Evidence for a gene influencing serum bilirubin on chromosome 2q telomere: a genomewide scan in the Framingham study.
ABSTRACT: There is an inverse relationship between serum bilirubin concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease. The strength of the association is similar to that of smoking, systolic blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol. We carried out a genomewide scan in a Framingham Heart Study. Our study sample consisted of 330 families with 1,394 sibling pairs, 681 cousin pairs, and 89 avuncular pairs. Using variance-component methods, the heritability was estimated to be 49%+/-6%, and the genome scan demonstrated significant evidence of linkage of serum bilirubin to chromosome 2q, with a LOD score of 3.8 at location 243 cM. The peak multipoint LOD score is located 1 cM away from the uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase 1 (UGT1A1) gene. UGT1A1 catalyzes the conjugation of bilirubin with glucuronic acid and thus enhances bilirubin elimination; therefore, it is an important candidate gene for serum bilirubin. Gilbert syndrome, a hyperbilirubinemic syndrome, has a population frequency of 2%-19% and is mainly due to a TA insertion at the promoter region of UGT1A1. Only one other region in the genome produced a multipoint LOD score >1 (LOD = 1.3). Our findings suggest that UGT1A1 may be a major gene controlling serum bilirubin levels in the population.
Project description:To identify genetic variation influencing serum bilirubin levels in American Indians, we performed genome-wide screening and association analyses in the Strong Heart Family Study. Bilirubin is an endogenous antioxidant that has demonstrated an inverse relationship with cardiovascular disease. Genetic variation within the promoter region of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1) on chromosome 2q has been associated with elevated serum bilirubin levels in European populations. However, no study has investigated the UGT1A1 promoter in American Indians.Statistical analyses were carried out with 3,484 participants aged 14 to 93 years recruited from three geographic areas in the United States; Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota.Variance components linkage analysis detected a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for bilirubin on chromosome 2q in the combined centers (LOD = 6.61, P = 4.24 × 10??) and in Oklahoma (LOD = 5.65, P = 4.57 24 × 10??). Genetic association of the UGT1A1 promoter polymorphism was significant for all geographic locations. After adjustment using conditional linkage for UGT1A1 promoter variance, the linkage signal dropped to 1.10 in the combined sample and to 3.32 (P = 0.02) in Oklahoma, indicating this polymorphism is not completely responsible for the linkage signal in American Indians. We also detected suggestive linkage signals in the Dakotas on chromosome 10p12 (LOD = 2.18) and in the combined centers (LOD = 2.24) on chromosome 10q21.Replication of a serum bilirubin QTL on chromosome 2q in American Indians implicates UGT1A1 but further genotyping is warranted to identify additional causative polymorphisms. Evidence also supports a potential novel locus for bilirubin on chromosome 10.
Project description:Between 40% and 80% of the variation in human intelligence (IQ) is attributable to genetic factors. Except for many rare mutations resulting in severe cognitive dysfunction, attempts to identify these factors have not been successful. We report a genomewide linkage scan involving 634 sibling pairs designed to identify chromosomal regions that explain variation in IQ. Model-free multipoint linkage analysis revealed evidence of a significant quantitative-trait locus for performance IQ at 2q24.1-31.1 (LOD score 4.42), which overlaps the 2q21-33 region that has repeatedly shown linkage to autism. A second region revealed suggestive linkage for both full-scale and verbal IQs on 6p25.3-22.3 (LOD score 3.20 for full-scale IQ and 2.33 for verbal IQ), overlapping marginally with the 6p22.3-21.31 region implicated in reading disability and dyslexia.
Project description:Autism is characterized by impairments in reciprocal communication and social interaction and by repetitive and stereotyped patterns of activities and interests. Evidence for a strong underlying genetic predisposition comes from twin and family studies, although susceptibility genes have not yet been identified. A whole-genome screen for linkage, using 83 sib pairs with autism, has been completed, and 119 markers have been genotyped in 13 candidate regions in a further 69 sib pairs. The addition of new families and markers provides further support for previous reports of linkages on chromosomes 7q and 16p. Two new regions of linkage have also been identified on chromosomes 2q and 17q. The most significant finding was a multipoint maximum LOD score (MLS) of 3.74 at marker D2S2188 on chromosome 2; this MLS increased to 4.80 when only sib pairs fulfilling strict diagnostic criteria were included. The susceptibility region on chromosome 7 was the next most significant, generating a multipoint MLS of 3.20 at marker D7S477. Chromosome 16 generated a multipoint MLS of 2.93 at D16S3102, whereas chromosome 17 generated a multipoint MLS of 2.34 at HTTINT2. With the addition of new families, there was no increased allele sharing at a number of other loci originally showing some evidence of linkage. These results support the continuing collection of multiplex sib-pair families to identify autism-susceptibility genes.
Project description:We report the results of a genomewide scan for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 158 multiplex families. AMD classification was based on fundus photography and was assigned a grade ranging from 1 (no disease) to 5 (exudative disease). Genotyping was performed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Mammalian Genotyping Service at Marshfield (404 short tandem repeat markers). The sample included 158 families with two or more siblings with AMD, 490 affected individuals, 101 unaffected individuals, and 38 whose affection status was unknown. Relative pairs included 511 affected sibling, 28 avuncular, 53 cousin, 7 grandparent-grandchild, and 9 grand-avuncular pairs. Two-point parametric and multipoint parametric and nonparametric analyses were performed. Maximum two-point LOD scores of 1.0-2.0 were found for markers on chromosomes 1, 2, 8, 10, 14, 15, and 22. Multipoint analyses were consistent with the two-point results for chromosomes 1, 2, 8, 10, and 22 and provided evidence for additional linkage regions on chromosomes 3, 6, 8, 12, 16, and X. Our signals on chromosomes 1q, 6p, and 10q are consistent with some other previously published results. Significant linkage to AMD was found for one marker on chromosome 2, two adjacent markers on chromosome 3, two adjacent markers on chromosome 6, and seven contiguous markers on chromosome 8, with empirical P values of .00001. The consistency of many of the other signals across both two-point and multipoint, as well as parametric and nonparametric, analyses indicate several other regions worthy of follow-up.
Project description:Neurotoxic bilirubin is solely conjugated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1. Due to an inadequate function of UGT1A1, human neonates develop mild to severe physiological hyperbilirubinemia. Accumulation of bilirubin in the brain leads to the onset of irreversible brain damage called kernicterus. Breastfeeding is one of the most significant factors that increase the risk of developing kernicterus in infants. Why does the most natural way of feeding increase the risk of brain damage or even death? This question leads to the hypothesis that breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia might bring certain benefits to the body. One of the barriers to answering the above question is the lack of animal models that display mild to severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. A mouse model that develops neonatal hyperbilirubinemia was previously developed by a knockout of the Ugt1 locus. Deletion of Ugt1a1 results in neonatal lethality from bilirubin neurotoxicity. Bilirubin is the end product of heme catabolism in which heme oxygenase-I is largely involved. When zinc protoporphyrin, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase I, was administered to newborn Ugt1-/- mice, serum bilirubin levels dropped dramatically, rescuing the mice from bilirubin-induced neonatal lethality. Zinc protoporphyrin-treated Ugt1-/- mice developed normally as adults capable of reproducing, but their newborns showed even more severe hyperbilirubinemia. Microarray analysis of the hyperbilirubinemic livers indicated that a number of genes associated with nucleotide, transport, and immune response were significantly down-regulated in a serum bilirubin level-dependent manner. Conclusion: Our study provides an opportunity to advance the development of effective therapeutics to effectively and rapidly prevent bilirubin-induced toxicity. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia has various impacts on the body that could be driven by the antioxidant property of bilirubin.
Project description:To date, the genetic risk factors for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia remain unknown in Southeastern China. This case-control study aimed to identify the genetic risk factors for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Fujian, Southeastern China. A total of 286 hyperbilirubinemic newborns were enrolled as a case group, and 250 randomly selected newborns without jaundice or with a bilirubin level that was lower than the threshold required for phototherapy served as controls. The serum levels of total bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, and direct bilirubin were measured, and the common genetic loci in UGT1A1, OATP1B1, and HO-1 genes were genotyped. Higher incidence of ABO incompatibility and G6PD deficiency was detected in the case group compared to the control group (P < 0.01). There were significant differences in the frequencies of rs4148323 and rs1805173 genotypes between the case and control groups (P < 0.05). At the rs4148323 locus, the frequencies of GA heterozygotes and AA mutant homozygotes were higher in the case group than in the control group (P < 0.05), and at the rs1805173 locus, the frequencies of LS, MS, and SS genotypes were higher in the case group than in the control group (P < 0.05). A higher frequency of rs4148323 A allele and rs1805173 S allele was detected in the case group compared to the control group (P = 0). Additionally, multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that the mutant genotype of rs4148323 in the UGT1A1 gene, ABO incompatibility, G6PD deficiency, and SS genotype at rs1805173 locus of the HO-1 gene were genetic risk factors of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Our data demonstrate that G211 mutation in the UGT1A1 gene, ABO incompatibility, G6PD deficiency, and the SS genotype of the repeats in the promoter region of the HO-1 gene are risk factors for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Fujian, Southeastern China.
Project description:Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-mediated endocytosis has been used to target genes to hepatocytes in vivo. However, the level and duration of transgene expression have been low because of lysosomal translocation and degradation of the DNA and lack of its integration into the host genome. In this study we packaged the DNA of interest in proteoliposomes containing the fusogenic galactose-terminated F-glycoprotein of the Sendai virus (FPL) for targeted delivery to hepatocytes. After the FPL binds to ASGPR on the hepatocyte surface, fusogenic activity of the F-protein delivers the DNA into the cytosol, bypassing the endosomal pathway. For transgene integration we designed plasmids containing one transcription unit expressing the Sleeping Beauty transposase (SB) and another expressing human uridinediphosphoglucuronate glucuronosyltransferase-1A1 (pSB-hUGT1A1). The latter was flanked by inverted/direct repeats that are substrates of SB. In cell culture, FPL-mediated delivery of the E. coli beta-galactosidase gene (LacZ) resulted in transduction of ASGPR-positive cells (rat hepatocytes or Hepa1 cell line), but not of ASGPR-negative 293 cells. Intravenous injection of the FPL-entrapped pSB-hUGT1A1 (4-8 microg/day, 1-4 doses) into UGT1A1-deficient hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats (model of Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 1) resulted in hUGT1A1 expression in 5%-10% of hepatocytes, but not in other cell types. Serum bilirubin levels declined by 30% +/- 4% in 2 weeks and remained at that level throughout the 7-month study duration. With histidine containing FPL, serum bilirubin was reduced by 40% +/- 5%, and bilirubin glucuronides were excreted into bile. No antibodies were detectable in the recipient rats against the F-protein or human UGT1A1.FPL is an efficient hepatocyte-targeted gene delivery platform in vivo that warrants further exploration toward clinical application.
Project description:To evaluate the role of bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase family 1, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1) gene variations on prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia associated with breast milk feeding (breast milk jaundice [BMJ]).UGT1A1 gene allelic variation was analyzed in 170 Japanese infants with BMJ with polymerase chain reaction-direct sequencing, and their genotypes compared with serum bilirubin concentrations. In 62 of 170 infants, serum bilirubin concentration was followed after 4 months of life. Genotypes were examined in 55 infants without BMJ.Of 170 infants with BMJ, 88 (51.8%) were homozygous UGT1A1*6. Serum bilirubin concentrations (21.8 ± 3.65 mg/dL) were significantly greater than in infants with other genotypes (P < .0001). The Gilbert UGT1A1*28 allele was not detected in infants with BMJ, except in an infant who was compound heterozygous with UGT1A1*6. At 4 months of age, serum bilirubin concentration improved to >1 mg/dL, except in 2 infants who were homozygous UGT1A1*7. Homozygous UGT1A1*6 was not detected in the control group.One-half of the infants with BMJ were homozygous UGT1A1*6 and exhibited a serum bilirubin concentration significantly greater than other genotypes. This finding indicates that UGT1A1*6 is a major cause of BMJ in infants in East Asia. Previous finding have demonstrated that 5?-pregnane-3?,20?-diol present in breast milk inhibits p.G71R-UGT1A1 bilirubin glucuronidation activity. Thus, prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia may develop in infants with UGT1A1*6 who are fed breast milk.
Project description:Low bilirubin levels are significantly associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In previous genome-wide linkage studies we identified a major locus on chromosome 2q harboring the candidate gene UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1). The activity of this enzyme is significantly influenced by a TA-repeat polymorphism in the promoter of the gene. In a prospective study individuals with genotype (TA)7/(TA)7 had significantly higher bilirubin levels and approximately one-third the risk of CVD as carriers of the wildtype (TA)6 allele. In the present study we performed a conditional linkage study to investigate whether this polymorphism explains the observed linkage peak and extended our analysis by a genome-wide association study on bilirubin levels in 1345 individuals.After adjustment for the bilirubin variance explained by this polymorphism, the LOD score on chromosome 2q dropped from 3.8 to 0.4, demonstrating that this polymorphism explains the previous linkage result. For the genome-wide association study, the closest marker to UGT1A1 was in the top ranking SNPs. The association became even stronger when we considered the TA-repeat polymorphism in the analysis (p=2.68 x 10(-53)). Five other SNPs in other regions reached genome-wide significance without obvious connection to bilirubin metabolism.Our studies suggest that UGT1A1 may be the major gene with strong effects on bilirubin levels and the TA-repeat polymorphism might be the key polymorphism within the gene controlling bilirubin levels. Since this polymorphism has a high frequency and a substantial impact on the development of CVD, the gene might be an important drug target.
Project description:A retrospective case control study of breast-fed full-term infants was carried out to determine whether variants in Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronosyl Transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and Heme Oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) were associated with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Eight genetic variants of UGT1A1 and 3 genetic variants of HMOX1 were genotyped in 170 hyperbilirubinemic newborns and 779 controls. Five significant associations with breast-fed hyperbilirubinemia were detected after adjusting for gender, birth season, birth weight, delivery mode, gestational age and False Discovery Rate (FDR) correction: the dominant effect of rs887829 (c-364t) (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.55; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.34-0.89; p?=?0.014), the additive effect of (TA)n repeat (OR: 0.59; 95%CI: 0.38-0.91; p?=?0.017), the dominant effect of rs4148323 (Gly71Arg, G211A) (OR: 2.02; 95%CI: 1.44-2.85; p?=?5.0×10-5), the recessive effect of rs6717546 (g+914a) (OR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.11-0.83; p?=?0.021) and rs6719561 (t+2558c) (OR: 0.38; 95%CI: 0.20-0.75; p?=?0.005). Neonates carrying the minor allele of rs887829 (TA)n repeat had significantly lower peak bilirubin than wild types, while the minor allele carriers of rs4148323 had significantly higher peak bilirubin than wild types. No association was found in HMOX1. Our findings added to the understanding of the significance of UGT1A1 in association with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in East Asian population. Additional studies were required to investigate the mechanisms of the protective effects.