The constitutional t(17;22): another translocation mediated by palindromic AT-rich repeats.
ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated that the breakpoints of the constitutional t(11;22) are located at palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) on 11q23 and 22q11. As a mechanism for this recurrent translocation, we proposed that the PATRR forms a cruciform structure that induces the genomic instability leading to the rearrangement. A patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) had previously been found to have a constitutional t(17;22) disrupting the NF1 gene on 17q11. We have localized the breakpoint on 22q11 within the 22q11-specific low-copy repeat where the breakpoints of the constitutional t(11;22)s reside, implying a similar palindrome-mediated mechanism for generation of the t(17;22). The NF1 gene contains a 195-bp PATRR within intron 31. We have isolated the junction fragments from both the der(17) and the der(22). The breakpoint on 17q11 is close to the center of the PATRR. A published breakpoint of an additional NF1-afflicted patient with a constitutional t(17;22) is also located close to the center of the same PATRR. Our data lend additional support to the hypothesis that PATRR-mediated genomic instability can lead to a variety of translocations.
Project description:It has emerged that palindrome-mediated genomic instability generates DNA-based rearrangements. The presence of palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) at the translocation breakpoints suggested a palindrome-mediated mechanism in the generation of several recurrent constitutional rearrangements: the t(11;22), t(17;22), and t(8;22). To date, all reported PATRR-mediated translocations include the PATRR on chromosome 22 (PATRR22) as a translocation partner. Here, the constitutional rearrangement, t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.1), segregating with renal cell carcinoma in two families, is examined. The chromosome 8 breakpoint lies in PATRR8 in the first intron of the RNF139 (TRC8) gene, whereas the chromosome 3 breakpoint is located in an AT-rich palindromic sequence in intron 3 of the FHIT gene (PATRR3). Thus, the t(3;8) is the first PATRR-mediated, recurrent, constitutional translocation that does not involve PATRR22. Furthermore, we detect de novo translocations similar to the t(11;22) and t(8;22), involving PATRR3 in normal sperm. The breakpoint on chromosome 3 is in proximity to FRA3B, the most common fragile site in the human genome and a site of frequent deletions in tumor cells. However, the lack of involvement of PATRR3 sequence in numerous FRA3B-related deletions suggests that there are several different DNA sequence-based etiologies responsible for chromosome 3p14.2 genomic rearrangements.
Project description:BACKGROUNDS:The t(8;22)(q24.13;q11.2) has been identified as one of several recurrent constitutional translocations mediated by palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs). Although the breakage on 22q11 utilizes the same PATRR as that of the more prevalent constitutional t(11;22)(q23;q11.2), the breakpoint region on 8q24 has not been elucidated in detail since the analysis of palindromic sequence is technically challenging. RESULTS:In this study, the entire 8q24 breakpoint region has been resolved by next generation sequencing. Eight polymorphic alleles were identified and compared with the junction sequences of previous and two recently identified t(8;22) cases . All of the breakpoints were found to be within the PATRRs on chromosomes 8 and 22 (PATRR8 and PATRR22), but the locations were different among cases at the level of nucleotide resolution. The translocations were always found to arise on symmetric PATRR8 alleles with breakpoints at the center of symmetry. The translocation junction is often accompanied by symmetric deletions at the center of both PATRRs. Rejoining occurs with minimal homology between the translocation partners. Remarkably, comparison of der (8) to der(22) sequences shows identical breakpoint junctions between them, which likely represent products of two independent events on the basis of a classical model. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest the hypothesis that interactions between the two PATRRs prior to the translocation event might trigger illegitimate recombination resulting in the recurrent palindrome-mediated translocation.
Project description:The t(11;22) is the only known recurrent, non-Robertsonian constitutional translocation. We have analyzed t(11;22) balanced-translocation carriers from multiple unrelated families by FISH, to localize the t(11;22) breakpoints on both chromosome 11 and chromosome 22. In 23 unrelated balanced-translocation carriers, the breakpoint was localized within a 400-kb interval between D22S788 (N41) and ZNF74, on 22q11. Also, 13 of these 23 carriers were tested with probes from chromosome 11, and, in each, the breakpoint was localized between D11S1340 and APOA1, on 11q23, to a region </=185 kb. Thus, the breakpoints on both chromosome 11 and chromosome 22 are clustered in multiple unrelated families. Supernumerary-der(22)t(11;22) syndrome can occur in the progeny of balanced-t(11;22) carriers, because of malsegregation of the der(22). There has been speculation regarding the mechanism by which the malsegregation occurs. To elucidate this mechanism, we have analyzed 16 of the t(11;22) families, using short tandem-repeat-polymorphism markers on both chromosome 11 and chromosome 22. In all informative cases the proband received two of three alleles, for markers above the breakpoint on chromosome 22 and below the breakpoint on chromosome 11, from the t(11;22)-carrier parent. These data strongly suggest that 3:1 meiosis I malsegregation in the t(11;22) balanced-translocation-carrier parent is the mechanism in all 16 families. Taken together, these results establish that the majority of t(11;22) translocations occur within the same genomic intervals and that the majority of supernumerary-der(22) offspring result from a 3:1 meiosis I malsegregation in the balanced-translocation carrier.
Project description:Derivative 22 (der) syndrome is a rare disorder associated with multiple congenital anomalies, including profound mental retardation, preauricular skin tags or pits, and conotruncal heart defects. It can occur in offspring of carriers of the constitutional t(11;22)(q23;q11) translocation, owing to a 3:1 meiotic malsegregation event resulting in partial trisomy of chromosomes 11 and 22. The trisomic region on chromosome 22 overlaps the region hemizygously deleted in another congenital anomaly disorder, velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS). Most patients with VCFS/DGS have a similar 3-Mb deletion, whereas some have a nested distal deletion endpoint resulting in a 1.5-Mb deletion, and a few rare patients have unique deletions. To define the interval on 22q11 containing the t(11;22) breakpoint, haplotype analysis and FISH mapping were performed for five patients with der(22) syndrome. Analysis of all the patients was consistent with 3:1 meiotic malsegregation in the t(11;22) carrier parent. FISH-mapping studies showed that the t(11;22) breakpoint occurred in the same interval as the 1.5-Mb distal deletion breakpoint for VCFS. The deletion breakpoint of one VCFS patient with an unbalanced t(18;22) translocation also occurred in the same region. Hamster-human somatic hybrid cell lines from a patient with der(22) syndrome and a patient with VCFS showed that the breakpoints occurred in an interval containing low-copy repeats, distal to RANBP1 and proximal to ZNF74. The presence of low-copy repetitive sequences may confer susceptibility to chromosome rearrangements. A 1.5-Mb region of overlap on 22q11 in both syndromes suggests the presence of dosage-dependent genes in this interval.
Project description:Two known recurrent constitutional translocations, t(11;22) and t(17;22), as well as a non-recurrent t(4;22), display derivative chromosomes that have joined to a common site within the low copy repeat B (LCR-B) region of 22q11.2. This breakpoint is located between two AT-rich inverted repeats that form a nearly perfect palindrome. Breakpoints within the 11q23, 17q11 and 4q35 partner chromosomes also fall near the center of palindromic sequences. In the present work the breakpoints of a fourth translocation involving LCR-B, a balanced ependymoma-associated t(1;22), were characterized not only to localize this junction relative to known genes, but also to further understand the mechanism underlying these rearrangements. FISH mapping was used to localize the 22q11.2 breakpoint to LCR-B and the 1p21 breakpoint to single BAC clones. STS mapping narrowed the 1p21.2 breakpoint to a 1990 bp AT-rich region, and junction fragments were amplified by nested PCR. Junction fragment-derived sequence indicates that the 1p21.2 breakpoint splits a 278 nt palindrome capable of forming stem-loop secondary structure. In contrast, the 1p21.2 reference genomic sequence from clones in the database does not exhibit this configuration, suggesting a predisposition for regional genomic instability perhaps etiologic for this rearrangement. Given its similarity to known chromosomal fragile site (FRA) sequences, this polymorphic 1p21.2 sequence may represent one of the FRA1 loci. Comparative analysis of the secondary structure of sequences surrounding translocation breakpoints that involve LCR-B with those not involving this region indicate a unique ability of the former to form stem-loop structures. The relative likelihood of forming these configurations appears to be related to the rate of translocation occurrence. Further analysis suggests that constitutional translocations in general occur between sequences of similar melting temperature and propensity for secondary structure.
Project description:The constitutional t(11;22) translocation is the only known recurrent non-Robertsonian translocation in humans. Offspring are susceptible to der(22) syndrome, a severe congenital anomaly disorder caused by 3&rcolon;1 meiotic nondisjunction events. We previously localized the t(11;22) translocation breakpoint to a region on 22q11 within a low-copy repeat termed "LCR22" and within an AT-rich repeat on 11q23. The LCR22s are implicated in mediating different rearrangements on 22q11, leading to velocardiofacial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome and cat-eye syndrome by homologous recombination mechanisms. The LCR22s contain AT-rich repetitive sequences, suggesting that such repeats may mediate the t(11;22) translocation. To determine the molecular basis of the translocation, we cloned and sequenced the t(11;22) breakpoint in the derivative 11 and 22 chromosomes in 13 unrelated carriers, including two de novo cases and der(22) syndrome offspring. We found that, in all cases examined, the reciprocal exchange occurred between similar AT-rich repeats on both chromosomes 11q23 and 22q11. To understand the mechanism, we examined the sequence of the breakpoint intervals in the derivative chromosomes and compared this with the deduced normal chromosomal sequence. A palindromic AT-rich sequence with a near-perfect hairpin could form, by intrastrand base-pairing, on the parental chromosomes. The sequence of the breakpoint junction in both derivatives indicates that the exchange events occurred at the center of symmetry of the palindromes, and this resulted in small, overlapping staggered deletions in this region among the different carriers. On the basis of previous studies performed in diverse organisms, we hypothesize that double-strand breaks may occur in the center of the palindrome, the tip of the putative hairpin, leading to illegitimate recombination events between similar AT-rich sequences on chromosomes 11 and 22, resulting in deletions and loss of the palindrome, which then could stabilize the DNA structure.
Project description:Structural chromosomal rearrangements occur commonly in the general population. Individuals that carry a balanced translocation are at risk of having unbalanced offspring; therefore, the frequency of translocations in couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions is higher than that in the general population. The constitutional t(11;22) translocation is the most common recurrent non-Robertsonian translocation in humans and may serve as a model to determine the mechanism that causes recurrent meiotic translocations. We previously localized the t(11;22) translocation breakpoint to a region on 22q11 within a low-copy repeat, termed "LCR22." To define the breakpoint on 11q23 and to ascertain whether this region shares homology with LCR22 sequences, we performed haplotype analysis on patients with der(22) syndrome. We found that the breakpoint on 11q23 occurred between two genetic markers, D11S1340 and APOC3-tetra, both being present within a single bacterial-artificial-chromosome clone. To determine whether the breakpoint occurred within the same region among a larger set of carriers, we performed FISH mapping studies. The breakpoints were all within the same clone, suggesting that this region may harbor sequences that are prone to breakage. We narrowed the breakpoint interval, in both derivative chromosomes from two unrelated carriers, to a 190-bp, AT-rich repeat, which indicates that this repeat may mediate recombination events on chromosome 11. Interestingly, the LCR22s harbor AT-rich repeats, suggesting that this sequence motif may mediate recombination events in nonhomologous chromosomes during meiosis.
Project description:Several recurrent, constitutional genomic disorders are present on chromosome 22q. These include the translocations and deletions associated with DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndrome and the translocations that give rise to the recurrent t(11;22) supernumerary der(22) syndrome (Emanuel syndrome). The rearrangement breakpoints on 22q cluster around the chromosome-specific segmental duplications of proximal 22q11, which are involved in the etiology of these disorders. While the deletions are the result of nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between low copy repeats or segmental duplications within 22q11, the t(11;22) is the result of rearrangement between palindromic AT-rich repeats on 11q and 22q. Here we describe the mechanisms responsible for these recurrent rearrangements, discuss the recurrent deletion endpoints that are the result of NAHR between chromosome 22q specific low copy repeats as well as present current diagnostic approaches to deletion detection.
Project description:Recently, it has emerged that palindrome-mediated genomic instability contributes to a diverse group of genomic rearrangements including translocations, deletions, and amplifications. One of the best studied examples is the recurrent t(11;22) constitutional translocation in humans that has been well documented to be mediated by palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) on chromosomes 11q23 and 22q11. De novo examples of the translocation are detected at a high frequency in sperm samples from normal healthy males, but not in lymphoblasts or fibroblasts. Cloned breakpoint sequences preferentially form a cruciform configuration in vitro. Analysis of the junction fragments implicates frequent double-strand-breaks (DSBs) at the center of both palindromic regions, followed by repair through the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. We propose that the PATRR adopts a cruciform structure in male meiotic cells, creating genomic instability that leads to the recurrent translocation.
Project description:There is an emerging consensus that secondary structures of DNA have the potential for genomic instability. Palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) are a characteristic sequence identified at each breakpoint of the recurrent constitutional t(11;22) and t(17;22) translocations in humans, named PATRR22 (approximately 600 bp), PATRR11 (approximately 450 bp) and PATRR17 (approximately 190 bp). The secondary structure-forming propensity in vitro and the instability in vivo have been experimentally evaluated for various PATRRs that differ regarding their size and symmetry. At physiological ionic strength, a cruciform structure is most frequently observed for the symmetric PATRR22, less often for the symmetric PATRR11, but not for the other PATRRs. In wild-type E. coli, only these two PATRRs undergo extensive instability, consistent with the relatively high incidence of the t(11;22) in humans. The resultant deletions are putatively mediated by central cleavage by the structure-specific endonuclease SbcCD, indicating the possibility of a cruciform conformation in vivo. Insertion of a short spacer at the centre of the PATRR22 greatly reduces both its cruciform extrusion in vitro and instability in vivo. Taken together, cruciform extrusion propensity depends on the length and central symmetry of the PATRR, and is likely to determine the instability that leads to recurrent translocations in humans.