Glycerylphosphorylcholine phosphodiesterase in rat liver. Subcellular distribution and localization in plasma membranes.
ABSTRACT: 1. A simple new assay for glycerylphosphorylcholine phosphodiesterase is described, in which radioactive glycerylphosphorylcholine is used as substrate and the reaction products are separated by adsorption on an anion-exchange resin. 2. Rat liver subcellular fractions contained both particulate (58%) and soluble (42%) glycerylphosphorylcholine phosphodiesterase. Both activities released free choline from glycerylphosphorylcholine. 3. The particulate glycerylphosphorylcholine phosphodiesterase was recovered mainly in the nuclear and microsomal fractions and showed a distribution similar to those of 5'-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphodiesterase I, both of which are constituents of the liver plasma membrane. 4. During purification of plasma membranes glycerylphosphorylcholine phosphodiesterase, 5'-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphodiesterase I showed largely similar behaviour, indicating that glycerylphosphorylcholine phosphodiesterase is also localized in liver plasma membranes. Slight differences in the distributions of these three enzymes in density-gradient separations are discussed in relation to the possibility that they are unevenly distributed on different areas of the cell surface. 5. The differences between glycerylphosphorylcholine phosphodiesterase and alkaline phosphodiesterase I indicate that these two activities are not functions of a single enzyme. 6. The glycerylphosphorylcholine phosphodiesterase of liver plasma membranes has a pH optimum of 8.5 and a K(m) for glycerylphosphorylcholine of 0.95mm. It is inhibited by EDTA and fully reactivated by a variety of bivalent cations (and Fe(3+)).
Project description:1. Antiserum was prepared in rabbits against a purified mouse liver plasma-membrane fraction. 2. The antiserum was made to react with an (125)I-labelled alkaline-EDTA extract of the plasma membranes, and the immunoprecipitate analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Seven proteins were immunoprecipitated and a single glycoprotein present in the alkaline-EDTA-soluble fraction was found to be a major component. 3. The alkaline-EDTA-soluble fraction was analysed by two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis and this procedure indicated the presence of six antigenic components. 4. The plasma membranes were also extracted with 1% deoxycholate-1% Triton X-100; 50% of the protein, 80% of the alkaline phosphodiesterase activity and 30% of the 5'-nucleotidase activity were solubilized. 5. Two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis of the deoxycholate-Triton X-100 extract indicated the presence of six antigens. 6. The relative distribution of the six antigens among the fractions obtained during the extraction procedure was examined immunoelectrophoretically to provide information on their disposition within the membrane.
Project description:1. A mouse liver plasma-membrane preparation was solubilized in an N-dodecylsarcosinate-Tris buffer, pH7.8, and the proteins and glycoproteins were separated by a rate-zonal centrifugation in sucrose-detergent gradients. 2. A peak of alkaline phosphodiesterase activity which sedimented ahead of the 5'-nucleotidase peak was associated with a major glycoprotein component of the plasma membrane. 3. The phosphodiesterase activity was then purified further by gel filtration and gave a single glycoprotein band after electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels. The apparent molecular weight of the polypeptide at pH7.4 and 8.9 was 128000-130000 and was independent of the polyacrylamide concentration. Electrophoresis in gels containing deoxycholate showed that the protein band was coincident with phosphodiesterase activity. 4. After two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, with agarose containing rabbit anti-(mouse plasma-membrane) antiserum as second dimension, the enzyme showed one component which was also coincident with the phosphodiesterase activity. 5. An amino acid composition of the glycoprotein is presented. Carbohydrate analysis indicated the presence of glucosamine, neutral sugars and sialic acid. 6. The enzyme was also a nucleotide pyrophosphatase, as shown by a similar enrichment during purification of activity towards ATP, NAD(+), UDP-galactose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. The phosphodiesterase activity, measured by using dTMP p-nitrophenyl ester as substrate, was competitively inhibited by nucleotide pyrophosphate substrates. The enzyme showed little or no activity towards RNA, cyclic AMP, AMP, ADP and glycerylphosphorylcholine. 7. The significance of this enzyme activity in the plasma membrane is discussed.
Project description:The conjugated trihydroxy bile salts glycocholate and taurocholate removed approx. 20--30% of the plasma-membrane enzymes 5'-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphatase and alkaline phosphodiesterase I from isolated hepatocytes before the onset of lysis, as judged by release of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. The conjugated dihydroxy bile salt glycodeoxycholate similarly removed 10--20% of the 5'-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphatase activities, but not alkaline phosphodiesterase activity; this bile salt caused lysis of hepatocytes at approx. 10-fold lower concentrations (1.5--2.0mM) than either glycocholate or taurocholate (12--16mM). At low concentrations (7 mM), glycocholate released these enzymes in a predominantly particulate form, whereas at higher concentrations (15 mM) glycocholate further released these components in a predominantly 'soluble' form. Inclusion of 1% (w/v) bovine serum albumin in the incubations had a small protective effect on the release of enzymes from hepatocytes by glycodeoxycholate, but not by glycocholate. These observations are discussed in relation to the possible role of bile salts in the origin of some biliary proteins.
Project description:1. Fragments (2-20 mg wet wt.) of closed needle-biopsy specimens from human liver were disrupted in iso-osmotic sucrose and subjected to low-speed centrifugation. The supernatant was layered on a linear sucrose-density gradient in the Beaufay small-volume automatic zonal rotor. The following organelles, with equilibrium densities (g/ml) and principal marker enzyme shown in parentheses, were resolved: plasma membrane (1.12-1.14; 5'-nucleotidase); lysosomes (1.15-1.20; N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase); mitochondria (1.20; malate dehydrogenase); endoplasmic reticulum (1.17-1.21; neutral alpha-glucosidase); peroxisomes (1.22-1.24; catalase). 2. The distribution of particulate alkaline phosphatase and, to a lesser degree, leucine 2-naphthylamidase followed that of 5'-nucleotidase. gamma-Glutamyltransferase was associated with membranes of significantly higher equilibrium density than was 5'-nucleotidase. 3. The distribution of 12 acid hydrolases was determined in the density-gradient fractions. beta-Glucosidase had a predominantly cytosolic localization, but the other enzymes showed a broad distribution of activity throughout the gradient. Evidence was presented for two populations of lysosomes with equilibrium densities of 1.15 and 1.20 g/ml, but containing differing amounts of each enzyme. Further evidence of lysosomal heterogeneity was demonstrated by studying the distribution of isoenzymes of hexosaminidase and of acid phosphatase. 4. The resolving power of the centrifugation procedure can be further enhanced with membrane perturbants. Digitonin (0.12 mM) selectively disrupted lysosomes, markedly increased the equilibrium density of plasma-membrane components and lowered the density of the endoplasmic reticulum, but did not affect the mitochondria or peroxisomes. Pyrophosphate (15 mM) selectively lowered the equilibrium density of the endoplasmic reticulum.
Project description:1. Rat livers were dissociated into their constituent cells by perfusion through the portal vein with a medium containing collagenase, and hepatocytes separated from non-parenchymal cells. 2. It is shown that the procedure described by Wisher & Evans [(1975) Biochem. J. 146, 375-388] for preparation of plasma membranes from liver tissue when applied to isolated hepatocytes also yielded subfractions of similar morphology and marker-enzyme distribution. 3. Thus the distribution of alkaline phosphodiesterase, 5'-nucleotidase and the basal and glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase among two 'light' vesicular and one 'heavy' junction-containing plasma-membrane subfractions paralleled that reported for tissue-derived plasma-membrane subfractions. 4. Increased recoveries and specific activities of plasma-membrane marker enzymes were obtained when soya-bean trypsin inhibitor was included in the collagenase-containing perfusion media used to dissociate the liver. 5. Polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoretic analysis of the corresponding plasma-membrane subfractions prepared from liver tissue and isolated hepatocytes were generally similar. 6. The results indicate that the functional polarity of the hepatocyte's plasma membrane is retained after tissue dissociation. The damage occurring to plasma-membrane ectoenzymes by the collagenase-perfusion procedure is discussed.
Project description:The complexity of rat liver endosome fractions containing internalized radioiodinated asialotransferrin, asialo-(alkaline phosphatase), insulin and prolactin was investigated by using free-flow electrophoresis and isopycnic centrifugation in Nycodenz gradients. Two subfractions were separated by free-flow electrophoresis. Both subfractions contained receptors for asialoglycoprotein and insulin. Glycosyltransferase activities were associated with the more electronegative vesicles, whereas 5'-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphodiesterase activities were associated with the less electronegative vesicles. Three subfractions were separated on Nycodenz gradients. Two subfractions, previously shown to become acidified in vitro, contained the ligands. At short intervals after uptake (1-2 min), ligands were mainly in subfraction DN-2 (density 1.115 g/cm3), but movement into subfraction DN-1 (density 1.090 g/cm3) had occurred 10-15 min after internalization. Low amounts of glycosyltransferase activities were associated with subfraction DN-2, and 5'-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphodiesterase activities were mainly located in subfraction DN-1. The binding sites for asialoglycoproteins and insulin were distributed towards the higher density range in the Nycodenz gradients, thus indicating a segregation of receptor-enriched vesicles and those vesicles containing the various ligands 10-15 min after internalization. Electron microscopy of the subfractions separated on Nycodenz gradients indicated that whereas the ligand-transporting fractions consisted mainly of empty vesicles (average diameter 100-150 nm), the receptor-enriched component was more granular and smaller (average diameter 70-95 nm). The properties of the endosome subfraction are used to assign their origin to the regions of the endocytic compartment where ligand-receptor dissociation and separation occur.
Project description:Lysosomes prepared from the livers of untreated rats and from the livers of rats injected with either Triton WR-1339 or dextran yielded membranes that were similar in both polypeptide composition and activities of ATPase and acid 5'-nucleotidase. The administration of Triton WR-1339 (and dextran) resulted in an increase in ATPase activity of liver homogenates that was associated with a parallel increase in the ATPase activity of the lysosomal membrane. On the other hand, plasma membranes appear to be different from lysosomal membranes with respect to polypeptide composition and enzyme activities. The ATPase activity of lysosomal membranes is not affected by ouabain and suramin, inhibitors of the plasma-membrane ATPase. The plasma-membrane alkaline 5'-nucleotidase has little activity at acid pH. Pulse-labelling of lysosomal membranes with [3H]fucose and with [3H]- and [14C]-leucine occurred rapidly, faster than labelling of plasma membranes. The labelling kinetics indicate that lysosomal membranes may be assembled independently of plasma membranes. These data suggest that, in liver, little bulk transport of plasma membrane to lysosomes takes place, and lysosomal-membrane proteins may not be derived from those of plasma membranes.
Project description:1. Incubation of Schistosoma mansoni for 5 min in a phosphate-buffered medium, pH 7.4, released tegumental material containing the following phosphohydrolase activities: alkaline phosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase, glycerol-2-phosphatase, glucose 6-phosphatase, phosphodiesterase and ATPase. 2. Maximum activity of these enzymes was measured at pH 9.5; however, the phosphodiesterase and ATPase activities were also appreciable at pH 7.0. 3. Solubilization of the released tegumental material in 1% Triton X-100 followed by gel filtration distinguished three peaks of enzyme activity: an ATPase (mol.wt. greater than 1000 000), a phosphodiesterase (mol.wt. 1 000 000) and an alkaline phosphomonoesterase with broad specificity (mol.wt. 232 000). 4. The ATPase activity was highly activated by 10 mM-Mg2+ or 1 mM-Ca2+ and was inhibited by chelating agents. Ouabain, Na+ and K+ had little effect on enzyme activity, whereas activity was increased by 50% in the presence of calmodulin. The phosphodiesterase activity was highest in the presence of 100 mM-Na+ or -K+, and 10 mM-Mg2+ or -Ca2+. Alkaline phosphatase activity was also stimulated by 100 mM-Na+ or -K+, and 10 mM-Mg2+; however Ca2+ inhibited at greater than 1 mM. 5. Surface iodination of parasites followed by detergent solubilization and gel filtration of the released tegumental membranes indicated that these enzymes were not accessible. A major surface component, apparent mol.wt. 80 000, was iodinated. 6. Rabbit anti-(mouse liver 5'-nucleotidase) antibodies did not inhibit the phosphohydrolase activities. However, an immunoglobulin G fraction from sera of mice chronically infected with S. mansoni partially inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity, but was without effect on the phosphodiesterase and ATPase activities. 7. The location of the enzymes in the double membrane of the tegument and their significance in host-parasite interactions is discussed.
Project description:Glycocholate and taurocholate removed from isolated pig lymphocytes a proportion of the cells' complement of 5'-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphatase and alkaline phosphodiesterase I before cell lysis. This may indicate a loss of externally orientated plasma-membrane components.
Project description:1. Isolated mouse spleen lymphocytes hydrolysed UDP-galactose added to the medium. Nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity that accounted for this hydrolysis was enriched to a similar extent as alkaline phosphodiesterase and 5'-nucleotidase in a lymphocyte plasma-membrane fraction. 2. The cell surfaces of mouse spleen and thymus lymphocytes were iodinated with 125I by using the lactoperoxidase-catalysis method. Detergent extracts of the cells were mixed with a purified anti-(mouse liver plasma-membrane nucleotide pyrophosphatase) antiserum and the immunoprecipitates analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Only one major radioactive component, similar in size (apparent mol.wt 110000-130000) to the liver enzyme, was observed. 3. Electrophoresis of an iodinated spleen plasma-membrane fraction indicated peaks of radioactivity, including one of apparent mol.wt 110000-130000. 4. When detergent extracts of spleen lymphocytes were passed through a Sepharose-bead column containing covalently attached anti-(nucleotide pyrophosphatase) antiserum, the nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity was retained by the beads, whereas protein and leucine naphthylamidase activity were eluted. 5. The results indicate that nucleotide pyrophosphatase and alkaline phosphodiesterase activities are due to the location of the same or similar enzymes at the outer aspect of the lymphocyte plasma membrane. Some possible functions of enzymes at this location are discussed.