an increase of ASL activity, but did not affect the ASS activity. The most powerful stimulation of ASS and ASL could be observed in cultured hepatocytes if glucagon and dexamethasone were added simultaneously or sequentially. These results indicated that the development of the receptor complex for the induction of urea-cycle enzymes appears early before birth and established that glucocorticoids amplify the glucagon stimulation of these enzyme activities during foetal life.
Project description:1. The administration of glucagon, cAMP [adenosine 3',5'-(cyclic)-monophosphate], BcAMP [6-N-2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-(cyclic)-monophosphate] or adrenaline to foetal rats during the last 2 days of gestation evoked the appearance of tyrosine aminotransferase and enhanced the accumulation of glucose 6-phosphatase in the liver. In foetuses 1-2 days younger only BcAMP was effective. After birth liver glucose 6-phosphatase no longer responds to glucagon or BcAMP. Tyrosine aminotransferase is still inducible by these agents in 2-day-old rats, but not in 50-day-old rats. After adrenalectomy of adults glucagon or BcAMP can enhance the induction of the enzyme by hydrocortisone. The results indicate that the ability to synthesize tyrosine aminotransferase and glucose 6-phosphatase when exposed to cAMP develops sooner than the ability to respond to glucagon with an increase in the concentration of cAMP; the responsiveness of enzymes to different hormones changes with age. A scheme illustrating the sequential development of competence in regulating the level of an enzyme is presented. 2. Actinomycin inhibited the effects of glucagon and BcAMP on liver tyrosine aminotransferase and glucose 6-phosphatase in foetal rats. Growth hormone, insulin and hydrocortisone did not enhance the formation of these enzymes. 3. The time-course of accumulation of glucose 6-phosphatase in the kidney is different from that in the liver. Hormones that increase the accumulation in foetal liver do not do so in the kidney of the same foetus or in the livers of postnatal rats.
Project description:1. The activities of enzymes of the urea cycle [carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, argininosuccinate synthetase, argininosuccinase (these last two comprising the arginine-synthetase system) and arginase] have been measured in control, alloxan-diabetic and glucagon-treated rats. In addition, measurements were made on alloxan-diabetic rats treated with protamine-zinc-insulin. 2. Treatment of rats with glucagon for 3 days results in a marked increase in the activities of three enzymes of the urea cycle (carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinase). The pattern of change in the alloxan-diabetic group is very similar to that of the glucagon-treated group, although the magnitude of the change was much greater. 3. Comparison was made of the actual and potential rate of urea synthesis in normal and diabetic rats. In both groups the potential rate of urea production, as measured by the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, argininosuccinate synthetase, slightly exceeds the actual rate of synthesis by liver slices in the presence of substrates. The relative activities of the actual and potential rates were similar in the two groups of animals, this ratio being 1:0.70. 4. In the alloxan-diabetic rats treated with protamine-zinc-insulin for 2.5 or 4 days there was a marked increase in liver weight. This was associated with a rise in the total hepatic activity of the urea-cycle enzymes located in the soluble fraction of the cell (the arginine-synthetase system and arginase) after 2.5 days of treatment. After 4 days of treatment the concentration of these enzymes/g. of liver decreased, and the total hepatic content then reverted to the untreated alloxan-diabetic value. 5. No effects of glucagon or of insulin in vitro could be found on the rate of urea production by liver slices. 6. The present results are discussed in relation to how far this pattern of change is typical of conditions resulting in a high urea output, and comparison has been made with other values in the literature.
Project description:Incubation of liver explants from second-trimester human foetuses with dexamethasone, glucagon or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (plus theophylline) increased the activity of liver cystathionase from unmeasurable or trace values to adult values. Simultaneous incubation with cycloheximide or actinomycin D inhibited this effect.