N-terminal cleavage of proTGFalpha occurs at the cell surface by a TACE-independent activity.
ABSTRACT: ProTGFalpha (transforming growth factor alpha precursor) maturation and conversion into soluble TGFalpha is a complex process that involves three proteolytic steps. One, that occurs co-translationally, eliminates the signal sequence. Another, occurring at the juxta-membrane domain, solubilizes TGFalpha. A third cleavage removes the N-terminal extension of proTGFalpha. This latter step has been poorly studied, mainly because of the rapid kinetics of this cleavage. In the present study, we have designed a strategy to analyse several aspects regarding this N-terminal cleavage. In vivo treatment with the hydroxamate-based metalloprotease inhibitors BB3103 or TAPI-2 (tumour necrosis factor-alpha protease inhibitor 2) reversibly induced accumulation of forms of proTGFalpha that included the N-terminal extension. N-terminal shedding was rapid, and occurred at the cell surface. However, the machinery responsible for the N-terminal cleavage was inactive in other cellular sites, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. Experiments of proTGFalpha expression and maturation in cells deficient in TACE (tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-converting enzyme) activity indicated that this protease was dispensable for N-terminal processing of proTGFalpha in vivo, but was required for regulated cleavage at the C-terminus. These findings indicate that TACE is not involved in N-terminal processing of proTGFalpha, and suggest differences in the machineries that control the cleavage at both ends of TGFalpha within its precursor.
Project description:The amyloid precursor protein (APP) of Alzheimer's disease is a transmembrane protein that is cleaved within its extracellular domain, liberating a soluble N-terminal fragment (sAPP alpha). Putative mediators of this process include three members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family, ADAM9, ADAM10 and ADAM17/TACE (tumour necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha protease inhibitor (TAPI-1), an inhibitor of ADAMs, reduced constitutive and muscarinic receptor-stimulated sAPP alpha release in HEK-293 cells stably expressing M3 muscarinic receptors. However, the former was less sensitive to TAPI-1 (IC(50)=8.09 microM) than the latter (IC(50)=3.61 microM), suggesting that these processes may be mediated by different metalloproteases. Constitutive sAPP alpha release was increased several-fold in cells transiently transfected with TACE, and this increase was proportional to TACE expression. In contrast, muscarinic-receptor-activated sAPP alpha release was not altered in TACE transfectants. TACE-dependent constitutive release of co-transfected APP(695) was inhibited by TAPI-1 with an IC(50) of 0.92 microm, a value significantly lower than the IC(50)s for inhibition of either constitutive or receptor-regulated sAPP alpha shedding mediated by endogenous secretases. The results indicate that TACE is capable of catalysing constitutive alpha-secretory cleavage of APP, but it is likely that additional members of the ADAM family mediate endogenous constitutive and receptor-coupled release of sAPP alpha in HEK-293 cells.
Project description:Meprin is a zinc endopeptidase of the astacin family, which is expressed as a membrane-bound or secreted protein in mammalian epithelial cells, in intestinal leucocytes and in certain cancer cells. There are two types of meprin subunits, alpha and beta, which form disulphide-bonded homo- and hetero-oligomers. Here we report on the cleavage of matrix proteins by hmeprin (human meprin) alpha and beta homo-oligomers, and on the interactions of these enzymes with inhibitors. Despite their completely different cleavage specificities, both hmeprin alpha and beta are able to hydrolyse basement membrane components such as collagen IV, nidogen-1 and fibronectin. However, they are inactive against intact collagen I. Hence the matrix-cleaving activity of hmeprin resembles that of gelatinases rather than collagenases. Hmeprin is inhibited by hydroxamic acid derivatives such as batimastat, galardin and Pro-Leu-Gly-hydroxamate, by TAPI-0 (tumour necrosis factor alpha protease inhibitor-0) and TAPI-2, and by thiol-based compounds such as captopril. Therapeutic targets for these inhibitors are MMPs (matrix metalloproteases), TACE (tumour necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme) and angiotensin-converting enzyme respectively. The most effective inhibitor of hmeprin alpha in the present study was the naturally occurring hydroxamate actinonin ( K(i)=20 nM). The marked variance in the cleavage specificities of hmeprin alpha and beta is reflected by their interaction with the TACE inhibitor Ro 32-7315, whose affinity for the beta subunit (IC50=1.6 mM) is weaker by three orders of magnitude than that for the alpha subunit ( K(i)=1.6 microM). MMP inhibitors such as the pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione derivative Ro 28-2653 that are more specific for gelatinases do not bind to hmeprin, presumably due to the subtle differences in the mode of zinc binding and active-site structure between the astacins and the MMPs.
Project description:Glial erbB1 receptors play a significant role in the hypothalamic control of female puberty. Activation of these receptors by transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) results in production of prostaglandin E2, which then stimulates luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons to secrete LHRH, the neuropeptide controlling sexual development. Glutamatergic neurons set in motion this glia-to-neuron signaling pathway by transactivating erbB1 receptors via coactivation of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Because the metalloproteinase tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme (TACE) releases TGFalpha from its transmembrane precursor before TGFalpha can bind to erbB1 receptors, we sought to determine whether TACE is required for excitatory amino acids to activate the TGFalpha-erbB1 signaling module in hypothalamic astrocytes, and thus facilitate the advent of puberty. Coactivation of astrocytic AMPARs and mGluRs caused extracellular Ca2+ influx, a Ca2+/protein kinase C-dependent increase in TACE-like activity, and enhanced release of TGFalpha. Within the hypothalamus, TACE is most abundantly expressed in astrocytes of the median eminence (ME), and its enzymatic activity increases selectively in this region at the time of the first preovulatory surge of gonadotropins. ME explants respond to stimulation of AMPARs and mGluRs with LHRH release, and this response is prevented by blocking TACE activity. In vivo inhibition of TACE activity targeted to the ME delayed the age at first ovulation, indicating that ME-specific changes in TACE activity are required for the normal timing of puberty. These results suggest that TACE is a component of the neuron-to-glia signaling process used by glutamatergic neurons to control female sexual development.
Project description:Proteolysis of the GHR (growth hormone receptor) occurs at the cell surface and results in the release of its extracellular domain, the GHBP (growth hormone-binding protein). TACE (tumour necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme) has been identified as a putative protease responsible for GHR cleavage. However, GHR-TACE interaction has not been observed until now. Here, we identified TACE in Chinese hamster cells and confirmed processing and cell-surface expression. Interaction between GHR and TACE was only observed after growth hormone binding. As the growth hormone-GHR(2) complex is a poor substrate for TACE, we conclude that the GHR-TACE interaction precedes proteolysis, and is transient. Furthermore, we demonstrate that TACE is present in endosomes, where it partly co-localizes with endocytosed growth hormone ligand.
Project description:The metalloproteinases TACE [tumour necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme; also known as ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17)] and ADAM10 are the primary enzymes responsible for catalysing release of membrane-anchored proteins from the cell surface in metazoan organisms. Although the repertoire of protein substrates for these two proteases is partially overlapping, each one appears to target a subset of unique proteins in vivo. The mechanisms by which the two proteases achieve specificity for particular substrates are not completely understood. We have used peptide libraries to define the cleavage site selectivity of TACE and ADAM10. The two proteases have distinct primary sequence requirements at multiple positions surrounding the cleavage site in their substrates, which allowed us to generate peptide substrates that are highly specific for each of these proteases. The major difference between the two protease specificities maps to the P1' position (immediately downstream of the cleavage site) of the substrate. At this position, TACE is selective for smaller aliphatic residues, whereas ADAM10 can accommodate aromatic amino acids. Using mutagenesis we identified three residues in the S1' pockets of these enzymes that dramatically influence specificity for both peptide and protein substrates. Our results suggest that substrate selectivity of TACE and ADAM10 can be at least partly rationalized by specific features of their active sites.
Project description:Solubilization of a number of membrane proteins occurs by the action of cell-surface proteases, termed secretases. Recently, the activity of these secretases has been reported to be controlled by the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) routes. In the present paper, we show that shedding of membrane-anchored growth factors (MAGFs) may also occur through MAPK-independent routes. In Chinese-hamster ovary cells, cleavage induced by protein kinase C (PKC) stimulation was largely insensitive to inhibitors of the ERK1/ERK2 and p38 routes. Other reagents such as sorbitol or UV light stimulated MAGF cleavage independent of PKC. The action of sorbitol on cleavage was only partially prevented by the combined action of inhibitors of the p38 and ERK1/ERK2 routes, indicating that sorbitol can also stimulate shedding by MAPK-dependent and -independent routes. Studies in cells devoid of activity of the secretase tumour necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE) indicated that this protease had an essential role in PKC- and ERK1/ERK2-mediated shedding. However, secretases other than TACE may also cleave MAGFs since sorbitol could still induce shedding in these cells. These observations suggest that cleavage of MAGFs is a complex process in which multiple secretases, activated through different MAPK-dependent and -independent routes, are involved.
Project description:Previous studies demonstrated that mast cell-derived TNFalpha stimulation is critical to the upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 on human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCECs), which is an important feature of ocular allergic inflammation. Shedding of TNFR1 by TNFalpha-converting enzyme (TACE) is a primary mechanism for the regulation of TNFalpha-mediated events. This process has not been examined in HCECs. In this study, the authors examined the regulation of TNFR1 expression and shedding by TACE on primary HCECs and the IOBA-NHC conjunctival epithelial cell line.Primary human conjunctival mast cells and epithelial cells were obtained from cadaveric conjunctival tissue. HCECs were incubated with and without activators (IgE-activated mast cell supernates, phorbol myristate acetate [PMA; to activate TACE], TNFalpha, and IFNgamma [to upregulate TNFR1]) for 24 hours. Pretreatment with the TACE inhibitor TAPI-2 was used to inhibit shedding of TNFR1. Supernates collected from the incubations were analyzed with ELISA for soluble TNFR1 (sTNFR1). With the use of flow cytometry, cells were harvested from these experiments for analysis of TNFR1 and ICAM-1 receptor expression.IgE-activated conjunctival mast cell supernates upregulated the expression of TNFR1. TAPI-2 inhibited the PMA-induced release of sTNFR1 receptor and enhanced the surface expression of TNFR1 in HCECs in a dose-dependent manner. Upregulation of TNFR1 expression by priming with TAPI-2 and IFNgamma resulted in enhanced ICAM-1 expression in response to TNFalpha stimulation (significant change in the slope of the dose-response curve).These results demonstrate that TACE promotes TNFR1 shedding in HCECs and that TNFR1 expression may be a more significant target than TNFalpha for intervention in ocular inflammation.
Project description:Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) is a pluripotent cytokine promoting epithelial cell plasticity during morphogenesis and tumour progression. TGF? binding to type II and type I serine/threonine kinase receptors (T?RII and T?RI) causes activation of different intracellular signaling pathways. T?RI is associated with the ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). Here we show that TGF?, via TRAF6, causes Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of T?RI, promoting cleavage of T?RI by TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE), in a PKC?-dependent manner. The liberated intracellular domain (ICD) of T?RI associates with the transcriptional regulator p300 to activate genes involved in tumour cell invasiveness, such as Snail and MMP2. Moreover, TGF?-induced invasion of cancer cells is TACE- and PKC?- dependent and the T?RI ICD is localized in the nuclei of different kinds of tumour cells in tissue sections. Thus, our data reveal a specific role for T?RI in TGF? mediated tumour invasion.
Project description:It is well established that interferons trigger tyrosine-kinase-dependent signaling via JAK kinases and STAT transcription factors. However, we have observed both IFNaR2 receptor cleavage and functional activity of the liberated intracellular domain (ICD), suggesting that interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) can also signal via regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP), an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of receptor-mediated signaling. Sequential cleavage of the receptor ectodomain and transmembrane domain is a hallmark of the most common class of RIP. To investigate the mechanisms of IFNaR2 RIP signaling, we examined IFNaR2 cleavage by TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) and presenilin proteases. We tracked the fate of epitope-tagged and fusion variants of IFNaR2 in cells expressing wild-type, mutant, or null versions of TACE and presenilins 1 and 2. Cleavage and subcellular location were determined by immunoblot, fluoresence microscopy, and reporter assays. We found that both TACE and presenilin 1/2 cleave IFNaR2, in a sequential manner that allows the ICD to move to the nucleus. TACE cleavage was induced by IFN-alpha but was not consistently required for the anti-proliferative effects of IFN-alpha. In conclusion, IFNaR2 is cleaved by TACE and Presenilin 1/2, suggesting that interferons signal by both kinase and RIP-mediated pathways.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) bind with similar affinities in a competitive fashion to the human EGF receptor, and basically induce similar mitogenic responses. In spite of the fact that EGF and TGFalpha are structurally alike, it is still not clear if the two growth factors bind the receptor in an identical manner. The observation that the 13A9 antibody blocks binding of TGFalpha, but not that of EGF, to the human EGF receptor [Winkler, O'Connor, Winget and Fendly (1989) Biochemistry 28, 6373-6378] suggests that their binding characteristics are not identical. In the present study we have made use of a set of EGF/TGFalpha chimaeric molecules to show that the 13A9 antibody blocks receptor binding of ligands with TGFalpha sequences, but not of ligands with EGF sequences, in their C-terminal linear regions. Using HaCaT human keratinocyte cells in culture, it was determined that ligands that are able to bind the EGF receptor in the presence of 13A9 are also able to induce calcium release from intracellular stores in these cells, indicating that these ligands have the ability to activate the EGF receptor in the presence of the antibody. From these data it is concluded that the flexible C-terminal linear domains of EGF and TGFalpha bind to separate sequences on the EGF receptor, such that the binding domain of TGFalpha, but not that of EGF, overlaps with the binding epitope of the 13A9 antibody.