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Fatty acid metabolism in the perfused rat liver.

ABSTRACT: 1. The formation of acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and glucose was measured in the isolated perfused rat liver after addition of fatty acids. 2. The rates of ketone-body formation from ten fatty acids were approximately equal and independent of chain length (90-132mumol/h per g), with the exception of pentanoate, which reacted at one-third of this rate. The [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio in the perfusion medium was increased by long-chain fatty acids. 3. Glucose was formed from all odd-numbered fatty acids tested. 4. The rate of ketone-body formation in the livers of rats kept on a high-fat diet was up to 50% higher than in the livers of rats starved for 48h. In the livers of fat-fed rats almost all the O(2) consumed was accounted for by the formation of ketone bodies. 5. The ketone-body concentration in the blood of fat-fed rats rose to 4-5mm and the [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio rose to 11.5. 6. When the activity of the microsomal mixed-function oxidase system, which can bring about omega-oxidation of fatty acids, was induced by treatment of the rat with phenobarbitone, there was no change in the ketone-body production from fatty acids, nor was there a production of glucose from even-numbered fatty acids. The latter would be expected if omega-oxidation occurred. Thus omega-oxidation did not play a significant role in the metabolism of fatty acids. 7. Arachidonate was almost quantitatively converted into ketone bodies and yielded no glucose, demonstrating that gluconeogenesis from poly-unsaturated fatty acids with an even number of carbon atoms does not occur. 8. The rates of ketogenesis from unsaturated fatty acids (sorbate, undecylenate, crotonate, vinylacetate) were similar to those from the corresponding saturated fatty acids. 9. Addition of oleate together with shorter-chain fatty acids gave only a slightly higher rate of ketone-body formation than oleate alone. 10. Glucose, lactate, fructose, glycerol and other known antiketogenic substances strongly inhibited endogenous ketogenesis but had no effects on the rate of ketone-body formation in the presence of 2mm-oleate. Thus the concentrations of free fatty acids and of other oxidizable substances in the liver are key factors determining the rate of ketogenesis.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC1179383 | BioStudies | 1970-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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