Loss of CpG methylation is strongly correlated with loss of histone H3 lysine 9 methylation at DMR-LIT1 in patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
ABSTRACT: To clarify the chromatin-based imprinting mechanism of the p57(KIP2)/LIT1 subdomain at chromosome 11p15.5 and the mouse ortholog at chromosome 7F5, we investigated the histone-modification status at a differentially CpG methylated region of Lit1/LIT1 (DMR-Lit1/LIT1), which is an imprinting control region for the subdomain and is demethylated in half of patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Chromatin-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that, in both species, DMR-Lit1/LIT1 with the CpG-methylated, maternally derived inactive allele showed histone H3 Lys9 methylation, whereas the CpG-unmethylated, paternally active allele was acetylated on histone H3/H4 and methylated on H3 Lys4. We have also investigated the relationship between CpG methylation and histone H3 Lys9 methylation at DMR-LIT1 in patients with BWS. In a normal individual and in patients with BWS with normal DMR-LIT1 methylation, histone H3 Lys9 methylation was detected on the maternal allele; however, it disappeared completely in the patients with the DMR-LIT1 imprinting defect. These findings suggest that the histone-modification status at DMR-Lit1/LIT1 plays an important role in imprinting control within the subdomain and that loss of histone H3 Lys9 methylation, together with CpG demethylation on the maternal allele, may lead to the BWS phenotype.
Project description:Mouse chromosome 7F4/F5, where the imprinting domain is located, is syntenic to human 11p15.5, the locus for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The domain is thought to consist of the two subdomains Kip2 (p57(kip2))/Lit1 and Igf2/H19. Because DNA methylation is believed to be a key factor in genomic imprinting, we performed large-scale DNA methylation analysis to identify the cis-element crucial for the regulation of the Kip2/Lit1 subdomain. Ten CpG islands (CGIs) were found, and these were located at the promoter sites, upstream of genes, and within intergenic regions. Bisulphite sequencing revealed that CGIs 4, 5, 8, and 10 were differentially methylated regions (DMRs). CGIs 4, 5, and 10 were methylated paternally in somatic tissues but not in germ cells. CGI8 was methylated in oocyte and maternally in somatic tissues during development. Parental-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites (HSSs) were found near CGI8. These data indicate that CGI8, called DMR-Lit1, is not only the region for gametic methylation but might also be the imprinting control region (ICR) of the subdomain.
Project description:Genomic imprinting plays a fundamental role in cancer and some hereditary diseases, including Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), a disorder of prenatal overgrowth and predisposition to embryonal malignancies such as Wilms tumor. We have previously shown that the KVLQT1 gene on chromosomal band 11p15 is imprinted, with expression of the maternal allele, and that the maternal allele is disrupted in rare BWS patients with balanced germ-line chromosomal rearrangements. We now show that an antisense orientation transcript within KVLQT1, termed LIT1 (long QT intronic transcript 1) is expressed normally from the paternal allele, from which KVLQT1 transcription is silent, and that in the majority of patients with BWS, LIT1 is abnormally expressed from both the paternal and maternal alleles. Eight of sixteen informative BWS patients (50%) showed biallelic expression, i.e., loss of imprinting (LOI) of LIT1. Similarly, 21 of 36 (58%) BWS patients showed loss of maternal allele-specific methylation of a CpG island upstream of LIT1. Surprisingly, LOI of LIT1 was not linked to LOI of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2), which was found in 2 of 10 (20%) BWS patients, even though LOI of IGF2 occurs frequently in Wilms and other tumors, and in some patients with BWS. Thus, LOI of LIT1 is the most common genetic alteration in BWS. We propose that 11p15 harbors two imprinted gene domains-a more centromeric domain including KVLQT1 and p57(KIP2), alterations in which are more common in BWS, and a more telomeric domain including IGF2, alterations in which are more common in cancer.
Project description:Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS; OMIM #130650) is an imprinting disorder caused by genetic or epigenetic alterations of one or both imprinting control regions on chromosome 11p15.5. Hypomethylation of the centromeric imprinting control region (KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR, ICR2) is the most common molecular cause of BWS and is present in about half of the cases. Based on a BWS family with a maternal deletion of the 5' part of KCNQ1 we have recently hypothesised that transcription of KCNQ1 is a prerequisite for the establishment of methylation at the KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR in the oocyte. Further evidence for this hypothesis came from a mouse model where methylation failed to be established when a poly(A) truncation cassette was inserted into this locus to prevent transcription through the DMR. Here we report on a family where a balanced translocation disrupts the KCNQ1 gene in intron 9. Maternal inheritance of this translocation is associated with hypomethylation of the KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR and BWS. This finding strongly supports our previous hypothesis that transcription of KCNQ1 is required for establishing the maternal methylation imprint at the KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR.
Project description:The relationship between DNA methylation and histone acetylation at the imprinted mouse genes U2af1-rs1 and Snrpn is explored by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and resolution of parental alleles using single-strand conformational polymorphisms. The U2af1-rs1 gene lies within a differentially methylated region (DMR), while Snrpn has a 5' DMR (DMR1) with sequences homologous to the imprinting control center of the Prader-Willi/Angelman region. For both DMR1 of Snrpn and the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) and 3'-UTR of U2af1-rs1, the methylated and nonexpressed maternal allele was underacetylated, relative to the paternal allele, at all H3 lysines tested (K14, K9, and K18). For H4, underacetylation of the maternal allele was exclusively (U2af1-rs1) or predominantly (Snrpn) at lysine 5. Essentially the same patterns of differential acetylation were found in embryonic stem (ES) cells, embryo fibroblasts, and adult liver from F1 mice and in ES cells from mice that were dipaternal or dimaternal for U2af1-rs1. In contrast, in a region within Snrpn that has biallelic methylation in the cells and tissues analyzed, the paternal (expressed) allele showed relatively increased acetylation of H4 but not of H3. The methyl-CpG-binding-domain (MBD) protein MeCP2 was found, by ChIP, to be associated exclusively with the maternal U2af1-rs1 allele. To ask whether DNA methylation is associated with histone deacetylation, we produced mice with transgene-induced methylation at the paternal allele of U2af1-rs1. In these mice, H3 was underacetylated across both the parental U2af1-rs1 alleles whereas H4 acetylation was unaltered. Collectively, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that CpG methylation leads to deacetylation of histone H3, but not H4, through a process that involves selective binding of MBD proteins.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an imprinting disorder with a population frequency of approximately 1 in 10,000. The most common epigenetic defect in BWS is a loss of methylation (LOM) at the 11p15.5 imprinting centre, KCNQ1OT1 TSS-DMR, and affects 50% of cases. We hypothesised that genetic factors linked to folate metabolism may play a role in BWS predisposition via effects on methylation maintenance at KCNQ1OT1 TSS-DMR. RESULTS:Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the folate pathway affecting methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (MTR), cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) and methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT1A) were examined in 55 BWS patients with KCNQ1OT1 TSS-DMR LOM and in 100 unaffected cases. MTHFR rs1801133: C>T was more prevalent in BWS with KCNQ1OT1 TSS-DMR LOM (p?<?0.017); however, the relationship was not significant when the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was applied (significance, p?=?0.0036). None of the remaining 13 SNVs were significantly different in the two populations tested. The DNMT1 locus was screened in 53 BWS cases, and three rare missense variants were identified in each of three patients: rs138841970: C>T, rs150331990: A>G and rs757460628: G>A encoding NP_001124295 p.Arg136Cys, p.His1118Arg and p.Arg1223His, respectively. These variants have population frequencies of less than 1 in 1000 and were absent from 100 control cases. Functional characterization using a hemimethylated DNA trapping assay revealed a reduced methyltransferase activity relative to wild-type DNMT1 for each variant ranging from 40 to 70% reduction in activity. CONCLUSIONS:This study is the first to examine folate pathway genetics in BWS and to identify rare DNMT1 missense variants in affected individuals. Our data suggests that reduced DNMT1 activity could affect maintenance of methylation at KCNQ1OT1 TSS-DMR in some cases of BWS, possibly via a maternal effect in the early embryo. Larger cohort studies are warranted to further interrogate the relationship between impaired MTHFR enzymatic activity attributable to MTHFR rs1801133: C>T, dietary folate intake and BWS.
Project description:Epigenetic alterations, such as histone methylations, affect the pathogenesis of tumors including prostate cancer (PCa). Previously, we reported that metformin reduced SUV39H1, a histone methyltransferase of H3 Lys9, to inhibit the migration of PCa cells. Since histone methylation is functionally linked to DNA methylation, we speculate that the knockout of the SUV39H1 gene will affect the genomic DNA methylation profile to regulate PCa cell migration and invasion. The genome-wide DNA methylation level is lower in SUV39H1 knockout (KO) cells than wild-type (WT) ones. However, the methylation levels in functional regions of CpG Islands (CGI), 5' untranslated region (UTR5), and exon regions are higher in KO cells than WT cells. Analysis of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) identified 1241 DMR genes that have differential methylation on CG sites when comparing the KO and WT samples. Gene ontology enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathways analysis showed that knockout of SUV39H1 affects gene sets and pathways that are heavily involved in cell shapes, cell recognition, adhesion, motility, and migration. Our study suggests that SUV39H1 plays an important role in PCa migration via the epigenetic regulation of methylation on CG sites, and is a novel and legitimate target to inhibit PCa cell migration.
Project description:Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), which causes prenatal overgrowth, midline abdominal wall defects, macroglossia, and embryonal tumors, is a model for understanding the relationship between genomic imprinting, human development, and cancer. The causes are heterogeneous, involving multiple genes on 11p15 and including infrequent mutation of p57(KIP2) or loss of imprinting of either of two imprinted gene domains on 11p15: LIT1, which is near p57(KIP2), or H19/IGF2. Unlike Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, no chromosomal deletions have yet been identified. Here we report a microdeletion including the entire LIT1 gene, providing genetic confirmation of the importance of this gene region in BWS. When inherited maternally, the deletion causes BWS with silencing of p57(KIP2), indicating deletion of an element important for the regulation of p57(KIP2) expression. When inherited paternally, there is no phenotype, suggesting that the LIT1 RNA itself is not necessary for normal development in humans.
Project description:Genomic imprinting in mammals is controlled by DNA methylation imprints that are acquired in the gametes, at essential sequence elements called 'imprinting control regions' (ICRs). What signals paternal imprint acquisition in male germ cells remains unknown. To address this question, we explored histone methylation at ICRs in mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs). By 13.5 days post coitum (d.p.c.), H3 lysine-9 and H4 lysine-20 trimethylation are depleted from ICRs in male (and female) PGCs, indicating that these modifications do not signal subsequent imprint acquisition, which initiates at ?15.5 d.p.c. Furthermore, during male PGC development, H3 lysine-4 trimethylation becomes biallelically enriched at 'maternal' ICRs, which are protected against DNA methylation, and whose promoters are active in the male germ cells. Remarkably, high transcriptional read-through is detected at the paternal ICRs H19-DMR and Ig-DMR at the time of imprint establishment, from one of the strands predominantly. Combined, our data evoke a model in which differential histone modification states linked to transcriptional events may signal the specificity of imprint acquisition during spermatogenesis.
Project description:Background:Loss of paternal methylation (LOM) of the H19/IGF2 intergenic differentially methylated region (H19/IGF2:IG-DMR) causes alteration of H19/IGF2 imprinting and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Recently, internal deletions of the H19/IGF2:IG-DMR have been associated with LOM and SRS when present on the paternal chromosome. In contrast, previously described deletions, most of which cause gain of methylation (GOM) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) on maternal transmission, were consistently associated with normal methylation and phenotype if paternally inherited. Presentation of the hypothesis:The presence of several target sites (ZTSs) and three demonstrated binding regions (BRs) for the imprinting factor ZFP57 in the H19/IGF2:IG-DMR suggest the involvement of this factor in the maintenance of methylation of this locus. By comparing the extension of the H19/IGF2:IG-DMR deletions with the binding profile of ZFP57, we propose that the effect of the deletions on DNA methylation and clinical phenotype is dependent on their interference with ZFP57 binding. Indeed, deletions strongly affecting a ZFP57 BR result in LOM and SRS, while deletions preserving a significant number of ZFPs in each BR do not alter methylation and are associated with normal phenotype. Testing the hypothesis:The generation of transgenic mouse lines in which the endogenous H19/IGF2:IG-DMR is replaced by the human orthologous locus including the three ZFP57 BRs or their mutant versions will allow to test the role of ZFP57 binding in imprinted methylation and growth phenotype. Implications of the hypothesis:Similarly to what is proposed for maternally inherited BWS mutations and CTCF and OCT4/SOX2 binding, we suggest that deletions of the H19/IGF2:IG-DMR result in SRS with LOM if ZFP57 binding on the paternal chromosome is affected.
Project description:Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a congenital cancer-predisposition syndrome associated with embryonal cancers, macroglossia, macrosomia, ear pits or ear creases, and midline abdominal-wall defects. The most common constitutional abnormalities in BWS are epigenetic, involving abnormal methylation of either H19 or LIT1, which encode untranslated RNAs on 11p15. We hypothesized that different epigenetic alterations would be associated with specific phenotypes in BWS. To test this hypothesis, we performed a case-cohort study, using the BWS Registry. The cohort consisted of 92 patients with BWS and molecular analysis of both H19 and LIT1, and these patients showed the same frequency of clinical phenotypes as those patients in the Registry from whom biological samples were not available. The frequency of altered DNA methylation of H19 in patients with cancer was significantly higher, 56% (9/16), than the frequency in patients without cancer, 17% (13/76; P=.002), and cancer was not associated with LIT1 alterations. Furthermore, the frequency of altered DNA methylation of LIT1 in patients with midline abdominal-wall defects and macrosomia was significantly higher, 65% (41/63) and 60% (46/77), respectively, than in patients without such defects, 34% (10/29) and 18% (2/11), respectively (P=.012 and P=.02, respectively). Additionally, paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of 11p15 was associated with hemihypertrophy (P=.003), cancer (P=.03), and hypoglycemia (P=.05). These results define an epigenotype-phenotype relationship in BWS, in which aberrant methylation of H19 and LIT1 and UPD are strongly associated with cancer risk and specific birth defects.