The effects of salicylate on the activity of rat liver tyrosine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase in vitro and in vivo.
ABSTRACT: 1. Salicylate, in concentrations of 0.25mm and above, enhances the basal activity of tyrosine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase in homogenates of rat liver incubated in the absence of added pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (endogenous activity). The effect is decreased by increasing the concentration of the cofactor. 2. The intraperitoneal administration of sodium salicylate enhances the activity of rat liver tyrosine aminotransferase; the major effect during the first hour being on the enzyme in the absence of added pyridoxal phosphate. Actinomycin D prevents the induction of the enzyme by cortisol and tryptophan. Induction by pyridoxine or salicylate is 50% inhibited by actinomycin D. The effects of the injections of various combinations of cortisol, pyridoxine and salicylate were also studied in the absence or presence of actinomycin D. 3. It is suggested that salicylate induces rat liver tyrosine aminotransferase by displacing its protein-bound cofactor and that a cofactor-type induction of the hepatic enzyme occurs in pyridoxine-treated rats.
Project description:Administration of pyridoxine stabilizes rat liver tyrosine aminotransferase in vivo, whereas administration of cortisol, cyclic AMP, glucagon, insulin, tryptophan or tyrosine does not. The results of these and other experiments with pyridoxine are discussed in relation to the mechanisms of action of this vitamin on the activity of the enzyme.
Project description:1. Attempts were made to demonstrate the presence of pyridoxal phosphate in the rat liver system catalysing the alphabeta-elimination of l-serine O-sulphate. 2. Methods designed to resolve protein-bound cofactor, spectroscopic examination of a purified enzyme system and attempted reactivation of apo-(alanine aminotransferase) failed to demonstrate the presence of pyridoxal phosphate. 3. The activity of the alphabeta-eliminating system remained constant in vitamin B(6)-deficient animals even though the activities of other pyridoxal phosphate-dependent systems fell markedly. 4. The metabolism of l-serine O[(35)S]-sulphate in vivo appears to be normal in vitamin B(6)-deficient animals. 5. No incorporation of tritium into the alphabeta-eliminating system occurred after administration of tritiated pyridoxine to experimental animals.
Project description:1. The activities of l-serine dehydratase and l-serine-pyruvate aminotransferase were determined in rat liver during foetal and neonatal development. 2. l-Serine-pyruvate aminotransferase activity begins to develop in late-foetal liver, increases rapidly at birth to a peak during suckling and then decreases at weaning to the adult value. 3. l-Serine dehydratase activity is very low prenatally, but increases rapidly after birth to a transient peak. After a second transient peak around the time weaning begins, activity gradually rises to the adult value. Both of these peaks have similar isoenzyme compositions. 4. In foetal liver both l-serine dehydratase and l-serine-pyruvate aminotransferase activities are increased after injection in utero of glucagon or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Cycloheximide or actinomycin D inhibited the prenatal induction of both enzymes and actinomycin D blocked the natural increase of l-serine dehydratase immediately after birth. Glucose or insulin administration also blocked the perinatal increase of l-serine dehydratase. 5. After the first perinatal peak of l-serine dehydratase, activity is increased by cortisol and this is inhibited by actinomycin D. After the second postnatal peak, activity is increased by amino acids or cortisol and this is insensitive to actinomycin D inhibition. Glucose administration blocks the cortisol-stimulated increase in l-serine dehydratase and also partially lowers the second postnatal peak of activity. 6. The developmental patterns of the enzymes are discussed in relation to the pathways of gluconeogenesis from l-serine. The regulation of enzyme activity by hormonal and dietary factors is discussed with reference to the changes in stimuli that occur during neonatal development and to their possible mechanisms of action.
Project description:1. Salicylate, in concentrations of 0.05mm and above, inhibits the basal activity of tryptophan pyrrolase in homogenates of rat liver and the activity induced by cortisol but not that induced by tryptophan. The inhibition is abolished by adding haematin to the reaction mixtures. 2. The intraperitoneal injection of 400mg of sodium salicylate/kg in the rat causes a decrease in the tryptophan pyrrolase activity in the liver at 30min, the activity is restored to normal at 2h, increases to sixfold after 5h and returns to the basal value at 12h. The activation of the enzyme by salicylate is prevented by the administration of cycloheximide but not by pretreatment with actinomycin D. The effects of the combined injection of salicylate and cortisol are additive, whereas those of salicylate plus tryptophan are not. The injection of salicylate causes a progressive increase in the holo-/apo-enzyme ratio and an increased content of tryptophan in the liver over a period of 3h. 3. It is suggested that salicylate inhibits tryptophan pyrrolase activity in vitro and in vivo by interacting with iron protoporphyrins and causes a later enhancement of the enzyme activity in vivo by a mechanism involving the release of tryptophan from its binding sites on circulating albumin and on other proteins.
Project description:1. Adrenaline increased hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase activity when injected into foetal rats or 2-day-old rats. 2. The inhibition of the postnatal increase in tyrosine aminotransferase activity which occurred in adrenalectomized newborn rats rapidly overcome by injection of adrenaline or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. 3. The effects of adrenaline or dibutyryl cyclic AMP on the tyrosine aminotransferase activity in foetal, adrenalectomized newborn and 2-day-old rats could be partially or completely blocked by prior treatment with actinomycin D. 4. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP induced tyrosine aminotransferase activity in hepatocytes cultured from 15-day foetal rats in glucocorticoid-free medium. 5. Actinomycin D at 0.2 microgram/ml in the culture medium completely prevented the induction of tyrosine aminotransferase activity by dibutyryl cyclic AMP in cultured cells. 6. The results suggest that adrenaline and cyclic AMP stimulate a transcriptional event during induction of tyrosine aminotransferase in perinatal liver.
Project description:hisH encodes imidazole acetol phosphate (IAP) aminotransferase in Zymomonas mobilis and is located immediately upstream of tyrC, a gene which codes for cyclohexadienyl dehydrogenase. A plasmid containing hisH was able to complement an Escherichia coli histidine auxotroph which lacked the homologous aminotransferase. DNA sequencing of hisH revealed an open reading frame of 1,110 bp, encoding a protein of 40,631 Da. The cloned hisH product was purified from E. coli and estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to have a molecular mass of 40,000 Da. Since the native enzyme had a molecular mass of 85,000 Da as determined by gel filtration, the active enzyme species must be a homodimer. The purified enzyme was able to transaminate aromatic amino acids and histidine in addition to histidinol phosphate. The existence of a single protein having broad substrate specificity was consistent with the constant ratio of activities obtained with different substrates following a variety of physical treatments (such as freeze-thaw, temperature inactivation, and manipulation of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate content). The purified enzyme did not require addition of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, but dependence upon this cofactor was demonstrated following resolution of the enzyme and cofactor by hydroxylamine treatment. Kinetic data showed the classic ping-pong mechanism expected for aminotransferases. Km values of 0.17, 3.39, and 43.48 mM for histidinol phosphate, tyrosine, and phenylalanine were obtained. The gene structure around hisH-tyrC suggested an operon organization. The hisH-tyrC cluster in Z. mobilis is reminiscent of the hisH-tyrA component of a complex operon in Bacillus subtilis, which includes the tryptophan operon and aroE. Multiple alignment of all aminotransferase sequences available in the database showed that within the class I superfamily of aminotransferases, IAP aminotransferases (family I beta) are closer to the I gamma family (e.g., rat tyrosine aminotransferase) than to the I alpha family (e.g., rat aspartate aminotransferase or E. coli AspC). Signature motifs which distinguish the IAP aminotransferase family were identified in the region of the active-site lysine and in the region of the interdomain interface.
Project description:Rat liver tyrosine aminotransferase was purified 200-fold and an antiserum raised against it in rabbits. 2. Hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase activity was increased fourfold by tyrosine, twofold by tetracycline, 2.5-fold by cortisone 21-acetate and ninefold by a combination of tyrosine and cortisol administered intraperitoneally to rats. 3. Radioimmunoassay with 14C-labelled tyrosine aminotransferase, in conjunction with rabbit antiserum against the enzyme, revealed that cortisol stimulates the synthesis of the enzyme de novo, but that tetracycline has no such effect. 4. Incubation of rat liver homogenates with purified tyrosine aminotransferase in vitro leads to a rapid inactivation of the enzyme, which tetracycline partially inhibits. 5. The inactivation is brought about by intact lysosomes, and the addition of 10mM-cysteine increases the rate of enzyme inactivation, which is further markedly increased by 10mM-Mg2+ and 10mM-ATP. Here again tetracycline partially inhibits the decay rate, leading to the inference that the increase of tyrosine aminotransferase activity in vivo by tetracycline is brought about by the latter inhibiting the lysosomal catheptic action.
Project description:Pyridoxal kinase was purified 4760-fold from rat liver. The Km values for pyridoxine and pyridoxal were 120 and 190 microM respectively, and pyridoxine showed substrate inhibition at above 200 microM. Pyridoxamine 5-phosphate oxidase was also purified 2030-fold from rat liver, and its Km values for pyridoxine 5-phosphate and pyridoxamine 5-phosphate were 0.92 and 1.0 microM respectively. Pyridoxine 5-phosphate gave a maximum velocity that was 5.6-fold greater than with pyridoxamine 5-phosphate and showed strong substrate inhibition at above 6 microM. Among the tryptophan metabolites, picolinate, xanthurenate, quinolinate, tryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine inhibited pyridoxal kinase. However, pyridoxamine 5-phosphate oxidase could not be inhibited by tryptophan metabolites, and on the contrary it was activated by 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilate. Regarding the metabolism of vitamin B-6 in the liver, the effects of tryptophan metabolites that were accumulated in vitamin B-6-deficient rats after tryptophan injection were discussed.
Project description:1. The administration of dexamethasone to foetal rats in utero does not result in the appearance of specific tyrosine aminotransferase activity even after 24 h. 2. When foetal hepatocytes are cultured in vitro from animals treated in utero with dexamethasone, significantly higher activities of specific tyrosine aminotransferase are found than in untreated controls. 3. Dexamethasone in vitro induces specific tyrosine aminotransferase in cells cultured from control animals and the effect is maximal at 10 nM in the culture medium. 4. Actinomycin D at 0.2 microgram/ml in the culture medium completely prevents the induction of activity in vitro. 5. In cultures established from animals treated with dexamethasone in utero, the increase in specific tyrosine aminotransferase activity over the control cultures is only marginally decreased in the presence of actinomycin D. 6. The results can be interpreted to mean that dexamethasone in utero stimulates the transcription of enzyme-specific mRNA, which is not rranslated until a translational block in the foetal liver is removed by the conditions of culture in vitro.
Project description:Time- and dose-dependence of the formation of the different cytoplasmic hormone-protein complexes were studied in the rat liver after administration in vivo of [3H]cortisol or [3H]dexamethasone and compared with the stimulation of RNA polymerase B and induction of tyrosine aminotransferase and tryptophan oxygenase. No correlation could be found between formation in vivo of any of the five cytoplasmic hormone-protein complexes found and stimulation of RNA polymerase B activity or enzyme induction. After administration of [3H]cortisol, different metabolites of cortisol could be demonstrated in the isolated hormone-protein complexes. No time- or dose-dependence of the metabolite patterns could be observed after application of hormone doses that were in the range of the biologically active doses. After administration of [3H]dexamethasone, the same hormone-protein complexes were observed, which contained, however, the injected steroid instead of metabolites. These results seem to indicate that the cytoplasmic binding components present in the rat liver are enzymes involved in the metabolism of the glucocorticosteroids and that dexamethasone binds to these enzymes as a substrate analogue.