Regulation of L-ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase in rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle.
ABSTRACT: 1. The activities of l-ornithine decarboxylase (EC 220.127.116.11) and S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase (EC 18.104.22.168) were dramatically enhanced in both the ventral prostate and the seminal vesicle of castrated rats in response to androgenic stimulation. The time course of the stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase together with the quantitatively different response of adenosylmethionine decarboxylase to testosterone treatment in the prostate gland and seminal vesicle indicated that the enhancement in polyamine synthesis in the ventral prostate may reflect both cellular proliferation and the restoration of the secretory functions of the organ. In the seminal vesicle, however, the stimulation of the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway more closely resembled the pattern found in other rat tissues, such as regenerating liver, undergoing compensatory growth. 2. Ornithine decarboxylase activity in the ventral prostate and especially in the seminal vesicle of sexually mature rat was diminished in vivo by various short-chain diamines such as 1,2-diaminoethane, 1,3-diaminopropane and putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane). These diamines had no direct effect on the enzyme activity in vitro. 3. In contrast with the marginal decrease in ornithine decarboxylase activity produced by diaminoethane in the ventral prostate of non-castrated animals, repeated injections of the latter amine completely prevented the intense stimulation of the enzyme activity in the ventral prostate and seminal vesicle of castrated rats at 24h after the commencement of testosterone treatment. 4. The decrease in ornithine decarboxylase activity observed after injections of diamines (putrescine) in the ventral prostate was apparently associated with a similar decrease in the amount of immunoreactive protein as revealed by immunotitration of the enzyme with antiserum to rat ornithine decarboxylase.
Project description:2-Difluoromethylornithine totally prevented any increases in putrescine and spermidine concentrations in the ventral prostate of castrated rats during a 6-day testosterone treatment. Prostatic ornithine decarboxylase activity was inhibited by 80%, whereas S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase was stimulated by more than 9-fold. In seminal vesicle, the inhibition of putrescine and spermidine accumulation, as well as of ornithine decarboxylase activity, was only minimal, and no stimulation of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase was observed. Administration of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) to castrated androgen-treated rats resulted in a marked increase in concentrations of all prostatic polyamines. Prostatic ornithine decarboxylase activity was nearly 2 times and adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity 9 times higher than that of the testosterone-treated animals. In contrast with ventral prostate, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) treatment inhibited moderately the accumulation of spermidine and spermine in seminal vesicle, although both ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activities were stimulated. Difluoromethylornithine inhibited significantly the weight gain of ventral prostate, but methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) produced a substantial increase in prostatic weight. These changes were largely due to the fact that the volume of prostatic secretion was greatly decreased by difluoromethylornithine, whereas methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) increased the amount of secretion. Treatment with difluoromethylornithine strikingly increased the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) content of both ventral prostate and seminal vesicle, but even under these conditions the drug concentration remained low in comparison with other tissues. The results indicate that a combined use of these two polyamine anti-metabolites does not necessarily result in a synergistic growth inhibition of the androgen-induced growth of male accessory sexual glands.
Project description:The effect of various hormones on the activities of the four enzymes engaged with the biosynthesis of the polyamines has been investigated in the rat. Human choriogonadotropin induced a dramatic, yet transient, stimulation of l-ornithine decarboxylase (EC 22.214.171.124) activity in rat ovary, with no or only marginal changes in the activities of S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase (EC 126.96.36.199), spermidine synthase (aminopropyltransferase; EC 188.8.131.52) or spermine synthase. A single injection of oestradiol into immature rats maximally induced uterine ornithine decarboxylase at 4h after the injection. This early stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity was accompanied by a distinct enhancement of adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity and a decrease in the activities of spermidine synthase and spermine synthase. In the seminal vesicle of castrated rats, testosterone treatment elicited a striking and persistent stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase and adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activities. The activity of spermidine synthase likewise rapidly increased between the first and the second day after the commencement of the hormone treatment, whereas the activity of spermine synthase remained virtually unchanged during the whole period of observation. Testosterone-induced changes in polyamine formation in the ventral prostate were comparable with those found in the seminal vesicle, with the possible exception of a more pronounced stimulation of spermidine synthase activity. It thus appears that an enhancement in one or both of the propylamine transferase (aminopropyltransferase) activities in response to hormone administration is an indicator of hormone-dependent growth (uterus and the male accessory sexual glands), and is not necessarily associated with non-proliferative hormonal responses, such as gonadotropin-induced luteinization of the ovarian tissue.
Project description:1. Castration of adult rats markedly decreases the amounts of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) and of RNA and DNA in the ventral prostate and the seminal vesicle. 2. Daily injections of testosterone propionate to rats castrated 7 days previously increase polyamine and nucleic acid contents more rapidly in the seminal vesicle than in the ventral prostate. 3. After 7 days of androgen treatment, polyamine and nucleic acid contents of the seminal vesicle are significantly higher than those of intact animals. Nucleic acid, but not polyamine, contents return to normal values during the next 4 days of continued treatment. In the prostate, androgen treatment increases polyamine and nucleic acid contents to, but not above, normal values. 4. Repeated doses of alpha-difluoromethylornithine, a potent enzyme-activated irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, totally blocked the testosterone-induced increase of putrescine and spermidine in the ventral prostate and of putrescine in the seminal vesicle. They slowed significantly the accumulation of spermine in the ventral prostate and of spermidine in the seminal vesicle. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine also retarded the testosterone-induced accumulation of RNA in the ventral prostate. However, no clear correlation was apparent between accumulation of polyamines and of nucleic acids in the two organs. 5. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine markedly slows the testosterone-induced weight gain of the prostate, but not of the seminal vesicle. Cytological studies suggest that this effect on the prostate is due to inhibition of the androgen-induced restoration of the secretion content of prostatic acini.
Project description:The prostate is a male accessory sex gland that produces secretions in seminal fluid to facilitate fertilization. Prostate secretory function is dependent on androgens, although the mechanism by which androgens exert their effects is still unclear. Polyamines are small cationic molecules that play pivotal roles in DNA transcription, translation and gene regulation. The rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis is ornithine decarboxylase, which is encoded by the gene Odc1. Ornithine decarboxylase mRNA decreases in the prostate upon castration and increases upon administration of androgens. Furthermore, testosterone administered to castrated male mice restores prostate secretory activity, whereas administering testosterone and the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor D,L-?-difluromethylornithine (DFMO) to castrated males does not restore prostate secretory activity, suggesting that polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effects. To date, no one has examined polyamines in prostate development, which is also androgen dependent. In this study, we showed that ornithine decarboxylase protein was expressed in the epithelium of the ventral, dorsolateral and anterior lobes of the adult mouse prostate. Ornithine decarboxylase protein was also expressed in the urogenital sinus (UGS) epithelium of the male and female embryo prior to prostate development, and expression continued in prostatic epithelial buds as they emerged from the UGS. Inhibiting ornithine decarboxylase using DFMO in UGS organ culture blocked the induction of prostatic buds by androgens, and significantly decreased expression of key prostate transcription factor, Nkx3.1, by androgens. DFMO also significantly decreased the expression of developmental regulatory gene Notch1. Other genes implicated in prostatic development including Sox9, Wif1 and Srd5a2 were unaffected by DFMO. Together these results indicate that Odc1 and polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effect in mediating prostatic bud induction, and are required for the expression of a subset of prostatic developmental regulatory genes including Notch1 and Nkx3.1.
Project description:The relationship between ornithine decarboxylase activity and [125I]iododexyuridine incorporation was studied in prostates from castrated rats (aged 5, 26 and 80 weeks) injected daily with testosterone for up to 10 days. The results suggest that ornithine decarboxylase activity is a parameter of secretory activity, rather than growth, in the ventral prostate. In the dorsolateral prostate, ornithine decarboxylase activity tends to parallel [125I]iododeoxyuridine incorporation.
Project description:1. Castration of adult rats resulted in marked decreases in the amounts of putrescine, spermidine and spermine in the ventral prostate gland. Spermidine concentrations decline rapidly over the first 11 days after androgen withdrawal, reaching a value of only 12% of normal controls. Spermine concentrations diminish more slowly, reaching 24% of normal within 11 days. The spermidine/spermine molar ratio falls from 0.9 to 0.46 under these conditions. Putrescine concentrations decrease by 70% at 7 days after castration and then remain constant for some days. 2. After daily injections of testosterone propionate to rats castrated 7 days previously, prostatic spermidine and putrescine concentrations increase significantly within 24h; normal or even greater values are observed within 8 and 4 days respectively. In contrast, the spermine concentration does not increase until 5 days after commencement of androgen treatment. 3. The activities of two enzymes involved in polyamine biosynthesis (ornithine decarboxylase and a putrescine-activated S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase system) were greatly decreased soon after castration: after 7 days the respective values were 15% of normal for ornithine decarboxylase and 7% of normal for putrescine-dependent decarboxylation of S-adenosyl-l-methionine. Injection of testosterone propionate into animals castrated 7 days previously induced a rapid increase in both enzymic activities: ornithine decarboxylase was doubled in 6h, and increased three- to four-fold within 48h, whereas the putrescine-dependent decarboxylation of S-adenosyl-l-methionine doubled in 3h and increased tenfold within 48h of commencement of daily androgen treatments. 4. The activity of these enzyme systems was very low in the ventral prostates of hypophysectomized rats and was increased by administration of testosterone in a manner similar to that found in castrated rats. 5. Alterations in the activity of two ventral-prostate enzymes involved in ornithine production (arginase) and utilization (ornithine-2-oxoglutarate transaminase) that result from changes in the androgenic status of rats are described. 6. The findings presented suggest that the activities of ornithine decarboxylase and the putrescine-dependent S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase system, rather than ornithine concentrations, are rate-limiting for the formation of putrescine and polyamines in rat ventral prostate. 7. The relation of polyamines to androgen-induced prostatic growth is discussed with particular reference to the biosynthesis of proteins and nucleic acids.
Project description:1. Ornithine decarboxylase activity is stimulated in high-density HeLa-cell cultures by dilution of or replacement of spent culture medium with fresh medium containing 10% (v/v) horse serum. 2. After stimulation, ornithine decarboxylase activity reaches a peak at 4-6h, then rapidly declines to the low enzyme activity characteristic of quiescent cultures, where it remains during the remainder of the cell cycle. 3. The stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase is eliminated by the addition of 0.5mum-spermine or -spermidine or 10mum-putrescine to the HeLa-cell cultures at the time of re-feeding with fresh medium. Much higher concentrations (1mm) of the non-physiological diamines, 1,3-diamino-propane or 1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane, are required to eliminate the stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase in re-fed HeLa-cell cultures. 4. A heat-labile, non-diffusible inhibitor, comparable with the inhibitory protein ornithine decarboxylase antizyme, is induced in HeLa cells by the addition of exogenous diamines or polyamines. 5. Intracellular putrescine is eliminated, intracellular spermidine and spermine are severely decreased and proliferation of HeLa cells is inhibited when cultures are maintained for 48h in the presence of the non-physiological inducer of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme, 1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane. Exogenous putrescine, a physiological inducer of the antizyme, does not decrease intracellular polyamines or interfere with proliferation of HeLa cells.
Project description:The relationship between polyamine synthesis, growth and secretion in vivo was examined in ventral prostates from: (a) intact rats aged 3-60 weeks; (b) animals castrated for 7 days before injection with 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (17 beta-hydroxy-5-alpha-androstan-3-one), testosterone and 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol for up to 10 days; (c) rats injected with the 3 beta, 17 beta-diol immediately after castration. Ornithine decarboxylase activity and the concentrations of putrescine, spermidine and spermine were measured. DNA-synthetic activity was monitored by measuring [125I]iododoxyuridine incorporation. An enhanced spermidine/spermine molar ratio reflected increased activity of the prostate. The ratio was higher (greater than 2) in prostates from sexually immature animals, than in the intact adult (1.5), suggesting that the ratio was indicative of the proliferative activity of the tissue. However, in the androgen-stimulated castrated rat, enhanced spermidine/spermine ratios tended to correlate with hypertrophy and secretion. In both sets of experiments there was a linear relationship between protein and spermidine content. High spermidine/spermine molar ratios were the consequence of a relatively low rate of accumulation of spermine relative to spermidine and protein. The relationship between polyamine synthesis and DNA-synthetic activity was investigated in cultured prostate. A combination of insulin (3 mug/ml) and testosterone (0.1 muM caused a stimulatory response in the incorporation of [125I]iododeoxyuridine and in cell division, despite a depleted polyamine content and low ornithine decarboxylase activity in the cultured tissue.
Project description:Rat liver ornithine decarboxylase activity was decreased by administration of putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane) or other diamines, including 1,3-diaminopropane, 1,5-diaminopentane and 1,6-diaminohexane. This effect was seen in control rats and in rats in which hepatic ornithine decarboxylase activity had been increased by administration of growth hormone (somatotropin) or thioacetamide. Loss of activity was not dependent on the conversion of putrescine into polyamines and was short-lived. Within 6h after intraperitoneal administration of 0.8 mmol/kg body wt., ornithine decarboxylase activity had returned to normal values. This return correlated with the rapid loss of the diamines from the liver, and the decrease in activity could be slightly prolonged by treatment with aminoguanidine, a diamine oxidase inhibitor. A decrease in ornithine decarboxylase activity by these diamines was accompanied by the accumulation in the liver of a nondiffusible inhibitor that decreased the activity of a purified ornithine decarboxylase preparation. The possibility that administration of non-physiological diamines that are not converted into polyamines might be useful for the inhibition of polyamine synthesis is discussed.
Project description:1. The induction of ornithine decarboxylase activity in mouse 3T3 fibroblasts or an SV-40 transformed 3T3 cell line by serum was prevented by addition of the naturally occurring polyamines putrescine (butane-1,4-diamine) and spermidine. Much higher concentrations of these amines were required to fully suppress ornithine decarboxylase activity in the transformed SV-3T3 cells than in the 3T3 fibroblasts. 2. Synthetic alpha omega-diamines with 3--12 carbon atoms also prevented the increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity induced by serum in these cells. The longer chain diamines were somewhat more potent than propane-1,3-diamine in this effect, but the synthetic diamines were less active than putrescine in the 3T3 cells. There was little difference between the responses of 3T3 and SV-3T3 cells to the synthetic diamines propane-1,3-diamine and heptane-1,7-diamine. 3. These results are discussed in relation to the control of polyamine synthesis in mammalian cells.