Structural requirements for active intestinal transport. Spatial and bonding requirements at C-3 of the sugar.
ABSTRACT: Analogues of d-glucose modified at C-3, and in some cases at a second position, were prepared and tested for active accumulation by everted segments of hamster intestine. Their relative affinity for the sugar carrier was measured by tissue/medium ratio, Michaelis-Menten kinetics and competitive inhibition of d-galactose or methyl alpha-d-glucoside transport. d-Glucose and its 3-deoxy-3-fluoro, 3-chloro-3-deoxy and to a smaller extent its 3-bromo-3-deoxy derivatives, bound and were transported more strongly than 3-deoxy-d-glucose and other sugars not containing an electronegative atom in the gluco configuration at C-3. 3-Deoxy-d-galactose, 3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose and d-gulose, which have two alterations from the d-glucose structure, were not, or only very weakly, transported. The results are interpreted as indicating the presence of a hydrogen bond from the carrier to the hydroxyl group at C-3 of d-glucose. Spatial requirements are also discussed. New syntheses are reported for 3-chloro-3-deoxy- and 3-bromo-3-deoxy-d-glucose and 3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose.
Project description:1. A series of d-galactose derivatives substituted at C-1 and C-6 were tested for active accumulation by everted segments of hamster and rat intestine. 2. d-Galactose and 6-deoxy-6-fluoro-d-galactose were accumulated far more rapidly than 6-deoxy- and 6-chloro-6-deoxy-d-galactose, and this is interpreted as due to hydrogen-bonding at C-6 during the transport process. 3. 6-Bromo-6-deoxy- and 6-deoxy-6-iodo-d-galactose were not actively transported, indicating that the allowed size of substituent at C-6 lies between that of chlorine and bromine atoms. 4. Similar results were obtained at C-1. Both methyl alpha-d-galactopyranoside and methyl beta-d-galactopyranoside were well transported, but methyl beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside and 1-deoxy-d-galactose were not transported; d-galactopyranosyl fluoride was transported, but only poorly. Again hydrogen-bonding is suggested. 5. It is proposed that d-glucose is the ideal structure for active transport and that binding occurs at C-1, C-2, C-3, C-4 and C-6. Loss of two or more of these bonds usually causes loss of active transport. 6. By plotting Lineweaver-Burk plots of the rates of transport of the galactose derivatives, the apparent V and K(m) values were obtained. With hamster intestine both these values were very reproducible. Contrary to expectation, V varied for different sugars. 7. The K(i) of some of the analogues modified at C-1 and C-6 was determined with methyl alpha-d-glucoside as substrate. 8. An attempt to alkylate the carrier by using methyl 3,4-anhydro-alpha-d-galactoside was unsuccessful. There was no evidence that this compound was bound to the carrier.
Project description:Derivatives of 3-amino-3,6-dideoxyhexoses are widespread in Nature. They are part of the repeating units of lipopolysaccharide O-antigens, of the glycan moiety of S-layer (bacterial cell surface layer) glycoproteins and also of many antibiotics. In the present study, we focused on the elucidation of the biosynthesis pathway of dTDP-alpha-D-Quip3NAc (dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucose) from the Gram-positive, anaerobic, thermophilic organism Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum E207-71, which carries Quip3NAc in its S-layer glycan. The biosynthesis of dTDP-alpha-D-Quip3NAc involves five enzymes, namely a transferase, a dehydratase, an isomerase, a transaminase and a transacetylase, and follows a pathway similar to that of dTDP-alpha-D-Fucp3NAc (dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-galactose) biosynthesis in Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus L420-91(T). The ORFs (open reading frames) of interest were cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. To elucidate the enzymatic cascade, the different products were purified by HPLC and characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The initiating reactions catalysed by the glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase RmlA and the dTDP-D-glucose-4,6-dehydratase RmlB are well established. The subsequent isomerase was shown to be capable of forming a dTDP-3-oxo-6-deoxy-D-glucose intermediate from the RmlB product dTDP-4-oxo-6-deoxy-D-glucose, whereas the isomerase involved in the dTDP-alpha-D-Fucp3NAc pathway synthesizes dTDP-3-oxo-6-deoxy-D-galactose. The subsequent reaction steps of either pathway involve a transaminase and a transacetylase, leading to the specific production of nucleotide-activated 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucose and 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-galactose respectively. Sequence comparison of the ORFs responsible for the biosynthesis of dTDP-alpha-D-Quip3NAc revealed homologues in Gram-negative as well as in antibiotic-producing Gram-positive bacteria. There is strong evidence that the elucidated biosynthesis pathway may also be valid for LPS (lipopolysaccharide) O-antigen structures and antibiotic precursors.
Project description:Several weakly transported sugars were tested for transport by the Na(+)-dependent sugar carrier with slices of everted hamster intestinal tissue. Sugars were assumed to be transported by this carrier if the accumulation was diminished in the absence of Na(+) and in the presence of the competitive inhibitor 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol. The extent of accumulation was correlated with the number of hydroxyl groups in the d-gluco configuration if the ring oxygen was placed in the normal d-glucose position. 5-Thio-d-glucose, with a sulphur atom in the ring, was transported at about the same rate as d-glucose and had a similar K(i) for d-galactose transport, but myoinositol was poorly accumulated. It is suggested that there is no hydrogen bonding at the ring oxygen atom, but that the oxygen atom is found at this position as a result of steric constraints. No sugar without a hydroxyl group in the d-gluco position at C-2 of the sugar, including d-mannose, 2-deoxy-d-glucose, 2-chloro-2-deoxy-d-glucose and 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose, was transported by the Na(+)-dependent carrier, but these sugars and l-fucose weakly and competitively inhibit the Na(+)-dependent accumulation of l-glucose into slices of everted hamster intestinal tissue. It is concluded that the bond between the carrier and C-2 of the sugar may be covalent, and a possible mechanism for active intestinal transport is proposed.
Project description:Ravidomycin V and related compounds, e.g., FE35A-B, exhibit potent anticancer activities against various cancer cell lines in the presence of visible light. The amino sugar moieties (D-ravidosamine and its analogues, respectively) in these molecules contribute to the higher potencies of ravidomycin and analogues when compared to closely related compounds with neutral or branched sugars. Within the ravidomycin V biosynthetic gene cluster, five putative genes encoding NDP-D-ravidosamine biosynthetic enzymes were identified. Through the activities of the isolated enzymes in vitro, it is demonstrated that ravD, ravE, ravIM, ravAMT and ravNMT encode TDP-D-glucose synthase, TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose-4,6-dehydratase, TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose-3,4-ketoisomerase, TDP-3-keto-6-deoxy-D-galactose-3-aminotransferase, and TDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-D-galactose-N,N-dimethyl-transferase, respectively. A protocol for a one-pot enzymatic synthesis of TDP-D-ravidosamine has been developed. The results presented here now set the stage to produce TDP-D-ravidosamine routinely for glycosylation studies.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative bacterium that represents a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Of particular concern is the link between C. jejuni infections and the subsequent development of Guillain-Barré syndrome, an acquired autoimmune disorder leading to paralysis. All Gram-negative bacteria contain complex glycoconjugates anchored to their outer membranes, but in most strains of C. jejuni, this lipoglycan lacks the O-antigen repeating units. Recent mass spectrometry analyses indicate that the C. jejuni 81116 (Penner serotype HS:6) lipoglycan contains two dideoxyhexosamine residues, and enzymological assay data show that this bacterial strain can synthesize both dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose and dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose. The focus of this investigation is on WlaRG from C. jejuni, which plays a key role in the production of these unusual sugars by functioning as a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent aminotransferase. Here, we describe the first three-dimensional structures of the enzyme in various complexes determined to resolutions of 1.7 Å or higher. Of particular significance are the external aldimine structures of WlaRG solved in the presence of either dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose or dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose. These models highlight the manner in which WlaRG can accommodate sugars with differing stereochemistries about their C-4' carbon positions. In addition, we present a corrected structure of WbpE, a related sugar aminotransferase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, solved to 1.3 Å resolution.
Project description:Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) are highly versatile coenzymes whose importance is well recognized. The capability of PLP/PMP-dependent enzymes to catalyze a diverse array of chemical reactions is attributed to fine-tuning of the cofactor-substrate interactions in the active site. CDP-6-deoxy-L-threo-D-glycero-4-hexulose 3-dehydrase (E1), along with its reductase (E3), catalyzes the C-3 deoxygenation of CDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to form the dehydrated product, CDP-4-keto-3,6-dideoxy- d-glucose, in the ascarylose biosynthetic pathway. This product is the progenitor to most 3,6-dideoxyhexoses, which are the major antigenic determinants of many Gram-negative pathogens. The dimeric [2Fe-2S] protein, E 1, cloned from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, is the only known enzyme whose catalysis involves the direct participation of PMP in one-electron redox chemistry. E1 also contains an unusual [2Fe-2S] cluster with a previously unknown binding motif (C-X 57-C-X 1-C-X 7-C). Herein we report the first X-ray crystal structure of E1, which exhibits an aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) fold. A comparison of the E1 active site architecture with homologous structures uncovers residues critical for the dehydration versus transamination activity. Site-directed mutagenesis of four E1 residues, D194H, Y217H, H220K, and F345H, converted E 1 from a PMP-dependent dehydrase to a PLP/glutamate-dependent aminotransferase. The E1 quadruple mutant, having been conferred this altered enzyme activity, can transaminate the natural substrate to CDP-4,6-dideoxy-4-amino-D-galactose without E3. Taken together, these results provide the molecular basis of the functional switch of E1 toward dehydration, epimerization, and transamination. The insights gained from these studies can be used for the development of inhibitors of disease-relevant PLP/PMP-dependent enzymes.
Project description:N-formylated sugars are found on the lipopolysaccharides of various pathogenic Gram negative bacteria including Campylobacter jejuni 81116, Francisella tularensis, Providencia alcalifaciens O30, and Providencia alcalifaciens O40. The last step in the biosynthetic pathways for these unusual sugars is catalyzed by N-formyltransferases that utilize N10-formyltetrahydrofolate as the carbon source. The substrates are dTDP-linked amino sugars with the functional groups installed at either the C-3' or C-4' positions of the pyranosyl rings. Here we describe a structural and enzymological investigation of the putative N-formyltransferase, FdtF, from Salmonella enterica O60. In keeping with its proposed role in the organism, the kinetic data reveal that the enzyme is more active with dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose than with dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose. The structural data demonstrate that the enzyme contains, in addition to the canonical N-formyltransferase fold, an ankyrin repeat moiety that houses a second dTDP-sugar binding pocket. This is only the second time an ankyrin repeat has been shown to be involved in small molecule binding. The research described herein represents the first structural analysis of a sugar N-formyltransferase that specifically functions on dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose in vivo and thus adds to our understanding of these intriguing enzymes.
Project description:Enzymes belonging to the GNAT superfamily are widely distributed in nature where they play key roles in the transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoAs to primary amine acceptors. The amine acceptors run the gamut from histones to aminoglycoside antibiotics to small molecules such as serotonin. Whereas those family members that function on histones have been extensively studied, the GNAT enzymes that employ nucleotide-linked sugars as their substrates have not been well characterized. Indeed, though the structures of two of these "amino sugar" GNAT enzymes have been determined within the past 10 years, details concerning their active site architectures have been limited because of a lack of bound nucleotide-linked sugar substrates. Here we describe a combined structural and biochemical analysis of FdhC from Acinetobacter nosocomialis O2. On the basis of bioinformatics, it was postulated that FdhC catalyzes the transfer of a 3-hydroxybutanoyl group from 3-hydroxylbutanoyl-CoA to dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose, to yield an unusual sugar that is ultimately incorporated into the surface polysaccharides of the bacterium. We present data confirming this activity. In addition, the structures of two ternary complexes of FdhC, in the presence of CoA and either 3-hydroxybutanoylamino-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose or 3-hydroxybutanoylamino-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose, were solved by X-ray crystallographic analyses to high resolution. Kinetic parameters were determined, and activity assays demonstrated that FdhC can also utilize acetyl-CoA, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA, or hexanoyl-CoA as acyl donors, albeit at reduced rates. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments were conducted to probe the catalytic mechanism of FdhC. Taken together, the data presented herein provide significantly new molecular insight into those GNAT superfamily members that function on nucleotide-linked amino sugars.
Project description:The O-antigens, which are components of the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, are responsible for the wide species variations seen in nature and are thought to play a role in bacterial virulence. They often contain unusual dideoxysugars such as 3,6-dideoxy-3-formamido-d-glucose (Qui3NFo). Here, we describe a structural and functional investigation of the protein C8J_1081 from Campylobacter jejuni 81116, which is involved in the biosynthesis of Qui3NFo. Specifically, the enzyme, hereafter referred to as WlaRD, catalyzes the N-formylation of dTDP-3,6-dideoxy-3-amino-d-glucose (dTDP-Qui3N) using N(10)-formyltetrahydrofolate as the carbon source. For this investigation, seven X-ray structures of WlaRD, in complexes with various dTDP-linked sugars and cofactors, were determined to resolutions of 1.9 Å or better. One of the models, with bound N(10)-formyltetrahydrofolate and dTDP, represents the first glimpse of an N-formyltransferase with its natural cofactor. Another model contains the reaction products, tetrahydrofolate and dTDP-Qui3NFo. In combination, the structures provide snapshots of the WlaRD active site before and after catalysis. On the basis of these structures, three amino acid residues were targeted for study: Asn 94, His 96, and Asp 132. Mutations of any of these residues resulted in a complete loss of enzymatic activity. Given the position of His 96 in the active site, it can be postulated that it functions as the active site base to remove a proton from the sugar amino group as it attacks the carbonyl carbon of the N-10 formyl group of the cofactor. Enzyme assays demonstrate that WlaRD is also capable of utilizing dTDP-3,6-dideoxy-3-amino-d-galactose (dTDP-Fuc3N) as a substrate, albeit at a much reduced catalytic efficiency.
Project description:1. The aerobic accumulation of various monosaccharides in slices of rabbit kidney cortex at 25 degrees was studied. 2. d-Fructose and alpha-methyl d-glucoside were readily accumulated against their concentration gradient by a phlorrhizin-sensitive Na(+)-dependent active transport. In the absence of external Na(+) the maximal rate of alpha-methyl glucoside transport was decreased tenfold, the K(m) of entry into the cells (8.2mm) not being affected. Phlorrhizin and d-galactose inhibited the entry of alpha-methyl glucoside also in the absence of external Na(+). 3. d-Xylose, 6-deoxy-d-glucose and 6-deoxy-d-galactose were poorly accumulated ([S](i)/[S](o) ratios slightly above 1.0); this transport was inhibited by phlorrhizin and by the absence of Na(+). 4. 3-O-Methyl-d-glucose, d-arabinose and l-arabinose were not actively transported, [S](i)/[S](o) ratios never exceeding 1.0. 5. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose and 2-deoxy-d-galactose were readily accumulated against a high concentration gradient, this transport being Na(+)-independent and only slightly sensitive to phlorrhizin. External Na(+) was not required for an inhibitory action of phlorrhizin and d-galactose on the entry of 2-deoxy-d-galactose into the cells. 6. Interference for entry into the cells between the following saccharides was found: d-galactose inhibited alpha-methyl d-glucoside transport; d-xylose entry was inhibited by d-glucose; d-galactose transport was inhibited by d-xylose; a mutual interference between d-galactose and its 2-deoxy analogue was found. 7. It is concluded that d-glucose, d-galactose, alpha-methyl d-glucoside, d-xylose and possibly also some other monosaccharides share a common active transport system. 8. The specificity of the Na(+)-dependent phlorrhizin-sensitive active transport system for monosaccharides in kidney-cortex cells differs from that in intestinal epithelial cells.