Biosynthesis and release of glycoproteins by human skin fibroblasts in culture.
ABSTRACT: 1. Confluent human skin fibroblasts maintained in a chemically defined medium incorporate l-[1-(3)H]fucose in a linear manner with time into non-diffusible macromolecules for up to 48h. Chromatographic analysis demonstrated that virtually all the macromolecule-associated (3)H was present as [(3)H]fucose. 2. Equilibrium CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation established that [(3)H]fucose-labelled macromolecules released into the medium were predominantly glycoproteins. Confirmation of this finding was provided by molecular-size analyses of the [(3)H]fucose-labelled material before and after trypsin digestion. 3. The [(3)H]fucose-labelled glycoproteins released into fibroblast culture medium were analysed by gel-filtration chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. These techniques demonstrated that the major fucosylated glycoprotein had an apparent mol.wt. of 230000-250000; several minor labelled species were also detected. 4. Dual-labelling experiments with [(3)H]fucose and (14)C-labelled amino acids indicated that the major fucosylated glycoprotein was synthesized de novo by cultured fibroblasts. The non-collagenous nature of this glycoprotein was established by three independent methods. 5. Gel-filtration analysis before and after reduction with dithiothreitol showed that the major glycoprotein occurs as a disulphide-bonded dimer when analysed under denaturing conditions. Further experiments demonstrated that this glycoprotein was the predominant labelled species released into the medium when fibroblasts were incubated with [(35)S]cysteine. 6. The relationship between the major fucosylated glycoprotein and a glycoprotein, or group of glycoproteins, variously known as fibronectin, LETS protein, cell-surface protein etc., is discussed.
Project description:When monolayer cultures of neuroblastoma N2a cells were prelabelled with [(3)H]fucose to steady state, and then reincubated in complete medium in the presence of unlabelled 40mm-l-fucose, there was a rapid metabolism of fucosylated cellular macromolecules and the specific radioactivity of the acid-insoluble material decreased by 22% within 2h. After this period of time the remaining radioactive glycoproteins appeared to be more stable and the rate of loss of specific radioactivity markedly decreased. Since fucose is known to be associated predominantly with plasma-membrane components, the analysis of fucosylated glycoproteins was characterized in plasma-membrane fractions by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Two experimental approaches were used to measure glycoprotein degradation and turnover in the cell-surface membranes. In one set of experiments, with a similar incubation procedure to that used with intact cells, three membrane components were rapidly degraded (150000, 130000 and 48000 daltons), but another surface glycoprotein (68000 daltons) appeared to be more slowly metabolized than the mean rate of glycoprotein degradation. The relationship of the degradation of membrane glycoproteins to their turnover was analysed by dual-label experiments that used both [(14)C]fucose and [(3)H]fucose. Glycoproteins of the surface membrane of neuroblastoma cells were found to turn over at heterogeneous rates. The components mentioned above that exhibited significantly rapid rates of degradation, were also shown to turn over more rapidly than the average surface component. In addition to the membrane components detected by the use of only [(3)H]fucose, dual-label experiments illustrated that numerous surface glycoproteins were metabolized more rapidly or slowly than most of the cell-surface constituents.
Project description:Two inhibitors of glycosylation, glucosamine and tunicamycin, were utilized to examine the effect of glycosylation inhibition in mouse neuroblastoma N18 cells on the degradation of membrane glycoproteins synthesized before addition of the inhibitor. Treatment with 10 mM-glucosamine resulted in inhibition of glycosylation after 2h, as measured by [3H]fucose incorporation into acid-insoluble macromolecules, and in a decreased rate of glycoprotein degradation. However, these results were difficult to interpret since glucosamine also significantly inhibited protein synthesis, which in itself could cause the alteration in glycoprotein degradation [Hudson & Johnson (1977) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 497, 567-577]. N18 cells treated with 5 microgram of tunicamycin/ml, a more specific inhibitor of glycosylation, showed a small decrease in protein synthesis relative to its effect on glycosylation, which was inhibited by 85%. Tunicamycin-treated cells also showed a marked decrease in glycoprotein degradation in experiments with intact cells. The inhibition of glycoprotein degradation by tunicamycin was shown to be independent of alterations in cyclic AMP concentration. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of isolated membranes from N18 cells, double-labelled with [14C]fucose and [3H]fucose, revealed heterogeneous turnover rates for specific plasma-membrane glycoproteins. Comparisons of polyacrylamide gels of isolated plasma membranes from [3H]fucose-labelled control cells and [14C]fucose-labelled tunicamycin-treated cells revealed that both rapidly and slowly metabolized, although not all, membrane glycoproteins became resistant to degradation after glycosylation inhibition.
Project description:Lysosomal degradation of the carbohydrate portion of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans produces monosaccharides and sulphate, which must efflux from the lysosomes before re-entering biosynthetic pathways. We examined the degradation of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans by lysosomes isolated from cultured human diploid fibroblasts. Cells were grown for 24 h in medium containing [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulphate. When lysosomes are isolated from these cells, they contain label primarily in macromolecules (glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans). Glycoprotein degradation by isolated lysosomes was followed by measuring the release of tritiated sugars from macromolecules and efflux of these sugars from the organelles. Glycosaminoglycan degradation was monitored by the release of both tritiated sugars and [35S]sulphate. During macromolecule degradation, the total amounts of free [35S]sulphate, N-acetyl[3H]glucosamine and N-acetyl[3H]galactosamine found outside the lysosome parallels the amounts of these products released by degradation. The total degradation of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans by intact cultured cells was also examined. The lysosomal contribution to degradation was assessed by measuring inhibition by the lysosomotropic amine NH4Cl. After 48 h incubation, inhibition by NH4Cl exceeded 55% of glycoprotein and 72% of glycosaminoglycan degradation. Recycling of [3H]hexosamines and [35S]sulphate by intact cells was estimated by measuring the appearance of 'newly synthesized' radioactively labelled macromolecules in the medium. Sulphate does not appear to be appreciably recycled. N-Acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine, on the other hand, are reutilized to a significant extent.
Project description:The biosynthesis of membrane proteins and glycoproteins has been studied in rat intestinal crypt and villus cells by measuring the incorporation of L-[5,6-3H] fucose, D-[2-3H] mannose and L-[3,4,5-3H] leucine, given intraperitoneally, into Golgi, lateral-basal and luminal membranes. Incorporation of leucine and mannose was approximately equal in crypt and villus cells, whereas fucose incorporation was markedly higher (3-4 times) in the differentiated villus cells. As previously reported [Quaroni, Kirsch & Weiser (1979) Biochem J. 182. 203-212] most of the fucosylated glyco-proteins synthesized in the villus cells and initially present in the Golgi and lateral-basal membranes were found re-distributed, within 3-4h of label administration, in the luminal membrane. A similar process appeared to occur in the crypt cells, where, however, only few fucose-labelled glycoproteins were identified. In contrast, most of the leucine-labelled and many mannose-labelled membrane components found in the lateral-basal membrane of both crypt and villus cells did not seen to undergo a similar re-distribution process. The fucosylated glycoproteins of the intestinal epithelial cells represent, therefore, a special class of membrane components, most of which appear with differentiation, that are selectively localized in the luminal portion of the plasmalemma. In contrast with the marked differences in protein and glycoprotein patterns between the luminal membrane of villus and crypt cells, only minor differences were found between their lateral-basal membrane components: their protein patterns on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide slab gels, and the patterns of fucose-, mannose- and leucine-labelled components (analysed 3-4h after label administration) were very similar. Although the minor differences detected may be of importance, it appears that most of the surface-membrane changes accompanying cell differentiation in the intestinal epithelial cells are localized in the luminal portion of their surface membrane.
Project description:The culture medium of growing Chlamydomonas reinhardii cells contains hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, which are mainly liberated during release of the zoospores from the mother-cell wall. Pulse-labelling studies with [3H]proline and [35S]methionine have been performed in order to detect the protein components released by synchronously growing cells at different stages of the cell cycle. When either [3H]proline or [35S]methionine were applied during the phase of cell growth, radioactive label appeared in the released macromolecules after a lag period of 40 min, whereas incorporation into the insoluble part of the cell wall was delayed only by 20 min. When applied at the end of the growth phase, e.g. 13 h after beginning of the illumination period, the radioactive amino acids were incorporated into the cell wall, but radioactive labelling of macromolecules released into the culture medium could not be detected before the zoospores were liberated from the mother-cell wall. Maximal incorporation of [3H]proline and [35S]methionine into the insoluble part of the cell wall was observed during cell division, but essentially no radioactively-labelled macromolecules were released into the culture medium during this time period. Analysis of the macromolecules, which were liberated during cell enlargement, by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis revealed distinct radioactive bands, which were differentially labelled with [3H]proline and [35S]methionine. Among the macromolecules released into the culture medium during cell growth, a component of an apparent Mr 35 000 was preferentially labelled with [3H]proline. This component was also detected after labelling with [35S]methionine, but components of an apparently higher Mr were more prominent after labelling with [35S]methionine. Macromolecules released during the cell-enlargement period of synchronously growing cultures in the presence of [3H]proline contained radioactively-labelled hydroxyproline in addition to proline. These results show that, during cell-wall growth, specific protein components are released into the culture medium and that at least one of these components contains large amounts of proline and hydroxyproline. At least some of these macromolecules seem to be constituents of the cell wall, because during pulse-chase experiments radioactively-labelled macromolecules appeared in the culture medium mainly during the time period when the specific radioactivity of the insoluble inner-cell-wall layer decreased.
Project description:Rats (14 days old) were injected with [14c]fucose and young adult rats with [3H]fucose in order to label the myelin-associated glycoproteins. As previously reported, the major [14C]fucose-labelled glycoprotein in the immature myelin had a higher apparent molecular weight on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels that the [3H]fucose-labelled glycoprotein in mature myelin. This predominant doubly labelled glycoprotein component was partially purified by preparative gel electrophoresis and converted to glycopeptides by extensive Pronase digestion. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 separated the glycopeptides into several clases, which were designted A,B, C AND D, from high to low molecular weight. The 14C-labelled glycopeptides from immature myeline were enriched in the highest-molecular-weight class A relative to the 3H-labelled glycopeptides from mature myelin. Neuraminidase treatment of the glycoprotein before Pronase digestion greatly decreased the proportion of glycopeptides fractionating in the higher-molecular-weight classes and largely eliminated the developmental differences that were apparent by gel filtration. However, neuraminidase treatment did not decrease the magnitude of the developmental difference revealed by electrophoresing the intact glycoprotein on sodium dodecyl sulphate gels, although it did decrease the apparent molecular weight of the glycoprotein from both the 15-day-old and adult rats by an amount comparable in magnitude to that developmental difference. The results from gel filtration of glycopeptides indicate that there is a higher content of large molecular weight, sialic acid-rich oligosaccharide units in the glycoprotein of immature myelin. However, the higher apparent molecular weight for the glycoprotein from 15-day-old rats on sodium dodcyl sulphate gels is not due primarily to its higher sialic acid content.
Project description:Normal baby hamster kidney (BHK) fibroblasts and ricin-resistant (RicR) mutants of BHK cells derived from them were labelled metabolically with [3H]mannose or [3H]fucose. Glycopeptides obtained by digestion of disrupted cells with Pronase were separated by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose. In the normal BHK cells major glycopeptide fractions were obtained consisting of tetra- and tri-antennary sialylated complex glycans, bi-antennary sialylated glycans, and neutral oligomannosidic chains. The majority of bi-antennary chains were shown to contain a fucosyl-(alpha 1-6)-N-acetylglucosaminyl sequence in the core region by their ability to bind to a lentil lectin affinity column. All of the mutant cell lines examined were found to accumulate oligomannosidic glycans in cellular glycoproteins: complex sialylated glycans were either absent or greatly reduced in amount. Analysis of fractions isolated from concanavalin A-Sepharose by Bio-Gel P-4 chromatography and glycosidase degradation indicated that the glycans accumulating in RicR14 cells have the general structure: (formula; see text) and derivatives having fewer alpha-mannosyl units. We have also analysed the glycopeptides released by trypsin treatment from the surface of the normal and mutant cells, as well as those obtained by proteolysis of fibronectin isolated from the medium. The glycopeptide profiles of the cell-surface-derived material and of fibronectin showed for the mutant cells a marked accumulation of oligomannosidic chains at the expense of complex oligosaccharide chains. Hence, the alterations in glycan structure detected in bulk cellular glycoproteins of RicR cells are expressed also in cell surface glycoproteins and in fibronectin, a secreted glycoprotein.
Project description:The capacities of immature and mature rat brain myelin, bovine myelin and human myelin to be agglutinated by soya-bean agglutinin, Ricinus communis agglutinin, wheatgerm agglutinin, and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin were examined. The first two lectins, which are specific for galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine, strongly agglutinated immature and mature rat myelin, weakly agglutinated bovine myelin, but did not affect human myelin. The other myelin and lectin combinations resulted in very weak or no agglutination. [(3)H]Fucose-labelled glycoproteins of purified adult rat brain myelin were solubilized with sodium dodecyl sulphate and allowed to bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose and each of the other lectins mentioned above, which had been immobilized on agarose. About 60% of the radioactive fucose was in glycoproteins that bound to concanavalin A-Sepharose and these glycoproteins could be eluted with solutions containing methyl alpha-d-mannoside and sodium dodecyl sulphate. Periodate/Schiff staining or radioactive counting of analytical gels showed that most of the major myelin-associated glycoprotein (apparent mol.wt. approx. 100000) bound to the concanavalin A, whereas the glycoproteins that did not bind were mostly of lower molecular weight. Preparative polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the glycoprotein fraction that was eluted with methyl alpha-d-mannoside yielded a relatively pure preparation of the myelin-associated glycoprotein. Similar results were obtained with each of the other lectins, i.e. the myelin-associated glycoprotein was in the fraction that bound to the immobilized lectin. Double-labelling experiments utilizing [(3)H]fucose-labelled glycoproteins from adult myelin and [(14)C]fucose-labelled glycoproteins from 14-day-old rat brain myelin did not reveal any difference in the binding of the mature and immature glycoproteins to any of the immobilized lectins. The results in this and the preceding paper [McIntyre, Quarles & Brady (1979) Biochem. J.183, 205-212] suggest that the myelin-associated glycoprotein is one of the principal receptors for concanavalin A and other lectins in myelin, and that this property can be utilized for the purification of this glycoprotein.
Project description:1. Electron microscope autoradiography indicated that L-[3H]fucose and D-[3H]glucosamine were both incorporated into cell-surface-associated glycoconjugates in the epidermis of cultured pig skin slices. 2. Acid hydrolysis and paper chromatography of skin homogenates confirmed that there was little metabolic conversion of the labeled precursors to other sugars. 3. Epidermis was separated from dermis using CaCl2, and was extracted with 8 M-urea/5% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate and was then analysed by gel electrophoresis. The major component labelled with D-[3H]glucosamine had an apparent molecular weight in excess of 200 000. This material was not labelled with L-[3H]fucose. Lower molecular-weight components were labelled to a similar extent with both L-[3H]fucose and D-[3H]glucosamine. 4. The high molecular-weight material labelled with D-[3H]glucosamine was released into the medium when the epidermal cells were dispersed with trypsin, indicating that it was either surface-associated or was extracellular. It was also labelled with D-[14C]glucuronic acid, 35SO4(2-) and to a small extent with 14C-labelled amino acids indicating that it contained glycosaminoglycans derived from epidermal proteoglycans. This was confirmed by the fact that it was degraded by testicular hyaluronoglucosidase. It was not present in isolated membranes but was recovered in the soluble fraction from epidermal homogenates. It is therefore only very loosely bound at the cell surface or is present in the extracellular spaces. 5. Membrane-bound [3H]glycoproteins were identified after differential centrifugation of epidermal homogenates. The radioactivity profiles of membrane glycoproteins were similar whether L-[3H]fucose or D-[3H]glucosamine were used and both consisted of a major heterogeneous peak in the apparent mol.wt. range 70 000--150 000. [3H]Glycoproteins in this molecular-weight range were also major components of a plasma-membrane-enriched fraction. These glycoproteins were probably bound to the membrane by hydrophobic interactions, since they were only solubilized by treatment with detergent or organic solvent. They contained terminal sialic acid residues, since they were degraded by neuraminidase.
Project description:Rabbit aortic intima-media fragments were incubated with [14C]mannose and [3H]fucose for 6 h to detect glycoproteins synthesized in situ. The radioactively labelled and the non-labelled samples were extracted with 0.2 mM-CaCl2/0.5 mM-dithiothreitol/0.5 mM-ATP and chloroform/methanol/water (4:4:1, by vol.). The delipidated residue was extracted with 5 M-guanidinium chloride/0.05 M-dithiothreitol/0.1 M-Tris/0.4% Na2EDTA, pH 7.5, before (extract 1) and after hydrolysis with collagenase (extract 2). The proteins in extracts 1 and 2 were S-carboxamidomethylated and separated by molecular-sieve chromatography, polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing in sucrose gradients in urea. The apparent molecular weights of glycoproteins were 36 000 (glycoprotein I) from extract 1, 50 000 (glycoprotein II) and 130 000 (glycoprotein III) from extract 2. The molecular weights of the non-labelled and radioactively labelled glycoproteins were identical. Glycoproteins I, II and III contain large amounts of polar amino acids and methionine. They contain neither hydroxyproline nor 3-methylhistidine. A hydroxyproline-containing component of 160 000-apparent-mol.wt. relatively rich in polar amino acids and labelled with incorporated sugars was isolated from extract 1. The incorporation in vitro of radioactive sugars into glycoproteins I, II, III and collagenous glycoproteins indicates that they are synthesized in the surviving aorta by the smooth-muscle cells.