Bilirubin conjugates of human bile. The excretion of bilirubin as the acyl glycosides of aldobiouronic acid, pseudoaldobiouronic acid and hexuronosylhexuronic acid, with a branched-chain hexuronic acid as one of the components of the hexuronosylhexuronide.
ABSTRACT: Structure elucidations have been performed on the bilirubin conjugates isolated from human hepatic bile as the phenylazo derivatives. The major bilirubin conjugates are excreted, not as was formerly thought in the form of glucuronides, but as the acyl glycosides of aldobiouronic acid, pseudoaldobiouronic acid and hexuronosylhexuronic acid. The isolated aldobiouronides are proposed to have the structures of an acyl 6-O-hexopyranosyluronic acid-hexopyranoside, an acyl 4-O-hexofuranosyluronic acid-d-glucopyranoside, and an acyl 4-O-beta-d-glucofuranosyluronic acid-d-glucopyranoside respectively, with the acyl radicals being those of the phenylazo derivative of bilirubin. The pseudoaldobiouronide is suggested to be the acyl 4-O-alpha-d-glucofuranosyl-beta-d -glucopyranosiduronic acid, with the acyl radical being that of the phenylazo derivative of vinylneoxanthobilirubinic acid. The hexuronosylhexuronide presumably is the acyl 4-O-(3-C-hydroxymethylribofuranosyluronic acid)-beta-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid, with the acyl radical being that of the phenylazo derivative of bilirubin. The 3-C-hydroxymethylriburonic acid, isolated as one of the components of the hexuronosylhexuronide, is the first natural branched-chain hexuronic acid to be detected, and the first branched-chain sugar ever detected in humans.
Project description:N.m.r., i.r. and optical spectra of model compounds were recorded. These were to help in elucidating the structures of the phenylazo derivatives of bilirubin conjugates isolated from human bile. Model compounds included commercial and human bile bilirubin, mesobilirubin, bilirubin dimethyl ester, dimethoxybilirubin dimethyl ester and the corresponding phenylazo derivatives. The phenylazo derivative of vinylneoxanthobilirubinic acid was also investigated. All compounds were of the type IXalpha, and no other isomer could be detected with the spectroscopic methods employed. The compounds crystallize as the lactams, except for dimethoxybilirubin dimethyl ester and its phenylazo derivative, which are held in the lactim ether configuration. With all other compounds no tautomeric forms other than the lactams could be detected, although small proportions of bilirubin must exist as the lactim. Bilirubin does not form a betaine, a structure that has been proposed by von Dobeneck & Brunner (1965) to explain the bathochromic shift of its optical spectrum as compared with the expected position of the absorption maximum at 420nm. However, this shift to 453nm can be explained on the basis of internal hydrogen bonds occurring between the carboxylic protons and the pyrrole rings of bilirubin, as proposed by Fog & Jellum (1963), and new evidence for such a bonding has been accumulated. The bilirubin sulphate described by Watson (1958), which is formed by treatment of bilirubin with concentrated sulphuric acid and acetic anhydride, was also investigated. The main product of this reaction was isolated as its phenylazo derivative, and was shown to be 3,18-di(ethylidene sulphate)-2,7,13,17-tetramethylbiladiene-ac-8,12-dipropionic acid. The reaction leading to this compound is an addition of sulphuric acid to the vinyl side chains of bilirubin according to Markownikoff's rule.
Project description:Structures have been determined for bilirubin-IXalpha conjugates in freshly collected bile of normal rats, dogs and man and in post-obstructive bile of man and rats. The originally secreted conjugate has been characterized as azopigment (I), i.e. a 1-O-acyl-beta-d-glucopyranuronic acid glycoside. Conversion of the acetylated methyl ester of azopigment (I) into methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-1-bromo-1-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranuronate (V) indicates the pyranose ring structure for the carbohydrate and a C-1 attachment for the bilirubin-IXalpha acyl group. Alternative procedures for deconjugation of azopigment (I) and its derivatives are also described. In post-obstructive bile, the 1-O-acylglucuronide is converted into 2-, 3- and 4-O-acylglucuronides via sequential intramolecular migrations of the bilirubin acyl group. The following approach was utilized. (1) The tetrapyrrole conjugates were cleaved to dipyrrolic aniline and ethyl anthranilate azopigments, and the azopigments were separated as the acids or methyl esters. (2) The isomeric methyl esters were characterized by mass spectral analysis of the acetates and silyl ethers. (3) The free glycosidic function was demonstrated by 1-oxime and 1-methoxime derivative formation. (4) The position of the dipyrrolic O-acyl group was determined for the methyl esters by protecting the free hydroxyl groups of the glucuronic acid moieties as the acetals formed with ethyl vinyl ether and by further conversion of the carbohydrates into partially methylated alditol acetates. These were analysed by using g.l.c.-mass spectrometry. The relevance of the present results with regard to previous reports on disaccharidic conjugates is discussed. Details of procedures for the formation of chemical derivatives for g.l.c. and mass spectrometry have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50081 (15 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1978), 169, 5.
Project description:A method is presented that allows the isolation of eight different phenylazo derivatives of bile bilirubin. In step I of the isolation procedure, three bilirubin fractions (bilirubin fractions 1, 2 and 3) from human hepatic bile are separated by reverse-phase partition chromatography on silicone-treated Celite with the use of a solvent system prepared from butan-1-ol and 5mm-phosphate buffer, pH6.0. Azo coupling is then performed with diazotized aniline. The three azo pigment mixtures are subjected to step II, in which the above chromatography system is used again. With each azo pigment mixture this step brings about the separation of a non-polar and a polar azo pigment fraction (azo 1A and azo 1B, azo 2A and azo 2B, and azo 3A and azo 3B from bilirubin fractions 1, 2 and 3 respectively). Approximately equal amounts of non-polar and polar pigments are obtained from bilirubin fractions 1 and 2, whereas bilirubin fraction 3 yields azo 3B almost exclusively. In step IIIA the non-polar azo pigment fractions are fractionated further by adsorption chromatography on anhydrous sodium sulphate with the use of chloroform followed by a gradient of ethyl acetate in chloroform. Three azo pigments are thus obtained from both azo 2A (azo 2A(1), azo 2A(2) and azo 2A(3)) and azo 3A (azo 3A(1), azo 3A(2) and azo 3A(3)). The 2A pigments occur in approximately the following proportions: azo 2A(1), 90%; azo 2A(2), 10%; azo 2A(3), traces. The pigments are purified by crystallization, except for the A(3) pigments, which are probably degradation products arising from the corresponding A(2) pigments. In step IIIB the polar azo pigment fractions are subjected to reverse-phase partition chromatography on silicone-treated Celite with the use of a solvent system prepared from octan-1-ol-di-isopropyl ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-0.2m-acetic acid (1:2:2:3:4, by vol.). Azo pigment fractions 2B and 3B each yield six azo pigments (azo 2B(1) to azo 2B(6) and azo 3B(1) to azo 3B(6) respectively) together with small amounts of products of hydrolysis (azo 2A(B) and azo 3A(B)). Only one azo B pigment is obtained from bilirubin fraction 1, and this azo pigment is probably of the B(2) type. The yields of the azo 3B pigments suggest that these pigments are present in approximately the following proportions: azo 3B(1), 0-0.4%; azo 3B(2), traces; azo 3B(3), traces; azo 3B(4), 10%; azo 3B(5), 50%; azo 3B(6), 40%. Azo pigments 2B(1) to 2B(6) are estimated to occur in similar proportions. Since pairs of correspondingly numbered azo pigments from bilirubin fractions 1, 2 and 3 do not separate on rechromatography together (e.g. azo 2A(1) co-chromatographs with azo 3A(1), and azo 2B(6) co-chromatographs with azo 3B(6)), it is concluded that such pigments are chemically identical. The structures of the isolated phenylazo derivatives are discussed in an accompanying paper (Kuenzle 1970c).
Project description:Dimethoxybilirubin dimethyl ester and monomethoxybilirubin dimethyl ester were prepared by treating bilirubin with diazomethane, and the correctness of the assigned structures was proved by elemental analysis as well as by i.r. and n.m.r. spectroscopy. The phenylazo compounds derived from monomethoxybilirubin dimethyl ester were also prepared and characterized spectroscopically. Dimethoxybilirubin dimethyl ester occurs in solution as a single molecular species, unlike bilirubin dimethyl ester, which in non-polar solvents exists as an equilibrium mixture of conformational isomers. This difference in the behaviour of the two compounds is explained by the absence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in dimethoxybilirubin dimethyl ester, a situation that allows free rotation about the central methylene bridge, whereas in bilirubin dimethyl ester an internally hydrogen-bonded conformation can be distinguished by n.m.r. spectroscopy from a non-bonded family of rotamers. This finding is regarded as additional evidence for a newly conceived conformational structure of bilirubin and bilirubin dimethyl ester that is maximally stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonds. This is discussed in detail in the Appendix (Kuenzle et al., 1973), which also includes a description of the molecular mechanism pertaining to the reaction of bilirubin with diazomethane.
Project description:1. Conjugated bile pigments, separated in two fractions by semi-quantitative t.l.c. performed on silicic acid with phenol/water as the developing solvent, were treated with diazotized ethyl anthranilate. Resulting dipyrrylazo derivatives were analysed by quantitative t.l.c. 2. The tentative structure elucidation of tetrapyrrolic bilirubin conjugates and semi-quantitative evaluation of rat bile, post-obstructive human bile and dog bile composition is presented. 3. Homogeneous and mixed hexuronic acid diesters of bilirubin containing glucuronic acid constitute 51% of the total conjugates in normal rat bile, 45% of those in human post-obstructive bile and 38% of those in obstructed rat biles. 4. Monoconjugated bilirubin amounts to 33% of total conjugated bile pigments in normal rat bile, and 17 and 14% in post-obstructive hepatic human bile and gall-bladder bile of dog respectively. After loading with unconjugated bilirubin a greater amount of monoconjugates (56%) occur in the rat bile, whereas bilirubin diglucuronide excretion is decreased (34%). 5. In gall-bladder bile of normal dog, 40% of glucose-containing diconjugates, 32% of homogeneous and/or mixed hexuronic acid (mainly glucuronic acid) diesters of bilirubin and 14% of xylose-containing diconjugates are estimated. 6. Increased amounts of bilirubin conjugates, including some with unidentified uronic acid groups, were observed in cholestatic rat biles and quantities of conjugates with glucuronic acid were decreased.
Project description:1. In incubation mixtures containing digitonin-activated or untreated preparations from rat liver, albumin-solubilized bilirubin as the acceptor substrate and (a) UDP-glucuronic acid, (b) UDP-glucose or (c) UDP-xylose as the sugar donor, formation of the following ester glycosides was demonstrated: with (a), bilirubin beta-d-monoglucuronoside, with (b), bilirubin beta-d-monoglucoside and with (c), bilirubin monoxyloside or mixtures of the mono-and di-xyloside. 2. With UDP-glucuronic acid prolonged incubation and variation of the composition of the incubation mixtures yielded equimolar amounts of azodipyrrole (I) and azodipyrrole beta-d-monoglucuronoside (II) after treatment of the incubation mixtures with the diazonium salt of ethyl anthranilate. The azo-derivatives were identified by t.l.c. by reference to known compounds and by the following chemical tests. After ammonolysis the conjugated azo-derivative (II) yielded d-glucuronic acid and the carboxylic acid amide of azodipyrrole, indicating transfer of a glucuronic acid residue to the carboxylic acid groups of bilirubin. The beta-d-configuration of the sugar moiety and binding at C-1 were demonstrated by enzymic hydrolysis tests. 3. Analogous evidence established the structure of the reaction product obtained with UDP-glucose as the sugar donor, as bilirubin beta-d-monoglucoside. 4. With UDP-xylose as the sugar donor xylosyl transfer to the carboxylic acid groups of bilirubin with attachment at C-1 was demonstrated in an analogous way. A beta-d-configuration is considered very likely, but requires confirmation. 5. Monoxyloside formation was predominant at pH7.4, whereas at decreasing pH values increasing fractions of the substrate were converted into the dixyloside. Prolonged incubation, low concentrations of bilirubin and high concentrations of UDP-xylose favoured diconjugate formation. The available evidence supports the synthesis sequence: bilirubin --> bilirubin monoxyloside --> bilirubin dixyloside.
Project description:The bilrubin-IXalpha conjugates in bile and the activities of bilirubin-IX alpha--UDP-glycosyltransferases in liver and kidney were determined for ten species of mammals and for the chicken. 1. In the mammalian species, bilirubin-IX alpha glucuronide was the predominant bile pigment. Excretion of neutral glycosides was unimportant, except in the cat, the mouse, the rabbit and the dog, where glucose and xylose represented 12--41% of total conjugating groups bound to bilirubin-IX alpha. In chicken bile, glucoside and glucuronide conjugates were of equal importance. They probably represent only a small fraction of the total bile pigment. 2. The transferase activities in liver showed pronounced species variation. This was also apparent with regard to activation by digitonin, pH optimum and relative activities of transferases acting on either UDP-glucuronic acid or neutral UDP-sugars. 3. Man, the dog, the cat and the rat excrete bilirubin-IX alpha largely as diconjugated derivatives. In general, diconjugated bilirubin-IX alpha could also be synthesized in vitro with liver homogenate, bilirubin-IX alpha and UDP-sugar. In contrast, for the other species examined, bilirubin pigments consisted predominantly of monoconjugated bilirubin-IX alpha. Synthesis in vitro with UDP-glucuronic acid, UDP-glucose or UDP-xylose as the sugar donor led exclusively to the formation of monoconjugated bilirubin-IX alpha. 4. The transferase activities in the kidney were restricted to the cortex and were important only for the rat and the dog. No activity at all could be detected for several species, including man. 5. Comparison of the transferase activities in liver with reported values of the maximal rate of excretion in bile suggests a close linkage between conjugation and biliary secretion of bilirubin-IX alpha.
Project description:1. A system for separation of bile pigments by t.l.c. and for their structure elucidation is presented. Separated bile pigments are characterized by t.l.c. of derived dipyrrolic azopigments. 2. At the tetrapyrrolic stage hydrolysis in strongly alkaline medium followed by t.l.c. demonstrates the presence of bilirubin-IIIalpha, -IXalpha and -XIIIalpha and allows assessment of their relative amounts. 3. Most structural information is derived from analysis of dipyrrolic azopigments. Such derivatives, obtained by treatment of separated bile pigments with diazotized ethyl anthranilate, were separated and purified by t.l.c. Micro methods showed (a) the nature of the dipyrrolic aglycone, (b) the nature of the bonds connecting aglycone to a conjugating group, (c) the ratio of vinyl/isovinyl isomers present in the aglycone and, (d) the nature of the conjugating groups (by suitable derivative formation and t.l.c. with reference to known compounds). 4. In bile of normal dogs at least 20 tetrapyrrolic, diazo-positive bile pigments could be recognized. Except for two pigments the tetrapyrrolic nucleus corresponded predominantly to bilirubin-IXalpha. All conjugated pigments had their conjugating groups connected in ester linkage to the tetrapyrrolic aglycone, Apart from bilirubin-IXalpha, monoconjugates and homogeneous and mixed diconjugates of bilirubin were demonstrated; conjugating groups of major importance were xylose, glucose and glucuronic acid. 5. Bilirubin isomer determination on native bile and isolated bile pigments, and dipyrrole-exchange assays with [14C8]bilirubin indicated (a) that the conjugates pre-exist in bile, and (b) that no significant dipyrrole exchange occurs during isolation of the pigments.
Project description:1. A novel method for determination of the relative amounts of unconjugated bilirubin and sugar mono- and di-conjugates of bilirubin in biological samples, including serum, is described and illustrated by its application to the analysis of bilinoids in rat bile. 2. The method is based on specific conversion of the carbohydrate conjugates of bilirubin into the corresponding mono- or di-methyl esters by base-catalysed transesterification in methanol. Under the selected reaction conditions, unconjugated biliru-in remains intact and no dipyrrole exchange in the bilinoids is detectable; transesterification of bilirubin mono- or di-glucuronide is virtually complete (approx. 99%), and sponification is negligible (less than 1%); recovery of the pigments is approx. 95%. 3. The reaction products bilirubin and its methyl esters are separated by t.l.c. and determined spectrophotometrically; the two isomeric bilirubin-IX alpha monomethyl esters are separated and therefore can be determined individually. 4. Reference bilirubin mono- and di-methyl esters have been synthesized and characterized, and the two isomers of bilirubin-IX alpha monomethyl ester and bilirubin dimethyl ester were obtained individually, in crystalline form. 5. With this new method, virtually all bilinoids (over 99%) in normal rat bile have been found to be conjugated, with diconjugates (71%) predominating. A significantly increased proportion of monoconjugates is present in bile collected from heterozygous Gunn rats or from normal rats that were refused with large amounts of bilirubin.
Project description:1. The fluorescent fatty acid probe 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid (DAUDA) binds with high affinity to bovine and human serum albumin (BSA and HSA) at three sites. 2. The Kd of the primary binding site could not be determined; however, the two secondary sites appeared to be equivalent, with an apparent Kd of 8 x 10(-7) M for both BSA and HSA. 3. The spectral characteristics of DAUDA when bound to the primary site of the two albumins were different, with HSA producing a greater fluorescence enhancement and emission maximum at a shorter wavelength (480 nm) than for BSA (495 nm). 4. Displacement studies indicated that the DAUDA-binding sites were not equivalent to the primary long-chain fatty acid-binding sites on albumin, but corresponded to the bilirubin sites. Fatty acyl-CoAs also bind to the bilirubin sites, as do medium-chain fatty acids. 5. The solubility, stability and spectral properties of DAUDA make it an excellent probe for investigating the bilirubin-binding sites of albumin, particularly HSA.