The catabolism of plasma glycoproteins in normal and injured rats.
ABSTRACT: The catabolism of (14)C-labelled plasma glycoprotein in rats was studied after injecting homologous plasma protein labelled in the N-acetylglucosamine and sialic acid moieties. In normal animals the catabolism was approximately described by a four-compartment model. The fractional rate of catabolism of the plasma-protein amino sugar was found to be 0.0305hr.(-1), corresponding to the degradation of 2.75mumoles/hr. The (14)C label was eliminated from the animals largely as carbon dioxide with a small proportion appearing in the urine. Freely circulating amino sugars or glycopeptides did not appear in the plasma as a result of the catabolic processes, and there was no evidence that the protein-bound amino sugars were reutilized in biosynthetic processes. A study of the distribution of (14)C label in the carcasses of animals 24hr. after injection provided evidence that the gastrointestinal tract accounted for 25-38% of the total catabolic pool; the lungs, kidneys, spleen and liver also appeared to contribute to catabolism. Studies were conducted with rats that had been treated with turpentine to induce an inflammatory reaction; the results could not be analysed kinetically, since the metabolism of plasma proteins in these animals did not appear to be in a steady state. The injected plasma protein disappeared from the intravascular pool more quickly than in normal animals, but there were no significant differences in the rates of excretion of the (14)C label.
Project description:The metabolic fate of [1-(14)C]glucosamine, of N-acetyl[1-(14)C]glucosamine and of glycoproteins labelled with [1-(14)C]glucosamine was studied in rats for a period of 24hr. after these materials were given orally or injected. When [1-(14)C]glucosamine was injected 26.3% of the label was excreted in the urine, 19.7% was expired as carbon dioxide and 12.7% was incorporated into plasma proteins. When the same compound was given orally, 49.2% of the label was expired as carbon dioxide, with little appearing in the urine or in the plasma. When N-acetyl[1-(14)C]glucosamine was injected, 51.3% of the label was excreted in the urine with 12.3% appearing in carbon dioxide, but there was little incorporation into plasma protein. When this compound was given orally, 46.5% of the label was expired as carbon dioxide, 7.4% was recovered in the urine and 1.7% was incorporated into plasma protein. After the injection of (14)C-labelled glycoprotein 21.0% of the label was expired as carbon dioxide, whereas when it was given orally 49.8% of the label was recovered in carbon dioxide. The differences observed between the metabolic fate of the amino sugars when they were given orally and their fate when injected could not be accounted for by the action of the intestinal microflora or by the rate of administration of the material. It is concluded that amino sugars undergo metabolic alteration or degradation during absorption.
Project description:We recently developed a general method for determining tissue sites of degradation of plasma proteins in vivo that made use of covalently attached radioactive sucrose. On degradation of the protein, the sucrose remained trapped in the cells as a cumulative marker of protein degradation. The method described here depends on the same principles, but uses an adduct of cellobiose and tyramine that is radioiodinated to high specific radioactivity and then covalently attached to protein. Use of the radioiodinated ligand increases the sensitivity of the method at least 100-fold and allows simplified tissue analysis. Proteins derivatized with the radioiodinated ligand were recognized as underivatized proteins both in vitro and in vivo. On degradation of derivatized low-density lipoprotein, the rate of leakage from cultured fibroblasts was only 5% during 24 h. Similarly, on injection of labelled proteins into rats and rabbits, urinary excretion of the label was in all cases less than 10% of total labelled catabolic products recovered 24 h after injection. Examination of the tissue contents of label at two times after injection of labelled asialofetuin or apolipoprotein A1 in rats, and asialotransferrin in rabbits showed that the label did not detectably redistribute between tissues after initial uptake and catabolism; a significant leakage from liver was quantitatively accounted for by label appearing in gut contents and faeces. A simple double-label method was devised to provide a correction for intact protein in trapped plasma, the extravascular spaces, and within cells. By using this method it becomes unnecessary to fractionate tissue samples.
Project description:Steady-state rates of turnover of two single proteins were measured in vivo by two independent methods. The fractional rate of synthesis of liver ornithine aminotransferase, measured by a continuous infusion of L-[2,6-3H]tyrosine, was 0.42 day-1, whereas in the same animals the fractional rate of degradation measured by loss of radioactivity from amino acids labelled via [14C]bicarbonate was 0.40 day-1. The agreement between methods confirms the reliability of each method for the study of hepatic protein turnover. In contrast, [14C]bicarbonate-labelled amino acids are extensively reutilized in muscle, and are therefore unsuitable for measuring rates of muscle protein breakdown.
Project description:Albumin synthesis and catabolism were respectively measured by McFarlane's (1963) sodium [(14)C]carbonate method and I-labelled albumin in hypophysectomized rats, both untreated and treated with growth hormone. Hypophysectomy resulted in a decrease in both albumin synthesis and catabolic rates. These changes as shown by pair-feeding experiments could not be ascribed to decreased food intake alone. Growth hormone was shown to partially restore both albumin synthesis and catabolic rates. It is proposed that growth hormone stimulates albumin synthesis and that its effect on albumin catabolism is secondary to changes in the mass of the intravascular albumin pool.
Project description:d-Glucose catabolism of a phosphofructokinase-deficient yeast Rhodotorula gracilis has been studied. By using d-glucose specifically (14)C-labelled at different positions and measuring the distribution of the label in various fractions of cell metabolism, the following results were found. 1. The pentose phosphate pathway, being the main pathway of d-glucose catabolism, simultaneously converts glucose molecules into pentose phosphates oxidatively by using two NADP-linked dehydrogenases and via the non-oxidative transketolase-transaldolase pathway. 2. From the correlation of the (14)CO(2) liberation and the d-glucose consumption and from the fact that the pentose phosphate moiety in nucleic acids is almost equally labelled from d-[1-(14)C]- and d-[6-(14)C]-glucose, it is concluded that of the glucose utilized about 80% undergoes transformation via the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Only about 20% of glucose is directly decarboxylated to pentose phosphate. 3. For further degradation it is postulated that the pentose phosphates are split into C(2) fragments and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphates. 4. All three loci of oxidative decarboxylation appear to be effective in Rh. gracilis, the oxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway, the decarboxylation of pyruvate in the later part of the glycolytic pathway as well as the oxidation in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. 5. d-Glucose molecules taken up are only partially oxidized to CO(2): about four-fifths of each glucose molecule metabolized is incorporated into cell constituents. 6. The quantitative interrelations of the fluxes of d-glucose subunits along the catabolic pathways have been estimated and are discussed.
Project description:Lysosomal degradation of the carbohydrate portion of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans produces monosaccharides and sulphate, which must efflux from the lysosomes before re-entering biosynthetic pathways. We examined the degradation of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans by lysosomes isolated from cultured human diploid fibroblasts. Cells were grown for 24 h in medium containing [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulphate. When lysosomes are isolated from these cells, they contain label primarily in macromolecules (glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans). Glycoprotein degradation by isolated lysosomes was followed by measuring the release of tritiated sugars from macromolecules and efflux of these sugars from the organelles. Glycosaminoglycan degradation was monitored by the release of both tritiated sugars and [35S]sulphate. During macromolecule degradation, the total amounts of free [35S]sulphate, N-acetyl[3H]glucosamine and N-acetyl[3H]galactosamine found outside the lysosome parallels the amounts of these products released by degradation. The total degradation of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans by intact cultured cells was also examined. The lysosomal contribution to degradation was assessed by measuring inhibition by the lysosomotropic amine NH4Cl. After 48 h incubation, inhibition by NH4Cl exceeded 55% of glycoprotein and 72% of glycosaminoglycan degradation. Recycling of [3H]hexosamines and [35S]sulphate by intact cells was estimated by measuring the appearance of 'newly synthesized' radioactively labelled macromolecules in the medium. Sulphate does not appear to be appreciably recycled. N-Acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine, on the other hand, are reutilized to a significant extent.
Project description:The distribution and rates of catabolism were determined for rabbit antithrombin III (AT) isoforms differing in affinity for heparin-agarose. After isolation from rabbit plasma by heparin-affinity chromatography, the very-high-affinity form, ATvh, was labelled with 131I, and its high-affinity congener, ATh, with 125I. The two forms were separated from free iodine by heparin-affinity chromatography, and then injected simultaneously into young recipient rabbits. The disappearance-of-plasma-AT-radioactivity data were fitted to three exponential equations, and the resulting constants were used to calculate fractional catabolic rates and the various pool sizes for ATh and ATvh. The fractions of plasma ATh and ATvh catabolized daily (j3) were 0.763 +/- 0.023 and 1.88 +/- 0.057 day-1 respectively. Average values of jT, the daily fractional catabolic rates for the total-body ATh and ATvh, were 0.2633 +/- 0.0113 and 0.3832 +/- 0.0211 day-1. The ratios, ATh/ATvh, of the sizes of the plasma, non-circulating vascular-associated and extra-vascular compartments were 0.593, 0.990 and 1.30. By using a previous estimate of a 9:1 ATh/ATvh ratio in rabbit plasma and the calculated compartment sizes, the calculated relative ratio of ATh to ATvh was 5.4:1 in the non-circulating vascular-associated compartment. The data fit a model of antithrombin III distribution and catabolism in which a pool of endothelial-cell heparin-like receptors is seen to mediate the transfer of the inhibitor from plasma to interstitium with catabolism serving as an alternative to this transport.
Project description:1. The foetal rat of 16 or more days incorporates (14)C-labelled amino acids into all the demonstrable plasma protein fractions in vivo. 2. Slices of foetal rat liver incubated in vitro incorporate (14)C-labelled amino acids into the main plasma protein fractions, including the foetal-specific ;post-albumin'. 3. Slices of placenta are unable to incorporate (14)C-labelled amino acids into plasma proteins in vitro. 4. Liver slices from maternal rats incubated in vitro incorporate (14)C-labelled amino acids into plasma proteins. The presence of post-albumin cannot be demonstrated after incubation. 5. Liver slices from foetal rats, but not from adult rats, contain demonstrable amounts of haemoglobin into which (14)C-labelled amino acids are incorporated.
Project description:Rat intestinal surface-membrane glycoproteins were labelled by intraperitoneal injection of [1-(14)C]glucosamine 4h before the animals were killed. At this time, density-gradient centrifugation of disrupted brush borders indicated that glycoprotein radioactivity was distributed identically with sucrase, a plasma-membrane marker. Labelled brush borders were digested by papain for brief time-intervals known to release surface-enzyme particles without disruption of the unit membrane. Digestion for 5min released 90% of the surface sucrase, and almost one-half of the brush-border glycoprotein and label. On Sepharose 4B column chromatography most of the glycoprotein and label emerged as a single peak. This peak contained the most actively labelled glycoprotein in the brush border and was closely associated with maltase, sucrase, beta-naphthylamidase and alkaline phosphatase. The peak was partially resolved on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis into three bands. Each band contained a distinctive enzyme or enzyme pair, and was labelled by [1-(14)C]glucosamine. No periodic acid-Schiff-negative protein was observed in the peak material. Glycoproteins susceptible to brief digestion with papain are therefore closely linked to released surface-enzyme particles. Intestinal surface glycoproteins are heterogeneous with respect to molecular weight, electrophoretic mobility and function.
Project description:In Aspergillus nidulans, the xylanolytic regulator XlnR and the arabinanolytic regulator AraR co-regulate pentose catabolism. In nature, the pentose sugars D-xylose and L-arabinose are both main building blocks of the polysaccharide arabinoxylan. In pectin and arabinogalactan, these two monosaccharides are found in combination with D-galactose. GalR, the regulator that responds to the presence of D-galactose, regulates the D-galactose catabolic pathway. In this study we investigated the possible interaction between XlnR, AraR and GalR in pentose and/or D-galactose catabolism in A. nidulans. Growth phenotypes and metabolic gene expression profiles were studied in single, double and triple disruptant A. nidulans strains of the genes encoding these paralogous transcription factors. Our results demonstrate that AraR and XlnR not only control pentose catabolic pathway genes, but also genes of the oxido-reductive D-galactose catabolic pathway. This suggests an interaction between three transcriptional regulators in D-galactose catabolism. Conversely, GalR is not involved in regulation of pentose catabolism, but controls only genes of the oxido-reductive D-galactose catabolic pathway.