Structural studies of wheat monomeric and dimeric protein inhibitors of alpha-amylase.
ABSTRACT: Two wheat monomeric protein inhibitors of alpha-amylase with mol.wt. 12000, designated inhibitors 0.28 and 0.39 according to their gel-electrophoretic mobilities, showed almost identical circular-dichroism spectra in both the far and near u.v. at different pH values as well as in the presence or absence of dissociating and reducing agents. Both inhibitors (0.28 and 0.39) were readily inactivated by reduction of the five disulphide bridges present in each inhibitor molecule. These properties are very similar to those exhibited by the wheat dimeric protein inhibitor of alpha-amylase with mol.wt. 24000, designated inhibitor 0.19 according to its gel-electrophoretic mobility. The N-terminal sequence of the 0.19 inhibitor was determined without separating its subunits and compared with that of the 0.28 inhibitor reported by Redman [(1976) Biochem. J. 155, 193--195]. Petide 'maps' from tryptic digests of reduced and carboxymethylated inhibitors 0.19 and 0.28 were compared. One molecule of reducing sugar is covalently bound per inhibitor-0.19 protomer and inhibitor-0.28 molecule. The results obtained strongly support previous findings indicating the structural equivalence of inhibitor 0.28 with each inhibitor-0.19 protomer and the common phylogenetic origin of these protein alpha-amylase inhibitors from wheat kernel.
Project description:The highly purified alpha-amylase from Tenebrio molitor L. larva (yellow mealworm) reversibly combines with two closely related homogeneous glycoprotein inhibitors, one dimeric (termed 'inhibitor 0.19') and one monomeric (termed 'inhibitor 0.28'), from wheat flour. As established by means of difference spectroscopy and kinetic studies, molar combining ratios for the amylase--inhibitor-0.19 and amylase-inhibitor-0.28 complexes were 1:1 and 1:2 respectively. Two amylase--inhibitor-0.19 complexes with slightly different retention volumes on Bio-Gel P-300 and only one amylase--inhibitor-0.28 complex were observed. Dissociation constants of the amylase--inhibitor-0.19 and amylase--inhibitor-0.28 complexes were 0.85 nM and 0.13 nM respectively. A strong tendency of both complexes to precipitate under an ultracentrifugal field was observed; the minimum molecular weight calculated for the two complexes under such conditions was approx. 95 000. The two complexes showed difference spectra indicating involvement of structurally related or identical tryptophyl side chains in the binding of inhibitors 0.28 and 0.19 to the amylase. A model summarizing the main features of the inhibition of the insect amylase by the two wheat protein inhibitors is proposed.
Project description:Amylase/trypsin-inhibitors (ATIs) are putative triggers of nonceliac gluten sensitivity, but contents of ATIs in different wheat species were not available. Therefore, the predominant ATIs 0.19 + 0.53, 0.28, CM2, CM3, and CM16 in eight cultivars each of common wheat, durum wheat, spelt, emmer, and einkorn grown under the same environmental conditions were quantitated by targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC−MS/MS) and stable isotope dilution assays using specific marker peptides as internal standards. The results were compared to a label-free untargeted LC−MS/MS analysis, in which protein concentrations were determined by intensity based absolute quantitation. Both approaches yielded similar results. Spelt and emmer had higher ATI contents than common wheat, with durum wheat in between. Only three of eight einkorn cultivars contained ATIs in very low concentrations. The distribution of ATI types was characteristic for hexaploid, tetraploid, and diploid wheat species and suitable as species-specific fingerprint. The results point to a better tolerability of einkorn for NCGS patients, because of very low total ATI contents.
Project description:Baker's asthma, a typical occupational allergic disease, is a serious problem in the food industries. In this study, purification and identification of major allergens recognized by IgEs in sera of allergic patients were performed. Major immunoreactive proteins were purified from the albumin fraction by gel filtration on a Toyopearl HW-50 column followed by reverse-phase HPLC. The N-terminal amino acid sequences and molecular masses measured by MS indicated that the major immunoreactive proteins are members of the alpha-amylase inhibitor family, 0.19 and 0.28. Significant leukotriene release by each purified protein was observed in cell-associated stimulation tests, suggesting in vivo activity of these antigens. Carbohydrate analyses of major allergens indicated that they are monoglycosylated but not N-glycosylated in spite of the presence of a potential N-glycosylation site. Recombinant 0.19 expressed in Escherichia coli showed the same reactivity with IgE as native wheat 0.19 in Western blotting and ELISA using methyl vinyl ether maleic anhydride co-polymer as an immobilizing reagent, suggesting that the allergenic epitopes are located in the peptide portions.
Project description:Although wheat is a staple food for most of the human population, some of its components trigger adverse reactions. Among wheat components, the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATI) are important triggers of several allergies and activators of innate immunity. ATI are a group of exogenous protease inhibitors and include several polypeptides. The three ATI polypeptides named CM3, CM16 and 0.28 are considered major allergens, and might also play a role in other common wheat-related pathologies, such as Non Celiac Wheat Sensitivity and even Celiac Disease. On this basis, we pointed to obtain high amounts of them in purity and to evaluate their allergenicity potential. We thus isolated the mRNA corresponding to the three ATI genes CM3, CM16 and 0.28 from 28 days post-anthesis wheat kernels and the corresponding cDNAs were used for heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. The three purified proteins were tested in degranulation assay against human sera of patients with food allergy to wheat. A large range of degranulation values was observed for each protein according to the sera tested. All of the three purified proteins CM3, CM16 and 0.28 were active as allergens because they were able to induce basophils degranulation on wheat allergic patients' sera, with the highest values of β-hexosaminidase release observed for CM3 protein.
Project description:BACKGROUND: alpha-Amylase inhibitors are attractive candidates for the control of seed weevils, as these insects are highly dependent on starch as an energy source. In this study, we aimed to reveal the structure and diversity of dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor genes in wild emmer wheat from Israel and to elucidate the relationship between the emmer wheat genes and ecological factors using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Another objective of this study was to find out whether there were any correlations between SNPs in functional protein-coding genes and the environment. RESULTS: The influence of ecological factors on the genetic structure of dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor genes was evaluated by specific SNP markers. A total of 244 dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor genes were obtained from 13 accessions in 10 populations. Seventy-five polymorphic positions and 74 haplotypes were defined by sequence analysis. Sixteen out of the 75 SNP markers were designed to detect SNP variations in wild emmer wheat accessions from different populations in Israel. The proportion of polymorphic loci P (5%), the expected heterozygosity He, and Shannon's information index in the 16 populations were 0.887, 0.404, and 0.589, respectively. The populations of wild emmer wheat showed great diversity in gene loci both between and within populations. Based on the SNP marker data, the genetic distance of pair-wise comparisons of the 16 populations displayed a sharp genetic differentiation over long geographic distances. The values of P, He, and Shannon's information index were negatively correlated with three climatic moisture factors, whereas the same values were positively correlated by Spearman rank correlation coefficients' analysis with some of the other ecological factors. CONCLUSION: The populations of wild emmer wheat showed a wide range of diversity in dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitors, both between and within populations. We suggested that SNP markers are useful for the estimation of genetic diversity of functional genes in wild emmer wheat. These results show significant correlations between SNPs in the alpha-amylase inhibitor genes and ecological factors affecting diversity. Ecological factors, singly or in combination, explained a significant proportion of the variations in the SNPs, and the SNPs could be classified into several categories as ecogeographical predictors. It was suggested that the SNPs in the alpha-amylase inhibitor genes have been subjected to natural selection, and ecological factors had an important evolutionary influence on gene differentiation at specific loci.
Project description:Wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum) contributes to 20% of the human protein supply, delivers essential amino acids and is of fundamental importance for bread and pasta quality. Wheat proteins are also involved in adverse human reactions like celiac disease, wheat allergy and the non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS). Using LC-MS-based LFQ proteomics of aqueous flour extracts we determined 756 proteins across 150 wheat varieties grown in three environments. However, only 303 proteins were stably expressed across all environments in at least one variety underlining the large influence of environmental conditions on the expression of many proteins. Moreover, only 89 proteins were comparably expressed by all 150 varieties, with high coefficients of variation for the other proteins. Heritability (h) ranged from 0-1 with 114 proteins having h² > 0.6. Therefore, the expression of the variable proteins should be amenable to targeted manipulation across the wheat supply chain by varietal choice and breeding. Our study provides a first approach towards a fast and high-throughput methodology for quantifying these proteins which is required to breed wheats with the desired properties. Amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) appear as a potential trigger for NCWS inducing intestinal and extra-intestinal inflammation. Studies on the prevalence and genetic architecture of ATI proteins in wheat are lacking so far. Large differences in the content and composition of 8 ATIs in the different varieties were identified by QconCAT-assisted quantification. The ATI proteins had low coefficients of correlations with quality traits commonly analyzed in wheat breeding. However, heritability was quite low except for ATI 0.28 and ATI CM2. A genome wide association mapping revealed a complex genetic architecture built up on many small but few medium and two major quantitative trait loci (QTL). The latter were on chromosome 3B for ATI 0.19-like and 6B for ATI 0.28 explaining 70.6 and 68.7% of the genetic variance, respectively. Using the wheat reference genome sequence, seven potential candidate genes behind the medium and major QTL were described with only one showing polymorphism based on exome capture analysis. Consequently, wheat breeding could contribute to a reduction of ATI contents in wheat products if incidence of ATI on human health is further confirmed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Wheat grains accumulate a variety of low molecular weight proteins that are inhibitors of alpha-amylases and proteases and play an important protective role in the grain. These proteins have more balanced amino acid compositions than the major wheat gluten proteins and contribute important reserves for both seedling growth and human nutrition. The alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors also are of interest because they cause IgE-mediated occupational and food allergies and thereby impact human health. RESULTS: The complement of genes encoding alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors expressed in the US bread wheat Butte 86 was characterized by analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Coding sequences for 19 distinct proteins were identified. These included two monomeric (WMAI), four dimeric (WDAI), and six tetrameric (WTAI) inhibitors of exogenous alpha-amylases, two inhibitors of endogenous alpha-amylases (WASI), four putative trypsin inhibitors (CMx and WTI), and one putative chymotrypsin inhibitor (WCI). A number of the encoded proteins were identical or very similar to proteins in the NCBI database. Sequences not reported previously included variants of WTAI-CM3, three CMx inhibitors and WTI. Within the WDAI group, two different genes encoded the same mature protein. Based on numbers of ESTs, transcripts for WTAI-CM3 Bu-1, WMAI Bu-1 and WTAI-CM16 Bu-1 were most abundant in Butte 86 developing grain. Coding sequences for 16 of the inhibitors were unequivocally associated with specific proteins identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in a previous proteomic analysis of milled white flour from Butte 86. Proteins corresponding to WDAI Bu-1/Bu-2, WMAI Bu-1 and the WTAI subunits CM2 Bu-1, CM3 Bu-1 and CM16 Bu-1 were accumulated to the highest levels in flour. CONCLUSIONS: Information on the spectrum of alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor genes and proteins expressed in a single wheat cultivar is central to understanding the importance of these proteins in both plant defense mechanisms and human allergies and facilitates both breeding and biotechnology approaches for manipulating the composition of these proteins in plants.
Project description:Non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) has been proposed to be an independent disease entity that is characterized by intestinal (e.g., abdominal pain, flatulence) and extra-intestinal symptoms (e.g., headache, fatigue), which are propagated following the ingestion of wheat products. Increased activity of amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) in modern wheat is suggested to be major trigger of NCWS, while underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Here, we aimed to generate and functionally characterize the most abundant ATI in modern wheat, chloroform/methanol-soluble protein 3 (CM3), in vitro and in Drosophila melanogaster. We demonstrate that CM3 displays ?-glucosidase but not ?-amylase or trypsin inhibitory activity in vitro. Moreover, fruit flies fed a sucrose-containing diet together with CM3 displayed significant overgrowth of intestinal bacteria in a sucrose-dependent manner while the consumption of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitors was sufficient to limit bacterial quantities in the intestine. Notably, both CM3 and acarbose-treated flies showed a reduced lifespan. However, this effect was absent in amylase inhibitor (AI) treated flies. Together, given ?-glucosidase is a crucial requirement for disaccharide digestion, we suggest that inhibition of ?-glucosidase by CM3 enhances disaccharide load in the distal gastrointestinal tract, thereby promoting intestinal bacteria overgrowth. However, it remains speculative if this here described former unknown function of CM3 might contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms observed in NCWS patients which are very similar to symptoms of patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.
Project description:Germination is a process of seed sprouting that facilitates embryo growth. The breakdown of reserved starch in the endosperm into simple sugars is essential for seed germination and subsequent seedling growth. At the early stage of germination, gibberellic acid (GA) activates transcription factor GAMYB to promote <i>de novo</i> synthesis of isoforms of ?-amylase in the aleurone layer and scutellar epithelium of the embryo. Here, we demonstrate that wheat germination is regulated by plant target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling. TOR is a central component of the essential-nutrient-dependent pathway controlling cell growth in all eukaryotes. It is known that rapamycin, a highly specific allosteric inhibitor of TOR, is effective in yeast and animal cells but ineffective in most of higher plants likely owing to structural differences in ubiquitous rapamycin receptor FKBP12. The action of rapamycin on wheat growth has not been studied. Our data show that rapamycin inhibits germination of wheat seeds and of their isolated embryos in a dose-dependent manner. The involvement of <i>Triticum aestivum</i> TOR (TaTOR) in wheat germination was consistent with the suppression of wheat embryo growth by specific inhibitors of the TOR kinase: pp242 or torin1. Rapamycin or torin1 interfered with GA function in germination because of a potent inhibitory effect on ?-amylase and <i>GAMYB</i> gene expression. The TOR inhibitors selectively targeted the GA-dependent gene expression, whereas expression of the abscisic acid-dependent <i>ABI5</i> gene was not affected by either rapamycin or torin1. To determine whether the TaTOR kinase activation takes place during wheat germination, we examined phosphorylation of a ribosomal protein, <i>T. aestivum</i> S6 kinase 1 (TaS6K1; a substrate of TOR). The phosphorylation of serine 467 (S467) in a hydrophobic motif on TaS6K1 was induced in a process of germination triggered by GA. Moreover, the germination-induced phosphorylation of TaS6K1 on S467 was dependent on TaTOR and was inhibited by rapamycin or torin1. Besides, a gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor (paclobutrazol; PBZ) blocked not only ?-amylase gene expression but also TaS6K1 phosphorylation in wheat embryos. Thus, a hormonal action of GA turns on the synthesis of ?-amylase in wheat germination via activation of the TaTOR-S6K1 signaling pathway.
Project description:Molecular dynamics simulation of the interaction between the Tenebrio molitor alpha-amylase and its inhibitor at different proportion of crystal water was carried out with OPLS force field by hyperchem 7.5 software. In the correlative study, the optimal temperature of wheat monomeric and dimeric protein inhibitors was from 273 K to 318 K. The the average temperature of experimentation is 289 K. (1) The optimal temperature of interaction between alpha-amylase and its inhibitors was 280 K without crystal water that was close to the results of experimentation. The forming of enzyme-water and inhibitor-water was easy, but incorporating third monomer was impossible. (2) Having analyzed the potential energy data, the optimal temperature of interaction energy between alpha-amylase and its inhibitors covering 9 : 1, 5 : 5, 4 : 6, and 1 : 9 proportion crystal water was 290 K. (3) We compared the correlative QSAR properties. The proportion of crystal water was close to the data of polarizability (12.4%) in the QSAR properties. The optimal temperature was 280 K. This result was close to 289 K. These findings have theoretical and practical implications.