Activity of selected gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes in bovine rumen mucosa, liver and adipose tissue.
ABSTRACT: The activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, ;malic enzyme', citrate-cleavage enzyme and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were assayed in homogenates of rumen mucosa, liver and adipose tissue of cattle. Rumen mucosa cytoplasm contained activities of ;malic enzyme' approximately sevenfold those of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, suggesting that the conversion of propionate into lactate by rumen mucosa involves ;malic enzyme'. Neither starvation for 8 days nor feeding with a concentrate diet for at least 3 months before slaughter produced enzyme patterns in the tissues different from those in cattle given only hay, except that the all-concentrate diet caused increased activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ;malic enzyme' in adipose tissues. Rumen mucosa, liver and adipose tissue contained phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity. ;Malic enzyme' was absent in liver. Citrate-cleavage enzyme activity was present in liver and adipose tissue but was quite low in rumen mucosa. Liver contained much less glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity than rumen mucosa or adipose tissue.
Project description:1. Utilization of propionate by sheep liver mitochondria was stimulated equally by pyruvate or alpha-oxoglutarate, with formation predominantly of malate. Pyruvate increased conversion of propionate carbon into citrate, whereas alpha-oxoglutarate increased formation of phosphoenolpyruvate. The fraction of metabolized propionate converted into phosphoenolpyruvate was about 17% in the presence or absence of alpha-oxoglutarate and about 7% in the presence of pyruvate. Pyruvate consumption was inhibited by 80% by 5mm-propionate. 2. Compared with rat liver, sheep liver was characterized by very high activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and moderately high activities of aconitase in the mitochondria and by low activities of ;malic' enzyme, pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in the cytosol. Activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxy-kinase were similar in liver cytosol from rats and sheep. Activities of malate dehydrogenase and NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase in sheep liver were about half those in rat liver. 3. The phosphate-dicarboxylate antiport was active in sheep liver mitochondria, but compared with rat liver mitochondria the citrate-malate antiport showed only low activity and mitochondrial aconitase was relatively inaccessible to external citrate. The rate of swelling of mitochondria induced by phosphate in solutions of ammonium malate was inversely related to the concentration of malate. 4. The results are discussed in relation to gluconeogenesis from propionate in sheep liver. It is proposed that propionate is converted into malate by the mitochondria and the malate is converted into phosphoenolpyruvate by enzymes in the cytosol. In this way sufficient NADH would be generated in the cytosol to convert the phosphoenolpyruvate into glucose.
Project description:1. The regulation of the synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (EC 220.127.116.11) in epididymal adipose tissue, liver and kidney in vivo was studied immunochemically. 2. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) synthesis in adipose tissue is increased by starvation, diabetes and noradrenaline, and decreased by re-feeding and insulin. These changes were also seen in adrenalectomized rats and are qualitatively similar to those observed for the liver enzyme. This indicates the involvement of cyclic AMP as an inducer and insulin as a de-inducer in the regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in both tissues. (Induction and de-induction are defined as selective increase and decrease respectively in the rate of enzyme synthesis, regardless of the mechanism involved.)3. Adrenalectomy had little effect on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) synthesis in liver and kidney, but increased the synthesis rate of the adipose-tissue enzyme. Starvation and adrenalectomy had additive effects in increasing the synthesis rate of adipose-tissue phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP). In adrenalectomized diabetic rats glucocorticoids increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) synthesis in liver and kidney while decreasing enzyme synthesis in adipose tissue. De-induction of adipose tissue phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) is therefore regulated independently by glucocorticoids and insulin. 4. Although liver, kidney and adipose-tissue phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinases (GTP) are seemingly identical, there is an apparent tissue-specific differentiation in regulatory systems for the enzyme.
Project description:The hepatocyte and haematopoietic cell contents of the liver of the foetal guinea pig were measured over the latter half of gestation. Hepatocytes represented about 30% of liver volume at mid-gestation and this increased to 70-80% by term; cell volume remained fairly constant until 5-7 days before term, then more than doubled. Haematopoietic cells represented about 5% of liver volume at mid-gestation and this progressively fell to <1% by term. At 75% of gestation hepatocytes and haematopoietic cells were prepared from perfused foetal livers by collagenase digestion. Enzyme activity of the hepatocyte was, without exception, similar to that of the whole liver. In general, enzyme activity in the haematopoietic cells was similar to that in erythrocytes, with relatively low values for aldolase, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate mutase, enolase, lactate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, ;malic' enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase. The haematopoietic cell contribution to total enzyme activity in the foetal liver was usually much less than 10% and could thus not account for the major changes in hepatic enzyme activity over the latter half of gestation. Hepatocytes contained hexokinase isoenzymes I and III, aldolase isoenzymes A and B and pyruvate kinase isoenzymes 1, 2 and 4. The haematopoietic cells contained hexokinase isoenzyme I and two additional bands of activity with slightly greater mobility, aldolase isoenzyme A and pyruvate kinase isoenzymes 2 and 4.
Project description:Chronic (6 days) hyperinsulinaemia in young rats produced lower blood glucose concentrations and augmented body- and liver-weight gain. The insulin-treated rats had increased hepatic activities of citrate-cleavage enzyme, 'malic' enzyme and high-substrate (6.6 mM-phosphoenolpyruvate) pyruvate kinase, and decreased glucose 6-phosphatase. There were no changes in activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, phosphofructokinase, low-substrate (1.3 mM-phosphoenolpyruvate) pyruvate kinase, glucokinase and hexokinase.
Project description:1. Relative rates of enzyme inactivation were measured in liver slices, homogenates and cytosol fractions as well as in the presence of trypsin and at acid pH. The enzymes chosen are all present in the cytosol fraction of rat liver, and have widely different degradation rate constants in vivo. 2. The inactivation rates of lactate dehydrogenase, fructose bisphosphate aldolase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP), l-serine dehydratase and thymidine kinase in liver preparations at neutral pH are in a similar order to the rate constants of degradation of these enzymes in the intact animal. 3. The two exceptions of this general correlation were tyrosine aminotransferase, which was stable in vitro but not in vivo, and glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, which shows the reverse pattern. 4. These findings generally support the concept that the same factors are responsible for enzyme inactivation in vitro as occur in the intact tissue.
Project description:1. Glucose production from L-lactate was completely inhibited 24h after carbon tetrachloride treatment in liver from 48h-starved rats. The activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose diphosphatase and glucose 6-phosphatase were decreased by this treatment in fed and starved rats, whereas lactate dehydrogenase activity was only decreased in fed animals. 2. The production of glucose by renal cortical slices from fed rats previously treated with carbon tetrachloride was enhanced when L-lactate, pyruvate and glutamine but not fructose were used as glucose precursors. Renal phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity was increased in this condition. 3. This increase was counteracted by cycloheximide or actinomycin D, suggesting that the effect was due to the synthesis de novo of the enzyme. 4. The pattern of hepatic gluconeogenic metabolites in treated animals was characterized by an increase in lactate, pyruvate, malate and citrate as well as a decrease in glucose 6-phosphate, suggesting an impairment of liver gluconeogenesis in vivo. 5. In contrast, the profile of renal metabolites suggested that gluconeogenesis was operative in the treated rats, as indicated by the marked increase in the content of phosphoenolpyruvate, 2-phosphoglycerate, 3-phosphoglycerate and glucose 6-phosphate. 6. It is postulated that renal gluconeogenesis could contribute to the maintenance of glycaemia in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats.
Project description:1. Measurements are presented of the activity and intracellular distribution of phosphoenolypruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate carboxylase and NADP-malate dehydrogenase in rat, guinea-pig and rabbit liver and kidney cortex, together with previously obtained measurements of these enzymes in adipose tissue. 2. In all three tissues pyruvate carboxylase activity was greatest in the rat and lowest in the rabbit. 3. Guinea pig and rabbit were very similar to each other with respect to the extramitochondrial-mitochondrial distribution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in all three tissues. 4. NADP-malate dehydrogenase was present in all three tissues in the rat, present in kidney cortex and adipose tissue in the guinea pig and absent from all tissues examines in the rabbit.
Project description:In liver, (13)CO2 can be generated from [1-(13)C] pyruvate via pyruvate dehydrogenase or anaplerotic entry of pyruvate into the TCA cycle followed by decarboxylation at phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), the malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase, or ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of these pathways in production of hyperpolarized (HP) (13)CO2 after administration of hyper-polarized pyruvate in livers supplied with a fatty acid plus substrates for gluconeogenesis. Isolated mouse livers were perfused with a mixture of thermally-polarized (13)C-enriched pyruvate, lactate and octanoate in various combinations prior to exposure to HP pyruvate. Under all perfusion conditions, HP malate, aspartate and fumarate were detected within ~ 3 s showing that HP [1-(13)C]pyruvate is rapidly converted to [1-(13)C]oxaloacetate which can subsequently produce HP (13)CO2 via decarboxylation at PEPCK. Measurements using HP [2-(13)C]pyruvate allowed the exclusion of reactions related to TCA cycle turnover as sources of HP (13)CO2. Direct measures of O2 consumption, ketone production, and glucose production by the intact liver combined with (13)C isotopomer analyses of tissue extracts yielded a comprehensive profile of metabolic flux in perfused liver. Together, these data show that, even though the majority of HP (13)CO2 derived from HP [1-(13)C]pyruvate in livers exposed to fatty acids reflects decarboxylation of [4-(13)C]oxaloacetate (PEPCK) or [4-(13)C]malate (malic enzyme), the intensity of the HP (13)CO2 signal is not proportional to glucose production because the amount of pyruvate returned to the TCA cycle via PEPCK and pyruvate kinase is variable, depending upon available substrates.
Project description:Succinic acid is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid produced as one of the fermentation products of anaerobic metabolism. Based on the complete genome sequence of a capnophilic succinic acid-producing rumen bacterium, Mannheimia succiniciproducens, gene knockout studies were carried out to understand its anaerobic fermentative metabolism and consequently to develop a metabolically engineered strain capable of producing succinic acid without by-product formation. Among three different CO2-fixing metabolic reactions catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase, PEP carboxylase, and malic enzyme, PEP carboxykinase was the most important for the anaerobic growth of M. succiniciproducens and succinic acid production. Oxaloacetate formed by carboxylation of PEP was found to be converted to succinic acid by three sequential reactions catalyzed by malate dehydrogenase, fumarase, and fumarate reductase. Major metabolic pathways leading to by-product formation were successfully removed by disrupting the ldhA, pflB, pta, and ackA genes. This metabolically engineered LPK7 strain was able to produce 13.4 g/liter of succinic acid from 20 g/liter glucose with little or no formation of acetic, formic, and lactic acids, resulting in a succinic acid yield of 0.97 mol succinic acid per mol glucose. Fed-batch culture of M. succiniciproducens LPK7 with intermittent glucose feeding allowed the production of 52.4 g/liter of succinic acid, with a succinic acid yield of 1.16 mol succinic acid per mol glucose and a succinic acid productivity of 1.8 g/liter/h, which should be useful for industrial production of succinic acid.
Project description:The behaviours of the principal NADPH-producing enzymes (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, cytoplasmic and mitochondrial 'malic' enzyme and NAPD+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase) were studied during the development of rat heart and compared with those in brain and liver. 1. The enzymes belonging to the pentose phosphate pathway exhibit lower activities in heart than in other tissues throughout development. 2. The pattern of induction of heart cytoplasmic and mitochondrial 'malic' enzymes does not parallel that found in liver. Heart mitochondrial enzyme is slowly induced from birth onwards. 3. NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase has similar activities in all tissues in 18-day foetuses. 4. Heart mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is greatly induced in the adult, where it attains a 10-fold higher activity than in liver. 5. The physiological functions of mitochondrial 'malic' enzyme and NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase are discussed.