Genetic evidence for interaction of the 5q31 cytokine locus and the CARD15 gene in Crohn disease.
ABSTRACT: A common haplotype spanning 250 kb in the cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 5q31 has recently been reported to be strongly associated with Crohn disease (CD) in Canadian families. We have replicated this finding by both the transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) (P=.016) and in a case-control association study (P=.008) in a large European cohort of patients with CD, although the increase in disease risk was small (odds ratio 1.49 for homozygotes, 95% CI 1.11-2.0). No association was detected in families or individuals with ulcerative colitis (UC). Stratification of offspring with CD in the TDT sample by mutation status in the CD susceptibility gene CARD15 showed that the association with the 5q31 risk haplotype was present only in offspring with at least one of the known CARD15 disease susceptibility alleles (P=.044). The 5q31 risk haplotype frequency was 53.1% in unrelated individuals with CD who had one or two CARD15 mutations versus 43.7% in control subjects (P=.0001) but was not significantly elevated in individuals with CD who had no CARD15 mutations (45.4%, P=.41). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of age at disease onset showed a significantly earlier onset in homozygotes for the 5q31 risk haplotype (P=.0019). These findings suggest that genetic variants at the 5q31 (IBD5) locus may hasten the onset of Crohn disease and cooperate with CARD15 in disease causation.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to complex chronic relapsing autoimmune disorders of the gastrointestinal tract that have been traditionally classified into Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). We have previously reported that genetic variation within a 250-kb haplotype (IBD5) in the 5q31 cytokine gene cluster confers susceptibility to CD in a Canadian population. In the current study, we first replicated this association by examining 368 German trios with CD and demonstrating, by transmission/disequilibrium testing (TDT), that the same haplotype is associated with CD (chi2=5.97; P=.007). Our original association study focused on the role of IBD5 in CD; we next explored the potential contribution of this locus to UC susceptibility in 187 German trios. Given the TDT results in the present cohort with UC, IBD5 may also act as a susceptibility locus for UC (chi2=8.10; P=.002). We then examined locus-locus interactions between IBD5 and CARD15, a locus reported elsewhere to confer risk exclusively to CD. Our current results indicate that the two loci act independently to confer risk to CD but that these two loci may behave in an epistatic fashion to promote the development of UC. Moreover, IBD5 was not associated with particular clinical manifestations upon phenotypic stratification in the current cohort with CD. Taken together, our results suggest that IBD5 may act as a general risk factor for IBD, with loci such as CARD15 modifying the clinical characteristics of disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In case-control studies of Europeans, heterozygosity for Arg702Trp(rs2066844), Gly908Arg(rs2066845) and Leu1007fsinsC(rs5743293) on the NOD2/CARD15 gene is associated with a 2-fold greater risk of Crohn disease, whereas homozygosity or compound heterozygosity is associated with a 17-fold greater risk. However, the importance of these genetic variants if identified in particular individuals within the general population is unknown. We undertook this study to estimate the penetrance of these variants in the general population. METHODS: We genotyped 43,596 individuals from the Danish general population followed between January 1976 and July 2007. Using a logistic regression model, we estimated the risk of Crohn disease in relation to variants of the NOD2/CARD15 gene in the general population. Penetrance was calculated as the fraction of participants in whom Crohn disease was diagnosed before age 50 years. RESULTS: In the general population, 89% of participants were noncarriers of the genetic variants of interest (n = 38,594), 11% were heterozygotes (n = 4838), and 0.4% were compound heterozygotes or homozygotes (n = 164). For Crohn disease, multifactorially adjusted odds ratios were 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8-1.9) for heterozygotes and 3.3 (95% CI 0.8-13.6) for compound heterozygotes and homozygotes combined, relative to noncarriers. Only 2 compound heterozygotes received a diagnosis of Crohn disease, and this disease was not diagnosed in any of the homozygotes. The penetrance at age 50 years of NOD2/CARD15 genetic variants of Crohn disease was 0.30% (95% CI 0.29%-0.31%) for heterozygotes and 1.5% (95% CI 1.4%-1.6%) for compound heterozygotes and homozygotes. INTERPRETATION: The penetrance of NOD2/CARD15 genetic variants in relation to risk of Crohn disease for this Danish population was lower than might have been expected from previous European case-control studies. This should be considered when advising healthy individuals in whom these genetic variants are identified.
Project description:Crohn disease (CD) exhibits a 2-4-fold increased frequency in Jews as compared with other ethnic/racial groups. Three coding variants of the NOD2/CARD15 have been reported as independent disease-predisposing mutations (DPMs), but these were found in only 30%-40% of patients with CD and could not account for all the linkage between CD and the IBD1 locus. The aim of the present study was to explore whether additional DPMs at the IBD1 locus exist in the high-risk Jewish group. Sixty-four Ashkenazi Jewish and 147 non-Jewish white families were studied. Six microsatellite markers spanning IBD1 were genotyped for linkage analysis in subgroups stratified on NOD2/CARD15 DPM status. SNPs in NOD2/CARD15 (R702W, G908R, 1007fs, and S268P) were then genotyped in family and independent case-control samples. On the basis of initial results, sequencing was done on NOD2/CARD15-translated regions in 12 Jewish individuals. Subsequently, a new NOD2/CARD15 variant was genotyped and analyzed. After excluding the influence of the three DPMs, significant linkage of IBD1 to CD in Jews remained with two peaks at D16S403 (mean allele sharing [MAS] = 0.70] and D16S411 (MAS = 0.59). Further, we observed an increased frequency of a haplotype carrying only the 268S variant in Jewish patients (OR = 3.13, P=.0023) but not in non-Jews, suggesting the existence of a Jewish-specific additional disease-predisposing factor on this haplotype. Sequencing of this haplotype revealed a new variant (IVS8+158; JW1). The 268S-JW1 combination exhibited a further increased risk (OR = 5.75, P=.0005) and the highest population-attributable risk (15.1%) for CD among reported DPMs in Jews. In Ashkenazi Jews, unrecognized population-specific predisposing factor(s) exist on the 268S-JW1 haplotype at the IBD1 locus. This factor may contribute to the higher risk for CD in Ashkenazi Jews as compared with non-Jews.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Recent molecular data suggest that genetic factors may underlie the disease heterogeneity observed in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). A locus on chromosome 5q has been implicated in susceptibility to CD, and recently refined by linkage disequilibrium mapping to a conserved 250 kb haplotype (5q31). No data regarding the contribution of this locus to clinical phenotype exist. In this case control study, we investigated the contribution of this haplotype to both susceptibility and phenotype of CD and UC. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We studied 330 Caucasian CD and 457 UC patients recruited from a single UK centre. Association with disease susceptibility and phenotype was analysed with haplotypes reconstructed from three single nucleotide polymorphisms chosen to span this susceptibility region. Evidence for possible genetic epistasis between IBD5 and NOD2/CARD15 was sought. RESULTS:Linkage disequilibrium across this region was confirmed, with two haplotypes comprising 88% of all chromosomes. Susceptibility to CD, but not to UC, was associated with homozygosity for a common haplotype, H2 (p(c)=0.002; relative risk (RR) 2.0). Genotype-phenotype analyses demonstrated that this association was particularly strong in patients with perianal disease (p(c)=0.0005; RR 1.7), especially in individuals homozygous for this haplotype (p(c)=0.0005; RR 3.0). Importantly, no association with H2 was found in 186 patients without perianal disease. No evidence of epistasis between IBD5 and NOD2/CARD15 was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS:The IBD5 risk haplotype is associated with CD only. Genotype-phenotype analysis reveals that the strongest association is observed in patients with perianal CD. While the precise gene involved is unclear, these data provide further molecular evidence for a genetic basis of the clinical heterogeneity of CD.
Project description:The caspase recruitment domain gene (CARD15) was recently identified as the underlying gene associated with the IBD1 locus that confers susceptibility to Crohn disease (CD). CARD15 is related to the NOD1/Apaf-1 family of apoptosis regulators, and three sequence variants (Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg, and Leu1007fsinsC) in the gene were demonstrated to be associated with CD. We collected a cohort of 231 patients with CD and 71 healthy control individuals from the Canadian province of Quebec, to determine the prevalence of these sequence variants in an independent population. Clinical records of all patients were systematically reviewed, and detailed phenotypic information was obtained. All patient DNA samples were genotyped for the three variants, thus enabling an analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations. In this cohort, 45.0% of patients with CD carried at least one variant in the CARD15 gene, compared with 9.0% of control individuals (P<10-7). Allele frequencies of Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg, and Leu1007fsinsC were 12.9%, 5.2%, and 10.3% in patients with CD, compared with 4.2%, 0.7%, and 0.7% in control individuals, respectively. Importantly, CARD15 mutants were seen with equal frequency in patients with familial and sporadic CD. Analysis of the relationship between genotype and phenotype convincingly demonstrates that CARD15 variants are significantly associated with ileal disease involvement, as opposed to strictly colonic disease (P<.001). Moreover, we were able to determine the haplotype structure surrounding this disease gene by genotyping 45 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a 177-kb region that contained the CARD15 gene. This structure helps clarify the history of these causal mutations. Finally, this analysis shows that CARD15 involvement with CD is detectable by use of publicly available SNPs alone.
Project description:The chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs)-Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)-are idiopathic, inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. These conditions have a peak incidence in early adulthood and a combined prevalence of approximately 100-200/100,000. Although the etiology of IBD is multifactorial, a significant genetic contribution to disease susceptibility is implied by epidemiological data revealing a sibling risk of approximately 35-fold for CD and approximately 15-fold for UC. To elucidate the genetic basis for these disorders, we undertook a genomewide scan in 158 Canadian sib-pair families and identified three regions of suggestive linkage (3p, 5q31-33, and 6p) and one region of significant linkage to 19p13 (LOD score 4.6). Higher-density mapping in the 5q31-q33 region revealed a locus of genomewide significance (LOD score 3.9) that contributes to CD susceptibility in families with early-onset disease. Both of these genomic regions contain numerous genes that are important to the immune and inflammatory systems and that provide good targets for future candidate-gene studies.
Project description:CARD15 is a major susceptibility gene for a frequent multifactorial chronic inflammatory bowel disorder, Crohn disease (CD). By using NF-kappaB activation assays, the cytosolic CARD15 was shown to efficiently detect bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN), reminiscent of the PGN recognition protein surveillance mechanism in Drosophila. The 3 CD-associated variants and 13 additional variants carried by CD patients demonstrated impaired PGN-dependent response revealing null, hypomorphic, or dominant-negative properties. Quantitative parametrization of this response, computed from the patients' CARD15 genotypes, was predictive of several variable CD manifestations. In contrast, CARD15 alleles associated with Blau's syndrome promoted PGN-independent NF-kappaB activation, an observation that accounts for the minimal microbial input in the etiology of this dominant, monogenic inflammatory disorder affecting solely aseptic sites.
Project description:AIM:To investigate the contribution of variants of CARD15, OCTN1/2 and DLG5 genes in disease predisposition and phenotypes in a large Italian cohort of pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). METHODS:Two hundred patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 186 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, 434 parents (217 trios), and 347 healthy controls (HC) were studied. Polymorphisms of the three major variants of CARD15, 1672C/T and -207G/C SNPs for OCTN genes, IGR2096a_1 and IGR2198a_1 SNPs for the IBD5 locus, and 113G/A variant of the DLG5 gene were evaluated. Potential correlations with clinical sub-phenotypes were investigated. RESULTS:Polymorphisms of CARD15 were significantly associated with CD, and at least one variant was found in 38% of patients (15% in HC, OR = 2.7, P < 0.001). Homozygosis for both OCTN1/2 variants was more common in CD patients (1672TT 24%, -207CC 29%) than in HC (16% and 21%, respectively; P = 0.03), with an increased frequency of the TC haplotype (44.8% vs 38.3% in HC, P = 0.04). No association with the DLG5 variant was found. CD carriers of OCTN1/2 and DLG5 variants more frequently had penetrating disease (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01), while carriers of CARD15 more frequently had ileal localization (P = 0.03). No gene-gene interaction was found. In UC patients, the TC haplotype was more frequent (45.4%, P = 0.03), but no genotype/phenotype correlation was observed. CONCLUSION:Polymorphisms of CARD15 and OCTN genes, but not DLG5 are associated with pediatric onset of CD. Polymorphisms of CARD15, OCTN, and DLG5 genes exert a weak influence on CD phenotype.
Project description:The IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) has been found to be associated with small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) in a whole genome association study. Specifically, the rare allele of the R381Q single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) conferred protection against CD. It is unknown whether IL-23R is associated with IBD in children. The aim was to examine the association of IL-23R with susceptibility to IBD in pediatric patients.DNA was collected from 609 subjects (151 CD and 52 ulcerative colitis [UC] trios). Trios were genotyped for the R381Q SNP of the IL-23R gene and SNP8, SNP12, SNP13, of the CARD15 gene using Taqman. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was used for association to disease using GENEHUNTER 2.0.The rare allele of R381Q SNP was present in 2.7% of CD and 2.9% UC probands. The CARD15 frequency was 31.5% (CD) and 18% (UC). The IL-23R allele was negatively associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): the R381Q SNP was undertransmitted in children with IBD (8 transmitted [T] versus 27 untransmitted [UT]; P = 0.001). This association was significant for all CD patients (6 T versus 19 UT; P = 0.009), especially for non-Jewish CD patients (2 T versus 17 UT; P = 0.0006). TDT showed a borderline association for UC (2 T versus 8 UT; P = 0.06). As expected, CARD15 was associated with CD in children by the TDT (58 T versus 22 UT P = 0.00006), but not with UC.The protective IL-23R R381Q variant was particularly associated with CD in non-Jewish children. Thus, the initial whole genome association study based on ileal CD in adults has been extended to the pediatric population and beyond small bowel CD.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent data suggest identification of causal genetic variants for inflammatory bowel disease in the DLG5 gene and in the organic cation transporter (OCTN) cluster, both situated in previously described linkage regions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The polymorphisms in DLG5 (113 G-->A, 4136 C-->A, and DLG5_e26), SLC22A4 (1672 C-->T), and SLC22A5 (-207 G-->C) were assessed in 625 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 363 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 1012 healthy controls. Association with disease susceptibility, clinical phenotypes, and possible genetic interactions of these polymorphisms with disease associated CARD15/NOD2 mutations was analysed. RESULTS: No significant association of DLG5 polymorphisms with CD or UC was observed. Homozygosity for the OCTN-TC haplotype was associated with an increased CD risk (OR = 1.65), which was even greater in the presence of CARD15 mutations. Genotype-phenotype analysis revealed that this association was particularly strong in patients with colonic disease. The TC haplotype was associated with non-fistulising non-fibrostenotic disease, an earlier age of disease onset, and reduced need for surgery. CONCLUSION: Our observations argue against a role of DLG5 polymorphisms in the susceptibility for inflammatory bowel disease, whereas the OCTN polymorphisms are associated with CD. However, due to the comparable weak association observed herein, extended linkage disequilibrium analyses of these variants with the IBD5 haplotype tagged single nucleotide polymorphims might be advisable before definitive conclusions about their causative role in CD can be drawn.