ABSTRACT: Reversible competitive inhibitors of a penicillinase, beta-lactamase 1 from Bacillus cereus, were studied. These represent the first inhibitors of a penicillinase that lack the beta-lactam ring. The products of the enzymic reaction, namely penicilloic acids, are inhibitors; their decarboxylation products, the penilloic acids, are also inhibitors, and have somewhat lower Ki values. Inhibitors have been prepared from benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethyl-penicillin, methicillin (2,6-dimethoxybenzamidopenicillanic acid) and 3-hydroxy-4-nitrobenzamidopenicillanic acid. Decarboxylation of the penicilloic acids from benzyl-penicillin, or from phenoxymethylpenicillin, leads to epimerization (at C-5) of the penilloic acid. Nuclear-magnetic resonance spectroscopy at a frequency of 270 MHz can distinguish the epimers. Other competitive inhibitors studied were boric acid, benzene boronic acid and m-aminobenzeneboronic acid. Boric acid itself was the best inhibitor of beta-lactamase I so far found.
Project description:We present a sensitive and rapid screening method for the determination of ?-lactamase activity of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, by designing a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye-doped mesoporous silica nanoparticle encapsulated with penicillin G as a substrate. When penicillin G was hydrolysed by ?-lactamase and converted into penicilloic acid, the acidic environment resulted in fluorescence quenching of the dye. The dye-doped mesoporous nanoparticles not only enhanced the ?-lactamase-catalyzed reaction rate but also stablized the substrate, penicillin G, which degrades into penicilloic acid in a water solution without ?-lactamase. Twentyfive clinical bacterial samples were tested and the antibiotic resistant and susceptible strains were identified. The proposed method may detect the presence of ? -lactamases of clinically relevant samples in less than 1?hour. Moreover, the detection limit of ?-lactamase activity was as low as 7.8×10-4?U/mL, which was determined within two hours.
Project description:The preparation, crystallization and low-resolution structure determination of beta-lactamase (EC 184.108.40.206, 'penicillinase') from Staphylococcus aureus is described. The enzyme crystallizes in space group I222 with 1 molecule per asymmetric unit and cell dimensions a = 5.45(1), b = 9.39(1) and c = 13.87(2) nm. The structure was determined at 0.5 nm resolution by using phases calculated from (NH4)2Pt(CN)4 and KAu(CN)2 derivatives. The mean figure of merit mean value of m, for the 1106 reflexions used was 0.70. Difference Fourier syntheses for data collected from crystals soaked in platinum D-methionine and in 6-(4-hydroxy-3,5-di-iodobenzamido)penicilloic acid revealed the likely position of the active site of the enzyme.
Project description:New antibiotic regimens are needed for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a thick peptidoglycan layer, and the penicillin-binding proteins involved in its biosynthesis are inhibited by clinically relevant concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics. beta-Lactamase production appears to be the major mechanism by which M. tuberculosis expresses beta-lactam resistance. beta-Lactamases from the broth supernatant of 3- to 4-week-old cultures of M. tuberculosis H37Ra were partially purified by sequential gel filtration chromatography and chromatofocusing. Three peaks of beta-lactamase activity with pI values of 5.1, 4.9, and 4.5, respectively, and which accounted for 10, 78, and 12% of the total postchromatofocusing beta-lactamase activity, respectively, were identified. The beta-lactamases with pI values of 5.1 and 4.9 were kinetically indistinguishable and exhibited predominant penicillinase activity. In contrast, the beta-lactamase with a pI value of 4.5 showed relatively greater cephalosporinase activity. An open reading frame in cosmid Y49 of the DNA library of M. tuberculosis H37Rv with homology to known class A beta-lactamases was amplified from chromosomal DNA of M. tuberculosis H37Ra by PCR and was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme was kinetically similar to the pI 5.1 and 4.9 enzymes purified directly from M. tuberculosis. It exhibited predominant penicillinase activity and was especially active against azlocillin. It was inhibited by clavulanic acid and m-aminophenylboronic acid but not by EDTA. We conclude that the major beta-lactamase of M. tuberculosis is a class A beta-lactamase with predominant penicillinase activity. A second, minor beta-lactamase with relatively greater cephalosporinase activity is also present.
Project description:With increasing concerns regarding diminishing treatment options for gonorrhea, maintaining the efficacy of currently used treatments and ensuring optimal Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance surveillance are of the utmost importance. Penicillin is still used to treat gonorrhea in some parts of the world. In this study, we developed and validated a real-time PCR assay for the detection of penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) in noncultured clinical samples with the aim of enhancing penicillin resistance surveillance. The assay (PPNG-PCR2) was designed to be an indirect marker of penicillinase activity, by targeting a region of sequence predicted to be conserved across all N. gonorrhoeae plasmid types harboring the beta-lactamase gene while not specifically targeting the actual beta-lactamase-encoding sequence. The assay was evaluated by using a total of 118 N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates and 1,194 clinical specimens, including 239 N. gonorrhoeae-positive clinical samples from which N. gonorrhoeae cells were isolated and for which phenotypic penicillinase results are available. Overall, the PPNG-PCR2 assay provided 100% sensitivity and 98.7% specificity compared to bacterial culture results for the detection of PPNG in clinical specimens. PPNG-PCR2 false-positive results, presumably due to cross-reactions with unrelated bacterial species, were observed for up to 1.3% of clinical samples but could be distinguished on the basis of high cycle threshold values. In tandem with phenotypic surveillance, the PPNG-PCR2 assay has the potential to provide enhanced epidemiological surveillance of N. gonorrhoeae penicillin resistance and is of particular relevance to regions where penicillin is still used to treat gonorrhea.
Project description:1. The penicillinase (beta-lactamase) from Escherichia coli strain TEM has been purified and its activity against a range of penicillin and cephalosporin derivatives measured. 2. The enzyme shows little resemblance to penicillinases from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis and Staphylococcus aureus. 3. The molecular weight of the enzyme is 16700+/-5%, which is about half the value obtained for other penicillinases. 4. The enzyme is most similar in properties to a crude preparation of a penicillinase from Klebsiella (Aerobacter) aerogenes, but clearly different from crude enzyme preparations from other strains of E. coli. 5. Since penicillinase synthesis in E. coli strain TEM is mediated by an R-factor known to infect many other species of Enterobacteriaceae, the appearance of similar enzymes in other Gramnegative species is not surprising.
Project description:A gene (bla) encoding a beta-lactamase is present in the cephamycin gene cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus, the strain producing clavulanic acid and a beta-lactamase inhibitory protein. The bla gene is located 5.1 kb downstream from and in the opposite orientation to cefE, encoding the deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase. The bla gene encodes a 332-residue protein (Mr, 35,218), similar to other class A beta-lactamases produced by actinomycetes. Modification (to SDG) of the SDN conserved motif of class A beta-lactamases as well as of amino acids in otherwise conserved regions in the molecule may explain the low penicillinase and cephalosporinase activities of the protein. The beta-lactamase has been purified to homogeneity and found to bind [3H]benzylpenicillin, a result reflecting a rate-limiting deacylation step. Nucleotide sequences homologous to bla were found in all tested cephamycin producers, but several other Streptomyces species which produce a beta-lactamase do not contain genes for beta-lactam antibiotic biosynthesis.
Project description:1. When Bacillus cereus 569/H was grown in a casamino acid (casein-hydrolysate) medium containing zinc sulphate rapid production of extracellular beta-lactamase II preceded that of beta-lactamase I. 2. beta-Lactamase I was separated from beta-lactamase II by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulphate. 3. beta-Lactamase I was purified by a process involving chromatography on Celite and DEAE-cellulose and beta-lactamase II by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose after denaturation of beta-lactamase I by heat. Both enzymes were obtained in crystalline form. 4. beta-Lactamase II prepared in this way appeared to have a higher molecular weight than beta-lactamase I and required Zn(2+) as a cofactor for both cephalosporinase and penicillinase activities.
Project description:Susceptibility to penicillin and other beta-lactam-containing compounds is a common trait of Bacillus anthracis. Beta-lactam agents, particularly penicillin, have been used worldwide to treat anthrax in humans. Nonetheless, surveys of clinical and soil-derived strains reveal penicillin G resistance in 2 to 16% of isolates tested. Bacterial resistance to beta-lactam agents is often mediated by production of one or more types of beta-lactamases that hydrolyze the beta-lactam ring, inactivating the antimicrobial agent. Here, we report the presence of two beta-lactamase (bla) genes in the penicillin-susceptible Sterne strain of B. anthracis. We identified bla1 by functional cloning with Escherichia coli. bla1 is a 927-nucleotide (nt) gene predicted to encode a protein with 93.8% identity to the type I beta-lactamase gene of Bacillus cereus. A second gene, bla2, was identified by searching the unfinished B. anthracis chromosome sequence database of The Institute for Genome Research for open reading frames (ORFs) predicted to encode beta-lactamases. We found a partial ORF predicted to encode a protein with significant similarity to the carboxy-terminal end of the type II beta-lactamase of B. cereus. DNA adjacent to the 5' end of the partial ORF was cloned using inverse PCR. bla2 is a 768-nt gene predicted to encode a protein with 92% identity to the B. cereus type II enzyme. The bla1 and bla2 genes confer ampicillin resistance to E. coli and Bacillus subtilis when cloned individually in these species. The MICs of various antimicrobial agents for the E. coli clones indicate that the two beta-lactamase genes confer different susceptibility profiles to E. coli; bla1 is a penicillinase, while bla2 appears to be a cephalosporinase. The beta-galactosidase activities of B. cereus group species harboring bla promoter-lacZ transcriptional fusions indicate that bla1 is poorly transcribed in B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis. The bla2 gene is strongly expressed in B. cereus and B. thuringiensis and weakly expressed in B. anthracis. Taken together, these data indicate that the bla1 and bla2 genes of the B. anthracis Sterne strain encode functional beta-lactamases of different types, but gene expression is usually not sufficient to confer resistance to beta-lactam agents.
Project description:Many beta-lactamases have active-site serine residues, and are competitively inhibited by boronic acids. Hitherto, the boronic acids used have lacked any structural resemblance to the substrates of beta-lactamases. Phenylacetamidomethaneboronic acid, trifluoroacetamidomethaneboronic acid and 2,6-dimethoxybenzamidomethaneboronic acid have now been synthesized. The first of these contains the side-chain moiety of penicillin G, and the last that of methicillin. The pH-dependence of binding of the first inhibitor to beta-lactamase I from Bacillus cereus revealed pK values of 4.7 and 8.2 for (presumably) active-site groups in the enzyme. The kinetics of inhibition were studied by cryoenzymology and by stopped-flow spectrophotometry. These techniques provided evidence for a two-step mechanism of binding of the first two boronic acids mentioned above to beta-lactamase I, and for benzeneboronic acid to a beta-lactamase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The slower step is probably associated with a change in enzyme conformation as well as the formation of an O-B bond between the active-site serine hydroxy group and the boronic acid.
Project description:Since the introduction of penicillin, beta-lactam antibiotics have been the antimicrobial agents of choice. Unfortunately, the efficacy of these life-saving antibiotics is significantly threatened by bacterial beta-lactamases. beta-Lactamases are now responsible for resistance to penicillins, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems. In order to overcome beta-lactamase-mediated resistance, beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanate, sulbactam, and tazobactam) were introduced into clinical practice. These inhibitors greatly enhance the efficacy of their partner beta-lactams (amoxicillin, ampicillin, piperacillin, and ticarcillin) in the treatment of serious Enterobacteriaceae and penicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections. However, selective pressure from excess antibiotic use accelerated the emergence of resistance to beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Furthermore, the prevalence of clinically relevant beta-lactamases from other classes that are resistant to inhibition is rapidly increasing. There is an urgent need for effective inhibitors that can restore the activity of beta-lactams. Here, we review the catalytic mechanisms of each beta-lactamase class. We then discuss approaches for circumventing beta-lactamase-mediated resistance, including properties and characteristics of mechanism-based inactivators. We next highlight the mechanisms of action and salient clinical and microbiological features of beta-lactamase inhibitors. We also emphasize their therapeutic applications. We close by focusing on novel compounds and the chemical features of these agents that may contribute to a "second generation" of inhibitors. The goal for the next 3 decades will be to design inhibitors that will be effective for more than a single class of beta-lactamases.