Nature of collagens synthesized by monkey periodontal-ligament fibroblasts in vitro.
ABSTRACT: 1. First subcultures of fibroblast-like cells from adult monkey periodontal ligament were incubated in the presence of 14C-labelled amino acids and produced significant amounts of type-I and type-III collagens. 2. The proportion of type-III collagen produced was calculated on the basis of the recovery of procollagens from DEAE-cellulose chromatography to be approx. 20%, and at least 10% when analysed as collagens on CM-cellulose chromatography. 3. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the procollagens, the collagens and their CNBr peptides was used to confirm the identity of the collagen types. 4. In serum-free media extensive conversion of type-I procollagen, but not of type-III procollagen, into collagen was observed, suggesting that a specific type-I procollagen peptidase was produced. 5. The pattern of collagen synthesis was not significantly different from that obtained with fibroblasts derived from skin corium of the same animals.
Project description:Overlapping cDNA clones were isolated for human type II procollagen. Nucleotide sequencing of the clones provided over 2.5 kb of new coding sequences for the human pro alpha 1(II) gene and the first complete amino acid sequence of type II procollagen from any species. Comparison with published data for cDNA clones covering the entire lengths of the human type I and type III procollagens made it possible to compare in detail the coding sequences and primary structures of the three most abundant human fibrillar collagens. The results indicated that the marked preference in the third base codons for glycine, proline and alanine previously seen in other fibrillar collagens was maintained in type II procollagen. The domains of the pro alpha 1(II) chain are about the same size as the same domains of the pro alpha chains of type I and type III procollagens. However, the major triple-helical domain is 15 amino acid residues less than the triple-helical domain of type III procollagen. Comparison of hydropathy profiles indicated that the alpha chain domain of type II procollagen is more similar to the alpha chain domain of the pro alpha 1(I) chain than to the pro alpha 2(I) chain or the pro alpha 1(III) chain. The results therefore suggest that selective pressure in the evolution of the pro alpha 1(II) and pro alpha 1(I) genes is more similar than the selective pressure in the evolution of the pro alpha 2(I) and pro alpha 1(III) genes.
Project description:1. Collagen- and total-protein-synthesis rates were determined in rabbit muscle by continuous infusion of radioactive proline. 2. The precursor pool of free proline used for collagen synthesis was defined by measuring the specific radioactivity of hydroxy-proline in isolated type I procollagen. The specific radioactivities of type I procollagen were about 40% of those for free proline in the homogenate. 3. The mean ratio (+/- S.E.M.) between the fractional synthesis rates of muscle collagen and total protein was 0.99 +/- 0.10, where the total protein values were based on specific radioactivities of the homogenate free proline pools. 4. Types I, III and V collagen were solubilized by pepsin and isolated by fractional precipitation with NaCl. The fractional synthesis rates of types I and III collagens were very similar. Type V collagen samples had higher specific radioactivities than the other collagens, but this was not necessarily indicative of a higher rate of synthesis because of uncertainty about the cellular origin of this collagen and, hence, the specific radioactivity of its precursor proline pool.
Project description:The 33-kDa matrix protein SPARC (BM-40, osteonectin) binds several collagen types with moderate affinity. The collagen-binding site resides in helix alphaA of the extracellular calcium-binding domain of SPARC and is partially masked by helix alphaC. Previously, we found that the removal of helix alphaC caused a 10-fold increase in the affinity of SPARC for collagen, and we identified amino acids crucial for binding by site-directed mutagenesis. In this study, we used rotary shadowing, CNBr peptides, and synthetic peptides to map binding sites of SPARC onto collagens I, II, and III. Rotary shadowing and electron microscopy of SPARC-collagen complexes identified a major binding site approximately 180 nm from the C terminus of collagen. SPARC binding was also detected with lower frequency near the matrix metalloproteinase cleavage site. These data fit well with our analysis of SPARC binding to CNBr peptides, denaturation of which abolished binding, indicating triple-helical conformation of collagen to be essential. SPARC binding was substantially decreased in two of seven alpha2(I) mutant procollagen I samples and after N-acetylation of Lys/Hyl side chains in wild-type collagen. Synthetic peptides of collagen III were used to locate the binding sites, and we found SPARC binding activity in a synthetic triple-helical peptide containing the sequence GPOGPSGPRGQOGVMGFOGPKGNDGAO (where O indicates 4-hydroxyproline), with affinity for SPARC comparable with that of procollagen III. This sequence is conserved among alpha chains of collagens I, II, III, and V. In vitro collagen fibrillogenesis was delayed in the presence of SPARC, suggesting that SPARC might modulate collagen fibril assembly in vivo.
Project description:Mutations in the type I procollagen C-propeptide occur in ~6.5% of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) patients. They are of special interest because this region of procollagen is involved in ? chain selection and folding, but is processed prior to fibril assembly and is absent in mature collagen fibrils in tissue. We investigated the consequences of seven COL1A1 C-propeptide mutations for collagen biochemistry in comparison to three probands with classical glycine substitutions in the collagen helix near the C-propeptide and a normal control. Procollagens with C-propeptide defects showed the expected delayed chain incorporation, slow folding and overmodification. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that procollagen with C-propeptide defects was mislocalized to the ER lumen, in contrast to the ER membrane localization of normal procollagen and procollagen with helical substitutions. Notably, pericellular processing of procollagen with C-propeptide mutations was defective, with accumulation of pC-collagen and/or reduced production of mature collagen. In vitro cleavage assays with BMP-1?±?PCPE-1 confirmed impaired C-propeptide processing of procollagens containing mutant pro?1(I) chains. Overmodified collagens were incorporated into the matrix in culture. Dermal fibrils showed alterations in average diameter and diameter variability and bone fibrils were disorganized. Altered ER-localization and reduced pericellular processing of defective C-propeptides are expected to contribute to abnormal osteoblast differentiation and matrix function, respectively.
Project description:The effects of porcine interleukin-1 (IL-1) alpha on collagen production were studied in cultured human rheumatoid synovial cells. Addition of 0.05-5 ng of IL-1/ml into the cultures resulted in a dose-dependent decreased rate of collagen released into the medium over 24 h. To determine whether this inhibition was due to secondary action of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secreted in response to IL-1, cultures were incubated in presence of various inhibitors of arachidonate metabolism. Depending on the cell strains, these inhibitors were able to suppress or diminish the effect of IL-1, suggesting that PGE2 is involved in the mechanism. Depression of collagen production caused by IL-1 mainly affected type I collagen and therefore led to a change in the type I/type III collagen ratio in the extracellular medium. Steady-state levels of mRNA for types I and III procollagens were estimated by dot-blot hybridization and compared with the amounts of respective collagens produced in the same cultures. IL-1 generally increased procollagen type I mRNA, but to a variable extent, as did indomethacin (Indo). Depending on the cell strain, the combination of indo and IL-1 could elevate the mRNA level of type I procollagen compared with Indo alone. These results did not correlate with the production rate of collagen in the medium, which was diminished by exposure to IL-1. The level of mRNA for collagen type III was not greatly changed by incubation with IL-1, and a better correlation was generally observed with the amount of type III collagen found in the medium. These data suggest that an additional control mechanism at translational or post-translational level must exist, counterbalancing the stimulatory effect of IL-1 on collagen mRNA transcription. It is likely that IL-1 could modulate the production of collagen in synovial cells by an interplay of different mechanisms, some of them limiting the effect of primary elevation of the steady-state mRNA level.
Project description:Synthesis of collagens in vitro was studied on minced mouse skins incubated with [3H]-proline in organ-culture conditions. A comparative study was carried out on genetically diabetic mice (KK strain) and control mice (Swiss strain). After incubation, neutral-salt-soluble and acid-soluble collagens were extracted. The insoluble dermis was digested by pepsin and type I and type III collagens separated by differential precipitation in neutral salt solutions. Type I and Type III collagens were characterized by ion-exchange and molecular-sieve chromatography, amino acid analysis and by the characterization of CNBr peptides. In diabetic-mouse skin, the relative proportion of type III collagen was significantly higher than in control-mouse skin. The incorporation of radioactively labelled proline into hydroxyproline of type III collagen was significantly faster in diabetic-mouse skin than in control-mouse skin. No significant modifications in the total collagen content of the skin or of their rates of synthesis were observed between the two strains. Alteration in the ratio of type III to type I collagen in the diabetic-mouse skin can be interpreted as a sign of alteration of the regulation of collagen biosynthesis and may be related to the structural alterations observed in the diabetic intercellular matrix.
Project description:Aggregation of platelets by fibrils formed from collagens type I, II and III could be inhibited by coating the fibrils with anti-collagen antibodies or Fab fragments. Similar results were obtained in a clot-retraction assay. Inhibition was achieved with stoichiometric amounts of antibodies and was specific for each type of collagen. Aggregation caused by a mixture of type-I and -III collagens could only be inhibited by a mixture of antibodies against both collagens. The data show that each interstitial collagen is capable of interacting with platelets and do not support the concept of an outstanding activity of type-III collagen.
Project description:Growing rabbits were infused for up to 10 h with labelled proline, tyrosine and leucine to achieve plateau conditions within body free pools, for [3H]proline infusion, blood free-proline specific radioactivity remained constant after about 1 h. For individual animals, type-I- and type-III-collagen precursors were isolated by precipitation with (NH4)2SO4 and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Experiments where 3H- and 14C-labelled proline and tyrosine were infused concurrently for different periods of time showed that type I procollagen reached plateau specific radioactivity within 3 h and 90% of the plateau value after 2 h infusion, corresponding to a calculated apparent t 1/2 of less than 26 min. Plateau values for type I procollagen were taken as precursor amino acid pool specific radioactivities. The type-III-collagen-precursor fractions consistently showed lower rates of label incorporation and, by assuming that both type I and type III collagens are synthesized from the same amino acid pools, kinetic analysis revealed an apparent t 1/2 for the isolated type-III-collagen precursors of 3.9 h. For proline, there were large variations between animals in the ratio between the precursor pool for collagen synthesis and the skin homogenate free pool (0.31 +/- 0.13, mean +/- S.D.), so that collagen-synthesis rates based solely on total tissue free-pool values for proline are subject to large and inconsistent errors.
Project description:Quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of collagen were observed in tissues and fibroblast cultures from 17 consecutive cases of lethal perinatal osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The content of type I collagen was reduced in OI dermis and bone and the content of type III collagen was also reduced in the dermis. Normal bone contained 99.3% type I and 0.7% type V collagen whereas OI bone contained a lower proportion of type I, a greater proportion of type V and a significant amount of type III collagen. The type III and V collagens appeared to be structurally normal. In contrast, abnormal type I collagen chains, which migrated slowly on electrophoresis, were observed in all babies with OI. Cultured fibroblasts from five babies produced a mixture of normal and abnormal type I collagens; the abnormal collagen was not secreted in two cases and was slowly secreted in the others. Fibroblasts from 12 babies produced only abnormal type I collagens and they were also secreted slowly. The slower electrophoretic migration of the abnormal chains was due to enzymic overmodification of the lysine residues. The distribution of the cyanogen bromide peptides containing the overmodified residues was used to localize the underlying structural abnormalities to three regions of the type I procollagen chains. These regions included the carboxy-propeptide of the pro alpha 1(I)-chain, the helical alpha 1(I) CB7 peptide and the helical alpha 1(I) CB8 and CB3 peptides. In one baby a basic charge mutation was observed in the alpha 1(I) CB7 peptide and in another baby a basic charge mutation was observed in the alpha 1(I) CB8 peptide. The primary defects in lethal perinatal OI appear to reside in the type I collagen chains. Type III and V collagens did not appear to compensate for the deficiency of type I collagen in the tissues.
Project description:The heterogeneity of the CNBr-cleavage peptides of human types I, II, III and V collagens were studied by using two-dimensional electrophoresis combining non-equilibrium pH-gradient-gel electrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Specific 'maps' were produced by the peptides obtained from the chains of each type of collagen, and most peptides had at least three charged forms of the same molecular weight. Specific 'maps' were also produced by the peptides of types I, III and V collagens from insoluble dermis and the peptides of types I and V collagens from decalcified bone. The alpha 1(I) CB7 and alpha 1(I) CB8 and the alpha 2 CB4 peptides obtained from the type I collagens of these tissues contained the same number of charged components, but there was a relative increase in the more basic components in bone. Some aspects of the involvement of the alpha 1(I) CB6 and the alpha 1(III) CB9 peptides in cross-linkages were also studied. The recovery of the alpha 1(I) CB6 peptide from bone and dermis was decreased and the alpha 1(III) CB9 peptide was not detected in dermis. Additional peptides, which were probably cross-linked peptides involving the alpha 1(I) CB6 peptide, were also observed.