RP2 and RPGR mutations and clinical correlations in patients with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa.
ABSTRACT: We determined the mutation spectrum of the RP2 and RPGR genes in patients with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) and searched for correlations between categories of mutation and severity of disease. We screened 187 unrelated male patients for mutations, including 135 with a prior clinical diagnosis of XLRP, 11 with probable XLRP, 30 isolate cases suspected of having XLRP, and 11 with cone-rod degeneration. Mutation screening was performed by single-strand conformation analysis and by sequencing of all RP2 exons and RPGR exons 1-14, ORF15, and 15a. The refractive error, visual acuity, final dark-adapted threshold, visual field area, and 30-Hz cone electroretinogram (ERG) amplitude were measured in each patient. Among the 187 patients, we found 10 mutations in RP2, 2 of which are novel, and 80 mutations in RPGR, 41 of which are novel; 66% of the RPGR mutations were within ORF15. Among the 135 with a prior clinical diagnosis of XLRP, mutations in the RP2 and RPGR genes were found in 9 of 135 (6.7%) and 98 of 135 (72.6%), respectively, for a total of 79% of patients. Patients with RP2 mutations had, on average, lower visual acuity but similar visual field area, final dark-adapted threshold, and 30-Hz ERG amplitude compared with those with RPGR mutations. Among patients with RPGR mutations, those with ORF15 mutations had, on average, a significantly larger visual field area and a borderline larger ERG amplitude than did patients with RPGR mutations in exons 1-14. Among patients with ORF15 mutations, regression analyses showed that the final dark-adapted threshold became lower (i.e., closer to normal) and that the 30-Hz ERG amplitude increased as the length of the wild-type ORF15 amino acid sequence increased. Furthermore, as the length of the abnormal amino acid sequence following ORF15 frameshift mutations increased, the severity of disease increased.
Project description:X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is a type of severe retinal dystrophy, and female carriers of XLRP demonstrate markedly variable clinical severity. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the clinical findings of male patients with and female carriers of XLRP in a Japanese cohort and demonstrate the genetic contribution. Twelve unrelated families (13 male patients, 15 female carriers) harboring pathogenic mutations in RPGR or RP2 were included, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations were performed. To identify potential pathogenic mutations, targeted next-generation sequencing was employed. Consequently, we identified 11 pathogenic mutations, of which five were novel. Six and five mutations were detected in RPGR and RP2, respectively. Only one mutation was detected in ORF15. Affected male patients with RP2 mutations tended to have lower visual function than those with RPGR mutations. Female carriers demonstrated varying visual acuities and visual fields. Among the female carriers, 92% had electroretinographical abnormalities and 63% had a radial autofluorescent pattern, and the carriers who had higher myopia showed worse visual acuity and more severe retinal degeneration. Our results expand the knowledge of the clinical phenotypes of male patients with and female carriers of XLRP and suggest the possibility that RP2 mutations are relatively highly prevalent in Japan.
Project description:X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous degenerative disease of the retina. At least five loci have been mapped for XLRP; of these, RP2 and RP3 account for 10%-20% and 70%-90% of genetically identifiable disease, respectively. However, mutations in the respective genes, RP2 and RPGR, were detected in only 10% and 20% of families with XLRP. Mutations in an alternatively spliced RPGR exon, ORF15, have recently been shown to account for 60% of XLRP in a European cohort of 47 families. We have performed, in a North American cohort of 234 families with RP, a comprehensive screen of the RP2 and RPGR (including ORF15) genes and their 5' upstream regions. Of these families, 91 (39%) show definitive X-linked inheritance, an additional 88 (38%) reveal a pattern consistent with X-linked disease, and the remaining 55 (23%) are simplex male patients with RP who had an early onset and/or severe disease. In agreement with the previous studies, we show that mutations in the RP2 gene and in the original 19 RPGR exons are detected in <10% and approximately 20% of XLRP probands, respectively. Our studies have revealed RPGR-ORF15 mutations in an additional 30% of 91 well-documented families with X-linked recessive inheritance and in 22% of the total 234 probands analyzed. We suggest that mutations in an as-yet-uncharacterized RPGR exon(s), intronic changes, or another gene in the region might be responsible for the disease in the remainder of this North American cohort. We also discuss the implications of our studies for genetic diagnosis, genotype-phenotype correlations, and gene-based therapy.
Project description:Mutations in RP2 and RPGR genes are responsible for the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP). In this study, we analyzed the RP2 and RPGR gene mutations in five Han Chinese families with XLRP. An approximately 17Kb large deletion including the exon 4 and exon 5 of RP2 gene was found in an XLRP family. In addition, four frameshift mutations including three novel mutations of c.1059 + 1 G > T, c.2002dupC and c.2236_2237del CT, as well as a previously reported mutation of c.2899delG were detected in the RPGR gene in the other four families. Our study further expands the mutation spectrum of RP2 and RPGR, and will be helpful for further study molecular pathogenesis of XLRP.
Project description:PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to identify mutations in X-chromosomal genes associated with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in patients from Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark, and Switzerland. METHODS: In addition to all coding exons of RP2, exons 1 through 15, 9a, ORF15, 15a and 15b of RPGR were screened for mutations. PCR products were amplified from genomic DNA extracted from blood samples and analyzed by direct sequencing. In one family with apparently dominant inheritance of RP, linkage analysis identified an interval on the X chromosome containing RPGR, and mutation screening revealed a pathogenic variant in this gene. Patients of this family were examined clinically and by X-inactivation studies. RESULTS: This study included 141 RP families with possible X-chromosomal inheritance. In total, we identified 46 families with pathogenic sequence alterations in RPGR and RP2, of which 17 mutations have not been described previously. Two of the novel mutations represent the most 3'-terminal pathogenic sequence variants in RPGR and RP2 reported to date. In exon ORF15 of RPGR, we found eight novel and 14 known mutations. All lead to a disruption of open reading frame. Of the families with suggested X-chromosomal inheritance, 35% showed mutations in ORF15. In addition, we found five novel mutations in other exons of RPGR and four in RP2. Deletions in ORF15 of RPGR were identified in three families in which female carriers showed variable manifestation of the phenotype. Furthermore, an ORF15 mutation was found in an RP patient who additionally carries a 6.4 kbp deletion downstream of the coding region of exon ORF15. We did not identify mutations in 39 sporadic male cases from Switzerland. CONCLUSIONS: RPGR mutations were confirmed to be the most frequent cause of RP in families with an X-chromosomal inheritance pattern. We propose a screening strategy to provide molecular diagnostics in these families.
Project description:Mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene account for >70% of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) and 15-20% of all inherited retinal degeneration. Gene replacement therapy for RPGR-XLRP was hampered by the relatively slow disease progression in mouse models and by difficulties in cloning the full-length RPGR-ORF15 cDNA that includes a purine-rich 3'-coding region; however, its effectiveness has recently been demonstrated in four dogs with RPGR mutations. To advance the therapy to clinical stage, we generated new stable vectors in AAV8 or AAV9 carrying mouse and human full-length RPGR-ORF15-coding sequence and conducted a comprehensive long-term dose-efficacy study in Rpgr-knockout mice. After validating their ability to produce full-length proteins that localize to photoreceptor connecting cilia, we evaluated various vector doses in mice during a 2-year study. We demonstrate that eyes treated with a single injection of mouse or human RPGR-ORF15 vector at an optimal dose maintained the expression of RPGR-ORF15 throughout the study duration and exhibited higher electroretinogram amplitude, thicker photoreceptor layer and better targeting of opsins to outer segments compared with sham-treated eyes. Furthermore, mice that received treatment at an advanced age also showed remarkable preservation of retinal structure and function. Retinal toxicity was observed at high vector doses, highlighting the importance of careful dose optimization in future clinical experiments. Our long-term dose-efficacy study should facilitate the design of human trials with human RPGR-ORF15 vector as a clinical candidate.
Project description:Animal models of human disease are an invaluable component of studies aimed at understanding disease pathogenesis and therapeutic possibilities. Mutations in the gene encoding retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) are the most common cause of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) and are estimated to cause 20% of all retinal dystrophy cases. A majority of RPGR mutations are present in ORF15, the purine-rich terminal exon of the predominant splice-variant expressed in retina. Here we describe the genetic and phenotypic characterization of the retinal degeneration 9 (Rd9) strain of mice, a naturally occurring animal model of XLRP. Rd9 mice were found to carry a 32-base-pair duplication within ORF15 that causes a shift in the reading frame that introduces a premature-stop codon. Rpgr ORF15 transcripts, but not protein, were detected in retinas from Rd9/Y male mice that exhibited retinal pathology, including pigment loss and slowly progressing decrease in outer nuclear layer thickness. The levels of rhodopsin and transducin in rod outer segments were also decreased, and M-cone opsin appeared mislocalized within cone photoreceptors. In addition, electroretinogram (ERG) a- and b-wave amplitudes of both Rd9/Y male and Rd9/Rd9 female mice showed moderate gradual reduction that continued to 24 months of age. The presence of multiple retinal features that correlate with findings in individuals with XLRP identifies Rd9 as a valuable model for use in gaining insight into ORF15-associated disease progression and pathogenesis, as well as accelerating the development and testing of therapeutic strategies for this common form of retinal dystrophy.
Project description:Retinal neurodegenerative diseases are especially attractive targets for gene replacement therapy, which appears to be clinically effective for several monogenic diseases. X-linked forms of retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) are relatively severe blinding disorders, resulting from progressive photoreceptor dysfunction primarily caused by mutations in RPGR or RP2 gene. With a goal to develop gene therapy for the XLRP-RP2 disease, we first performed detailed characterization of the Rp2-knockout (Rp2-KO) mice and observed early-onset cone dysfunction, which was followed by progressive cone degeneration, mimicking cone vision impairment in XLRP patients. The mice also exhibited distinct and significantly delayed falling phase of photopic b-wave of electroretinogram (ERG). Concurrently, we generated a self-complementary adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector carrying human RP2-coding sequence and demonstrated its ability to mediate stable RP2 protein expression in mouse photoreceptors. A long-term efficacy study was then conducted in Rp2-KO mice following AAV-RP2 vector administration. Preservation of cone function was achieved with a wide dose range over 18-month duration, as evidenced by photopic ERG and optomotor tests. The slower b-wave kinetics was also completely restored. Morphologically, the treatment preserved cone viability, corrected mis-trafficking of M-cone opsin and restored cone PDE6 expression. The therapeutic effect was achieved even in mice that received treatment at an advanced disease stage. The highest AAV-RP2 dose group demonstrated retinal toxicity, highlighting the importance of careful vector dosing in designing future human trials. The wide range of effective dose, a broad treatment window and long-lasting therapeutic effects should make the RP2 gene therapy attractive for clinical development.
Project description:X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is the least common genetic type of retinitis pigmentosa; however, it has extremely devastating consequences to patients' activities of daily living. RPGR and RP2 genes expressed in the photoreceptor sensory cilia are predominantly implicated in XLRP; however, the interpretation of genetic mutations and their correlation with clinical phenotypes remain unknown, and the role of these genes in photoreceptor cilia function is not completely elucidated. Therefore, we evaluated structural characteristics in five female obligate carriers of XLRP by using state-of-the-art non-invasive imaging methods, including adaptive optics (AO) scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO). In all five carriers examined, qualitative and quantitative analyses by AO SLO imaging revealed a mosaic pattern of cone disruption, even in the absence of visual symptoms, normal visual acuity and normal macular thickness, on optical coherence tomography and mildly subnormal full-field cone electroretinographic findings. As the technique is sensitive to the level of a single cone, the ability to visualize the cone cells in vivo should be especially useful in other retinal diseases. In addition, further investigation of XLRP carriers may yield insight into how cone structures change over time and ultimately enable understanding of the role of RPGR and RP2 in cone cell survival.
Project description:X-linked Retinitis Pigmentosa (XLRP) accounts for 10-20% of all RP cases, and represents the most severe subtype of this disease. Mutations in the Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator (RPGR) gene are the most common causes of XLRP, accounting for over 70-75% of all XLRP cases. In this work, we analyzed all the exons of RPGR gene with Sanger sequencing in seven Chinese XLRP families, two of these with a provisional diagnosis of adRP but without male-to-male transmission. Three novel deletions (c.2233_34delAG; c.2236_37delGA and c.2403_04delAG) and two known nonsense mutations (c.851C?G and c.2260G?T) were identified in five families. Two novel deletions (c.2233_34delAG and c.2236_37delGA) resulted in the same frame shift (p.E746RfsX22), created similar phenotype in Family 3 and 4. The novel deletion (c.2403_04delAG; p.E802GfsX31) resulted in both XLRP and x-linked cone-rod dystrophy within the male patients of family 5, which suggested the presence of either genetic or environmental modifiers, or both, play a substantial role in disease expression. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis suggested that (1) both patients and female carriers with mutation in Exon 8 (Family 1) manifest more severe disease than did those with ORF15 mutations (Family 2&3&4); (2) mutation close to downstream of ORF15 (Family 5) demonstrate the early preferential loss of cone function with moderate loss of rod function.
Project description:PURPOSE: To describe the genotype-phenotype correlation and serial observations in a five-generation Czech family with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) associated with severe visual impairment in women. METHODS: Comprehensive ophthalmological examination including spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was performed. Based on the pedigree structure and women being severely affected, autosomal dominant inheritance was suspected, and screening for known mutations by genotyping microarray was performed. Subsequently, direct sequencing of ORF15 RPGR was undertaken. RESULTS: Eighteen family members (nine women and nine men) were examined. A pathogenic variant, c.2543del in ORF15 of RPGR, was found to segregate with disease. The oldest woman and her two sisters had no perception of light in their sixth decade. Four women and five men had signs and symptoms of typical XLRP, including moderate to high myopia. Three other women also had moderate to high myopia and myopic astigmatism but without the presence of bone spicule-like formation. Severe disruption of macular architecture on SD-OCT was equally common in both sexes. Only one 32-year-old female carrier had clinically normal findings. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was decreased in all affected men and in all female carriers, except the only carrier with a normal fundus examination. CONCLUSIONS: The c.2543del mutation in ORF15 of RPGR is associated with a severe phenotype in the women in this family. The presence of a significant myopic refractive error, in the absence of male-to-male transmission, may be indicative of X-linked inheritance. Measurements of choroidal thickness may help in clinically identifying carrier status.