The pyridoxal-binding site in pyridoxamine-pyruvate transaminase.
ABSTRACT: The enzyme-substrate complex formed between pyridoxamine-pyruvate transaminase (EC 126.96.36.199) and pyridoxal was reduced with NaBH4. After carboxymethylation and tryptic digestion, pyridoxyl-lysine-containing peptides were isolated by a combination of Sephadex and Dowex 50 chromatography. Analysis of these peptides shows the structure around the pyridoxal-binding lysine residues to be Ala-Asp-Ile-Tyr-Val-Thr-Gly-Pro-Asx-Lys(Pxy)-Cys-Leu(Pro2, Gly2, Ala2, Met)(Thr, Leu2)Gly-Val-Ser-Glu-Arg. This structure differs from those found for the corresponding peptides from pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes.
Project description:A diagonal-electrophoresis method for the selective purification of serine phosphate peptides was applied to tryptic, chymotryptic and peptic digests of oxidized ovalbumin. This method is based on the release of the phosphate group bound to serine by treatment with alkaline phosphatase on paper. The identified serine phosphate peptides were purified by paper electrophoresis at pH6.5 and 2.0, dephosphorylation with bacterial alkaline phosphatase, and paper electrophoresis at pH2.0 again, in that order. The presence of two groups of serine phosphate peptides was apparent from the amino acid composition. One group contained no lysine, cysteic acid, proline, leucine or isoleucine (sequence 1) and the other had all those amino acids (sequence 2). Further degradation with subtilisin of those peptides and ;dansyl'-Edman sequence analysis established their partial sequences. The proposed sequences are as follows (with ;SerP' representing serine phosphate): sequence 1, -Ala-Gly-Arg-Glu-Val-Val-Gly-SerP-Ala-Glu-Ala-Gly-Asp-Val-Ala-Ala-Ser-(Val,Glx(2),Ser,Phe)-Arg-; sequence 2, -Asp-Lys-Leu-Pro-Gly-Phe-Gly-Asp-SerP-Ile-Glx-Ala-Glx-CySO(3)H-Gly-(Thr,Ser,Val)-(Asp,His,Val)-. The partial sequence of one of the phosphopeptides, Asp-(Glu,Ile,SerP), reported by Flavin (1954) was used to establish the proposed sequence 2.
Project description:Treatment of 1 microM wheat-germ aspartate transcarbamoylase with 1 mM-pyridoxal 5'-phosphate caused a rapid loss of activity, concomitant with the formation of a Schiff base. Complete loss of activity occurred within 10 min when the Schiff base was reduced with a 100-fold excess of NaBH4. Concomitantly, one amino group per chain was modified. No further residues were modified in the ensuing 30 min. The kinetics of inactivation were examined under conditions where the Schiff base was reduced before assay. Inactivation was apparently first-order. The pseudo-first-order rate constant, kapp., showed a hyperbolic dependence upon the concentration of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, suggesting that the enzyme first formed a non-covalent complex with the reagent, modification of a lysine then proceeding within this complex. Inactivation of the enzyme by pyridoxal was 20 times slower than that by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, indicating that the phosphate group was important in forming the initial complex. Partial protection against pyridoxal phosphate was provided by the leading substrate, carbamoyl phosphate, and nearly complete protection was provided by the bisubstrate analogue, N-phosphonoacetyl-L-aspartate, and the ligand-pair carbamoyl phosphate plus succinate. Steady-state kinetic studies, under conditions that minimized inactivation, showed that pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was also a competitive inhibitor with respect to the leading substrate, carbamoyl phosphate. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate therefore appears to be an active-site-directed reagent. A sample of the enzyme containing one reduced pyridoxyl group per chain was digested with trypsin, and the labelled peptide was isolated and shown to contain a single pyridoxyl-lysine residue. Partial sequencing around the labelled lysine showed little homology with the sequence surrounding lysine-84, an active-centre residue of the catalytic subunit of aspartate transcarbamoylase from Escherichia coli, whose reaction with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate shows many similarities to the results described in the present paper. Arguably the reactive lysine is conserved between the two enzymes whereas the residues immediately surrounding the lysine are not. The same conclusion has been drawn in a comparison of reactive histidine residues in the two enzymes [Cole & Yon (1986) Biochemistry 25, 7168-7174].
Project description:Conformational aspects of N-glycosylation have been investigated with a series of proline-containing peptides as molecular probes. The results demonstrate that, depending on the position of the imino acid in the peptide chain, dramatic alterations of glycosylation rates are produced, pointing to a critical contribution of the amino acids framing the 'marker sequence' triplet Asn-Xaa-Thr(Ser) on the formation of a potential sugar-attachment site. No glycosyl transfer at all was detectable to those peptides containing a proline residue either in position Xaa or in the next position beyond the threonine of the Asn-sequon on the C-terminal side, whereas the hexapeptide Pro-Asn-Gly-Thr-Ala-Val was glycosylated at a high rate. (Emboldened residues denote the 'marker sequence' that is identical in all the peptides; italicized residues distinguish the positions of proline in the various peptides.) Studies with space-filling models reveal that the lack of glycosyl-acceptor capabilities of Ala(Pro)-Asn-Gly-Thr-Pro-Val might be directly related to their inability to adopt and/or stabilize a turn or loop conformation which permits the catalytically essential interaction between the hydroxy amino acid and the asparagine residue within the 'marker sequence' [Bause & Legler (1981) Biochem. J. 195, 639-644]. This conclusion is supported by circular-dichroism spectroscopic data, which suggest structure-forming potentials in this type of non-acceptor peptides dominating over those that favour the induction of an appropriate sugar-attachment site in the acceptor peptides. The lack of acceptor properties of Tyr-Asn-Pro-Thr-Ser-Val indicates that even small modifications in the 'recognition' pattern are not tolerated by the N-glycosyltransferases.
Project description:The N-terminal 72 residues of an integral membrane fragment, P5, of the human erythrocyte anion-transport protein, which is known to be directly involved in the anion-exchange process, was shown to have the following amino acid sequence: Met-Val-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gly-Pro-Leu-Pro-Asn-Thr-Ala-Leu-Leu-Ser-Leu-Val-Leu-Met -Ala-Gly-Thr-Phe-Phe-Phe-Ala-Met-Met-Leu-Arg-Lys-Phe-Lys-Asn-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Phe-Pro-Gly-Lys-Leu-Arg-Arg-Val-Ile-Gly-Asp-Phe-Gly-Val-Pro-Ile-Ser-Ile-Leu-Ile-Met-Val-Leu-Val-Asp-Phe-Phe-Ile-Gln-Asp-Thr-Tyr-Thr-Gln- The structure of this fragment was analysed, with account being taken of the constraints that apply to the folding of integral membrane proteins and the topographical locations of various sites in the sequence. It was concluded that this sequence forms two transmembrane alpha-helices. These are probably part of a cluster of amphipathic transmembrane alpha-helices, which could comprise that part of the protein responsible for transport activity. The presently available evidence relating to the anion-exchange process was considered with the structural features noted in this study and a possible molecular mechanism is proposed. In this model the rearrangement of a network of intramembranous charged pairs mediates the translocation of an anion between anion-binding regions at each surface of the membrane, which are composed of clusters of positively charged amino acids. This model imposes a sequential exchange mechanism on the system. Supplementary material, including Tables and Figures describing the compositions of peptides determined by amino acid analysis and sequence studies, quantitative and qualitative data that provide a residue-by-residue justification for the sequence assignment and a description of modifications to and use of the solid-phase sequencer has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50123 (12 pages) with the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained as indicated in Biochem. J. (1983) 209, 5.
Project description:1. Phospholipase C was inactivated by exposure to the three amino-group reagents, ethyl acetamidate, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzensulphonic acid and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate plus reduction. 2. Inactivation by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate showed the characteristics of Schiff's base formation with the enzyme. The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-treated enzyme after reduction had an absorbance maximum at 325 mm and 6-N-pyridoxyl-lysine was the only fluorescent component after acid hydrolysis. 3. For complete inactivation, 2 mol of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate or 7 mol of 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl were incorporated/mol of enzyme. 4. The two apparently essential lysine residues were much more reactive to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate than the other 19 lysine residues in the enzyme. 5. Binding of phospholipase C to a substrate-based affinity gel caused marked protection against inactivation by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. For complete inactivation of the gel-bound enzyme, 5 mol of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate were incorporated/mol of enzyme and there was no evidence of two especially reactive lysine residues. 6. On application of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-treated enzyme (remaining activity 30% of original) to a column of the affinity gel, some material bound and some did not. The latter contained very little enzyme activity and was heavily incorporated with reagent (9.06 mol/mol of enzyme). The former had a specific activity of 34% of that of the control and contained 1.29 mol of reagent/mol of enzyme. 7. Thus phospholipase C appears to contain two lysine residues that are essential for enzyme activity, but probably not for substrate binding.
Project description:Pyridoxamine-pyruvate aminotransferase is a PLP (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate) (a coenzyme form of vitamin B6)-independent aminotransferase which catalyses a reversible transamination reaction between pyridoxamine and pyruvate to form pyridoxal and L-alanine. The gene encoding the enzyme has been identified, cloned and overexpressed for the first time. The mlr6806 gene on the chromosome of a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Mesorhizobium loti, encoded the enzyme, which consists of 393 amino acid residues. The primary sequence was identical with those of archaeal aspartate aminotransferase and rat serine-pyruvate aminotransferase, which are PLP-dependent aminotransferases. The results of fold-type analysis and the consensus amino acid residues found around the active-site lysine residue identified in the present study showed that the enzyme could be classified into class V aminotransferases of fold type I or the AT IV subfamily of the alpha family of the PLP-dependent enzymes. Analyses of the absorption and CD spectra of the wild-type and point-mutated enzymes showed that Lys197 was essential for the enzyme activity, and was the active-site lysine residue that corresponded to that found in the PLP-dependent aminotransferases, as had been suggested previously [Hodsdon, Kolb, Snell and Cole (1978) Biochem. J. 169, 429-432]. The K(d) value for pyridoxal determined by means of CD was 100-fold lower than the K(m) value for it, suggesting that Schiff base formation between pyridoxal and the active-site lysine residue is partially rate determining in the catalysis of pyridoxal. The active-site structure and evolutionary aspects of the enzyme are discussed.
Project description:The reaction of holo-(D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) (EC 188.8.131.52) from rat skeletal muscle with [14C]butanedione in 0.05 M-NH4HCO3, pH 8.0, resulted in modification (*) of two arginine residues per subunit with a concomitant loss of catalytic activity. From a tryptic digest of the modified protein two radiolabelled peptides were isolated, with the following sequences: (1)Val-Ile-Ile-Asn-Ala-Pro-Thr-Ala-Asp-Ala(Glx,Met,Leu,Phe,Met)Gly-Val-Asx-Arg- Glx(His,Tyr)Ser-Lys and (2) Asp-Ala-Gly-Ala-Thr-Ile-Ala-Leu(Asx,Glx,Arg,Phe,Val)Lys. By comparison of the data with the known sequences of homologous enzymes, the localization of the modified residues was established. The first peptide was identified as corresponding to residues 116--139, the second to residues 293--306. Experimental evidence from this and previous studies suggests that arginine-134 is important for the catalytic activity of the rat muscle enzyme, being involved in structural rearrangements accompanying the organization of the active centre on the binding of coenzyme and substrate.
Project description:Peptide-bound advanced glycation end-products (peptide-bound AGEs) can be formed when peptides are heated with reducing saccharides. Pyrraline is the one of most commonly studied AGEs in foods, but the relative importance of the precursor peptide structure is uncertain. In the present study, model systems were prepared by heating peptides with glucose from 60 °C to 220 °C for up to 65 min, and the amounts of peptide-bound pyrraline formed were monitored to evaluate the effect of the neighboring amino acids on the peptide-bound pyrraline formation. The physico-chemical properties were introduced to explore the quantitative structure-reactivity relationships between physicochemical properties and peptide bound formation. 3-DG content in dipeptide-glucose model system was higher than that in the corresponding tripeptide-glucose model systems. Dipeptides produced higher amounts of peptide-bound pyrraline than the corresponding tripeptides. The peptide-bound pyrraline and 3-DG production were influenced by the physico-chemical properties of the side chain of amino acids adjacent to Lys in the following order: Lys-Leu/glucose > Lys-Ile/glucose > Lys-Val/ glucose > Lys-Thr/glucose > Lys-Ser/glucose > Lys-Ala/ glucose > Lys-Gly/glucose; Lys-Leu-Gly/glucose > Lys-Ile-Gly/glucose > Lys-Val-Gly/glucose > Lys-Thr-Gly/glucose > Lys-Ser-Gly/glucose > Lys-Ala-Gly/glucose > Lys-Gly-Gly/glucose. For the side chain of amino acids adjacent to Lys in dipeptides, residue volume, polarizability, molecular volume and localized electrical effect were positively related to the yield of peptide bound pyrraline, while hydrophobicity and pKb were negatively related to the yield of peptide bound pyrraline. In terms of side chain of amino acid adjacent to Lys in tripeptides, a similar result was observed, except hydrophobicity was positively related to the yield of peptide bound pyrraline.
Project description:1. RNAase (ribonuclease) U2, a purine-specific RNAase, was reduced, aminoethylated and hydrolysed with trypsin, chymotrypsin and thermolysin. On the basis of the analyses of the resulting peptides, the complete amino acid sequence of RNAase U2 was determined, 2. When the sequence was compared with the amino acid sequence of RNAase T1 (EC 184.108.40.206), the following regions were found to be similar in the two enzymes; Tyr-Pro-His-Gln-Tyr (38-42) in RNAase U2 and Tyr-Pro-His-Lys-Tyr (38-42) in RNAase T1, Glu-Phe-Pro-Leu-Val (61-65) in RNAase U2 and Glu-Trp-Pro-Ile-Leu (58-62) in RNAase T1, Asp-Arg-Val-Ile-Tyr-Gln (83-88) in RNAase U2 and Asp-Arg-Val-Phe-Asn (76-81) in RNAase T1 and Val-Thr-His-Thr-Gly-Ala (98-103) in RNAase U2 and Ile-Thr-His-Thr-Gly-Ala (90-95) in RNAase T1. All of the amino acid residues, histidine-40, glutamate-58, arginine-77 and histidine-92, which were found to play a crucial role in the biological activity of RNAase T1, were included in the regions cited here. 3. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequence of the sequence of the proteins has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50041 (33 PAGES) AT THE British Library (Lending Division)(formerly the National Lending Library for Science and Technology), Boston Spa, Yorks. LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1975), 145, 5.
Project description:1. Pig M4 lactate dehydrogenase treated in the dark with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate at pH8.5 and 25 degrees C loses activity gradually. The maximum inactivation was 66%, and this did not increase with concentrations of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate above 1 mM. 2. Inactivation may be reversed by dialysis or made permanent by reducing the enzyme with NaBH4. 3. Spectral evidence indicates modification of lysine residues, and 6-N-pyridoxyl-lysine is present in the hydrolsate of inactivated, reduced enzyme. 4. A second cycle of treatment with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and NaBH4 further decreases activity. After three cycles only 9% of the original activity remains. 5. Apparent Km values for lactate and NAD+ are unaltered in the partially inactivated enzyme. 6. These results suggest that the covalently modified enzyme is inactive; failure to achieve complete inactivation in a single treatment is due to the reversibility of Schiff-base formation and to the consequent presence of active non-covalently bonded enzyme-modifier complex in the equilibrium mixture. 7. Although several lysine residues per subunit are modified, only one appears to be essential for activity: pyruvate and NAD+ together (both 5mM) completely protect against inactivation, and there is a one-to-one relationship between enzyme protection and decreased lysine modification. 8. NAD+ or NADH alone gives only partial protection. Substrates give virtually none. 9. Pig H4 lactate dehydrogenase is also inactivated by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. 10. The possible role of the essential lysine residue is discussed.