Properties of a cytochrome c-enriched light particulate fraction isolated from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas spheroides.
ABSTRACT: Differential centrifugation of suspensions of French-press-disrupted Rhodopseudomonas spheroides yielded a light particulate fraction that was different in many properties from the bulk membrane fraction. It was enriched in cytochrome c and had a low cytochrome b content. When prepared from photosynthetically grown cells this fraction had a very low specific bacteriochlorophyll content. The cytochrome c of the light particles differed in absorption maxima at 77K from cytochrome c2 attached to membranes; there was pronounced splitting of the alpha-band, as is found in cytochrome c2 free in solution. Potentiometric titration at A552--A540 showed the presence of two components that fitted an n = 1 titration; one component had a midpoint redox potential of +345mV, like cytochrome c2 in solution, and the second had E0' at pH 7.0 of +110 mV, and they were present in a ratio of approx. 2:3. Difference spectroscopy at 77K showed that the spectra of the two components were very similar. More of a CO-binding component was present in particles from photosynthetically grown cells. Light membranes purified by centrifugation on gradients of 5--60% (w/w) sucrose retained the two c cytochromes; they contained no detectable succinate-cytochrome c reductase or bacteriochlorophyll and very little ubiquinone, but they contained NADH-cytochrome c reductase and some phosphate. Electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels showed that the light membranes of aerobically and photosynthetically grown cells were very similar and differed greatly from other membrane fractions of R. spheroides.
Project description:Cells of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides, strains R-26 or GVP, were grown photosynthetically, disrupted and two particulate fractions separated by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. The upper particulate fraction, enriched in bacteriochlorophyll, was identified as containing the chromatophores; the lower particulate fraction had the characteristics of the cell envelope. The two fractions differed in cytochrome content and cytochrome spectra. Ferrochelatase was found almost exclusively in the chromatophore fraction and was located on the outer face of the chromatophores, i.e. in contact with the cytosol in intact cells. The addition of 59FeCl3 to cells growing in low-iron media resulted in labelling of the protohaem fraction (probably arising from cytochrome b) of the membranes. The specific radioactivity of the haem of the chromatophores rose more rapidly than that of the envelope fraction and then after 2 h declined to approximately the same value, suggesting that haems of the chromatophore may act as precursors of haem of the envelope.
Project description:The mechanism through which the C-17(3) carboxy group of bacteriochlorophyllide a is esterified to produce bacteriochlorophyll aphytyl of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides and bacteriochlorophyll ageranylgeranyl of Rhodospirillum rubrum was studied by using 5-aminolaevulinate labelled with 18O at its C-1 carboxy oxygen atoms. The latter species was prepared by an exchange reaction in which 5-aminolaevulinate hydrochloride was heated in H218O in an autoclave. A method for the determination of the 18O content of the C-1 oxygen atoms of 5-aminolaevulinate was developed. As a prelude to the mechanistic work, a systematic study was undertaken to establish the optimal conditions under which a significant proportion of the bacteriochlorophyll a of the two photosynthetic organisms originated from the exogenously added 5-aminolaevulinate. It was found that, when Rps. spheroides and Rsp. rubrum were grown in the presence of about 0.15mM- and 1.2mM-5-aminolaevulinate respectively, 30-40% of their chlorophyll was derived from the added precursor. In these conditions, 5-amino[1,4-18O3]laevulinate was incorporated into bacteriochlorophyll aphytyl and bacteriochlorophyll ageranylgeranyl by the relevant organisms. The samples of chlorophylls were then hydrolysed with alkali to obtain phytol and geranylgeraniol, which were converted into the corresponding trimethylsilyl derivatives and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data were used to deduce that the alcohols contained 90-95% of the 18O originally present at each of the C-1 oxygen atoms of the precursor 5-aminolaevulinate. In the light of these results it is suggested that the ester bond at C-17(3) is formed, not by a chlorophyllase type of enzymic reaction, but by a process involving the nucleophilic attack by the C-17(3) carboxylate group of the chlorophyllide on the activated form of an isoprenyl alcohol.
Project description:1. Magnesium-protoporphyrin chelatase activity, previously shown in whole cells of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides, could not be demonstrated in cell-free extracts prepared in different ways, although spheroplasts retained moderate activity. Slight activity was detected also in whole cells of Rhodospirillum rubrum. 2. The effects on the activity of the enzyme of inhibitors of electron and energy transfer were studied in whole cells of Rps. spheroides. Amytal, rotenone, azide and cyanide inhibited at low pO(2) in the dark but not under anaerobic conditions in the light. Antimycin A and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, as well as uncouplers and oligomycin, inhibited under all environmental conditions. 3. The effects on magnesium chelatase activity of intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, of thenoyltrifluoroacetone, of a number of artificial electron donors or acceptors, of various quinones and of the oxidation-reduction indicator dyes Benzyl Viologen and Methyl Viologen are described. 4. It was concluded that electron transport between a b-type and a c-type cytochrome as well as associated energy conservation and transformation reactions were essential for activity. There was also a specific requirement for ATP. 5. Exogenous protoporphyrin and magnesium protoporphyrin monomethyl ester were incorporated into bacteriochlorophyll or late precursors by whole cells. 6. Evidence is presented that the insertion of magnesium was the only step inhibited by oxygen in the biosynthetic pathway between protoporphyrin and bacteriochlorophyll.
Project description:1. Dark equilibrium potentiometric titrations were conducted on membranes purified from Rhodospirillum rubrum in an effort to identify b-type cytochrome components reported in other Rhodospirillaceae. In preparations from aerobically grown cells virtually devoid of bacteriochlorophyll a, three components were observed at 560-540 nm. Their oxidation-reduction midpoint potentials assigned by computer-assisted analysis were +195, +50 and -110 mV at pH 7.0; each of these fitted closely to theoretical single-electron equivalent curves. 2. In chromatophores from phototrophically grown carotenoidless mutant G-9, three components were also observed with E0' +190, +50 and -90mV. 3. The alpha-band of the +50mV component exhibited an absorption maximum near 560nm in difference spectra obtained at fixed oxidation-reduction potentials. 4. This component could be demonstrated most readily in purified membrane preparations and may have been obscured in previous studies by residual cytochrome c'. 5. This is the first definitive report of cytochrome b+50 in membranes from Rs. rubrum and aligns this bacterium with other Rhodospirillaceae in which this component functions in light-driven cyclic electron flow.
Project description:1. Assay of some photosynthetic bacteria for vitamin B(12) showed them to be relatively rich in this factor. Rhodopseudomonas spheroides, grown photosynthetically in Co(2+)-supplemented medium, contained about 100mug./g. dry wt. 2. Extracts of wild-type Rps. spheroides methylated homocysteine by a mechanism similar to the cobalamin-dependent pathway present in Escherichia coli. However, no mechanism similar to the cobalamin-independent N(5)-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine transmethylase of E. coli could be detected in Rps. spheroides. 3. N(5)N(10)-Methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase activity was found in Rps. spheroides. 4. A methionine-requiring mutant strain of Rps. spheroides (strain 2/33), which does not respond to homocysteine, made the same amount of vitamin B(12) as the parent organism. Extracts did not form methionine from N(5)-methyltetrahydrofolate and homocysteine even in the presence of cofactors shown to be necessary with the parent strain, and it is concluded that the mutant is blocked in the formation of the apoenzyme of a homocysteine-methylating system similar to the vitamin B(12)-dependent one in E. coli.
Project description:The facultative photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus can adapt from an anaerobic photosynthetic mode of growth to aerobic heterotrophic metabolism. As this adaptation occurs, the cells must rapidly halt bacteriochlorophyll synthesis to prevent phototoxic tetrapyrroles from accumulating, while still allowing heme synthesis to continue. A likely control point is Mg chelatase, the enzyme that diverts protoporphyrin IX from heme biosynthesis toward the bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic pathway by inserting Mg(2+) to form Mg-protoporphyrin IX. Mg chelatase is composed of three subunits that are encoded by the bchI, bchD, and bchH genes in R. capsulatus. We report that BchH is the rate-limiting component of Mg chelatase activity in cell extracts. BchH binds protoporphyrin IX, and BchH that has been expressed and purified from Escherichia coli is red in color due to the bound protoporphyrin IX. Recombinant BchH is rapidly inactivated by light in the presence of O(2), and the inactivation results in the formation of a covalent adduct between the protein and the bound protoporphyrin IX. When photosynthetically growing R. capsulatus cells are transferred to aerobic conditions, Mg chelatase is rapidly inactivated, and BchH is the component that is most rapidly inactivated in vivo when cells are exposed to aerobic conditions. The light- and O(2)-stimulated inactivation of BchH could account for the rapid inactivation of Mg chelatase in vivo and provide a mechanism for inhibiting the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll during adaptation of photosynthetically grown cells to aerobic conditions while still allowing heme synthesis to occur for aerobic respiration.
Project description:1. A simple spectrophotometric method is described for the measurement of various haemoproteins in extracts of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic bacteria. The method is based on measurements of difference spectra at the Soret maxima. 2. In photosynthetic bacteria of the Athiorhodaceae group the concentration of carbon monoxide-binding haemoprotein and of cytochromes of the b and c types is two to three times as high in anaerobically grown cells as in those grown aerobically. 3. During the adaptation of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides 8253 to form photosynthetic pigments the concentration of each of these haemoproteins increases in parallel with that of the bacteriochlorophyll. 4. The carbon monoxide-binding haemoprotein in aerobically grown Rps. spheroides 8253, in contrast with anaerobically grown cells, is predominantly in the particulate fraction of extracts prepared by ultrasonic vibration. The b- and c-type cytochromes are approximately equally distributed between each fraction in extracts from both types of cell. 5. Extracts of Micrococcus denitrificans grown anaerobically on nitrate contain more cytochromes of the b and c types, as well as of the carbon monoxide-binding pigment, than do those from aerobically grown cells. 6. The activity of ferrochelatase in both Rps. spheroides 8253 and M. denitrificans was similar in extracts from cells grown aerobically and anaerobically, though the haemoprotein content was higher under the latter conditions. Coproporphyrinogen oxidative decarboxylase could not be demonstrated in cell-free extracts of either organism.
Project description:1. Whole cells of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides grown under semi-anaerobic conditions in the light incorporated magnesium into exogenous protoporphyrin when incubated with EDTA or the related chelators EGTA, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediamine-NN'N'- triacetate and trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexanetetra-acetate. 2. The reaction was demonstrated under anaerobic conditions in the light or at low oxygen partial pressure in the dark. Partial pressures of oxygen greater than 15% inhibited the reaction. 3. Cells grown under pure oxygen were completely inactive, but on adaptation to growth under low oxygen partial pressure (O(2)+N(2), 5:95) the development of activity paralleled the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll. 4. The reaction with normal cells did not require protein synthesis, but cells that had lost their activity by being illuminated in Mg(2+)-deficient medium did not recover it in the absence of protein synthesis. 5. The product of the reaction was magnesium protoporphyrin monomethyl ester. 6. Evidence is presented that insertion of magnesium is obligatorily coupled with methylation and it is concluded that the reaction is dependent on a multienzyme complex.
Project description:1. delta-Aminolaevulate synthetase from Rhodopseudomonas spheroides grown semi-anaerobically undergoes a spontaneous activation during the first hour after the disruption of cells when homogenates are stored at 4 degrees . 2. After cultures of R. spheroides growing semi-anaerobically are oxygenated no activation of delta-aminolaevulate synthetase occurs in cell extracts. Cessation of activation in extracts is almost complete 10min. after oxygenation of cells has begun. 3. A heat-stable fraction of low molecular weight from semi-anaerobic cells reactivates delta-aminolaevulate synthetase in extracts of oxygenated cells and appears to contain a compound responsible for the spontaneous activation. 4. A heat-stable fraction of low molecular weight from oxygenated cells inhibits the spontaneous activation in extracts of semi-anaerobic cells. 5. The effect of oxygen on the rate of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis in R. spheroides may be mediated through alterations in the concentrations of a low-molecular-weight activator and inhibitor of delta-aminolaevulate synthetase.
Project description:Rhodobacter sphaeroides cytochrome c2 (cyt c2) is a periplasmic heme protein, encoded by cycA, that is required for photosynthetic growth and for one branch of the aerobic electron transport chain. cycA mRNA and cyt c2 are more abundant photosynthetically than aerobically. We report here that there are four cycA transcripts by high-resolution Northern (RNA) blot analysis, and we have mapped 10 5' ends by primer extension. Complementation of a cycA null mutant shows that there are at least two cycA promoters: one within 89 bp upstream of the translation initiation codon for a transcript beginning at -28, and at least one within 484 bp upstream for the remaining nine 5' ends. The 5' ends at -28 and -137 are more abundant in aerobically grown cells, while those at -38, -155, -250, and -300 are more abundant photosynthetically. DNA sequences with homology to the Escherichia coli sigma 70 consensus promoter sequence precede the 5' ends at -28 and -274, and there is weak homology upstream of the -82 and -250 ends.