Purification of the hexokinases by affinity chromatography on sepharose-N-aminoacylglucosamine derivates. Design of affinity matrices from free solution kinetics.
ABSTRACT: The purification is described of rat hepatic hexokinase type III and kidney hexokinase type I on a large scale by using a combination of conventional and affinity techniques similar to those previously used for the purification of rat hepatic glucokinase [Holroyde, Allen, Storer, Warsy, Chesher, Trayer, Cornish-Bowden & Walker (1976) Biochem. J. 153, 363-373] and muscle hexokinase type II [Holroyde & Trayer (1976) FEBS Lett. 62, 215-219]. The key to each purification was the use of a Sepharose-N-aminoacylglucosamine affinity matrix in which a high degree of specificity for a particular hexokinase isoenzyme could be introduced by either varying the length of the aminoacyl spacer and/or varying the ligand concentration coupled to the gel. This was predicted from a study of the free solution kinetic properties of the various N-aminoacylglucosamine derivatives used (N-aminopropionyl, N-aminobutyryl, N-aminohexanoyl and N-aminooctanoyl), synthesized as described by Holroyde, Chesher, Trayer & Walker [(1976) Biochem. J. 153, 351-361]. All derivatives were competitive inhibitors, with respect to glucose, of the hexokinase reaction, and there was a direct correlation between the Ki for a particular derivative and its ability to act as an affinity matrix when immobilized to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. Muscle hexokinase type II could be chromatographed on the Sepharose conjugates of all four N-aminoacylglucosamine derivatives, although the N-aminohexanoylglucosamine derivative proved best. This same derivative was readily able to bind hepatic glucokinase and hexokinase type III, but Sepharose-N-amino-octanoyl-glucosamine was better for these enzymes and was the only derivative capable of binding kidney hexokinase type I efficiently. Separate studies with yeast hexokinase showed that again only the Sepharose-N-amino-octanoylglucosamine was capable of acting as an efficient affinity matrix for this enzyme. Implications of these studies in our understanding of affinity-chromatography operation are discussed.
Project description:1. Magnesium ions are the most effective bivalent ions in the glucokinase reaction. 2. The molecular weight of rat hepatic glucokinase is 48000-49000 as assessed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. 3. Anomalous kinetic behaviour at low glucose concentrations appears to be due to the formation during the purification procedure of fragments possessing modified catalytic properties, but is unlikely to be of physiological significance. 4. Extension of previous studies (Parry & Walker, 1966) suggests that glucokinase catalyses a reaction of the random Bi Bi type similar to that of yeast hexokinase. 5. The inhibitory effects of various thiol reagents suggest that a thiol group may be involved at or near the binding site of the acceptor molecule.
Project description:A new improved procedure for the purification of rat hepatic glucokinase (ATP-d-glucose 6-phosphotransferase, EC 188.8.131.52) is given. A key step is affinity chromatography on Sepharose-N-(6-aminohexanoyl)-2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose. A homogeneous enzyme, specific activity 150 units/mg of protein, is obtained in about 40% yield. The molecular weight of the pure enzyme was determined by several procedures. In particular, sedimentation-equilibrium studies under a variety of conditions indicate a molecular weight of 48000 and no evidence for dimerization; reports in the literature of other values are discussed in the light of this evidence on the pure enzyme. The amino acid composition suggests that hepatic glucokinase is closely related to rat brain hexokinase and also the wheat "light" hexokinases.
Project description:The synthesis of N-(6-aminohexanoyl)-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose is described and it was shown to be a competitive inhibitor (Ki, 0.75 mM) with respect to glucose of rat hepatic glucokinase (EC 184.108.40.206). After attachment to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B, this derivative was able to remove glucokinase quantitatively from crude liver extracts and release it when the columns were developed with glucose, glucosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine or KC1. Repeated exposure of the columns to liver extracts led to rapid loss in their effectiveness as affinity matrices because proteins other than glucokinase are bound to the columns. The nature of such protein binding and methods for the rejuvenation of "used" columns are discussed along with the effect of the mode of preparation of the Sepharose-ligand conjugate and the concentration of bound ligand on the purification of glucokinase. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is cited as an example of both non-specific protein binding to the affinity column and of the importance of the control of ligand concentration in removing such non-specifically bound proteins. Some guidelines emerged that should be generally applicable to other systems, particularly those which involve affinity chromatography of enzymes that are present in tissue extracts in very low amounts and possess only a relatively low association constant for the immobilized ligand.
Project description:Methods of synthesizing a series of chemically-defined AMP, ADP, ATP, adenylyl imidodiphosphate and pyrophosphate derivatives suitable for affinity chromatography are extensively described. Each derivative has a single primary amino group at the end of a hexamethylene ;spacer' chain for attachment to CNBr-activated agarose. The synthesis of the derivative where the ;spacer' arm is attached directly to the 8 position of the adenine ring to produce 8-(6-aminohexyl)amino-AMP involves the direct bromination of AMP in the 8 position followed by displacement of the halogen by 1,6-diaminohexane. This monophosphate derivative can then be converted into the corresponding di- or triphosphate forms by direct phosphate condensation with carbonyl di-imidazole. A second series of adenosine phosphate derivatives with the phosphate moieties unsubstituted has been similarly prepared from N(6)-(6-aminohexyl)-AMP (Guilford et al., 1972). A third type of ligand has been synthesized by condensing the phosphoryl imidazolide of AMP with 6-aminohex-1-yl phosphate. This compound, P(1)-(6-aminohex-1-yl) P(2)-(5'-adenosyl) pyrophosphate, has an unsubstituted adenine ring. The synthesis of a fourth type of ligand, 6-aminohex-1-yl pyrophosphate, was done by heating 6-aminohexan-1-ol with crystalline pyrophosphoric acid under reduced pressure. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by chemical, electrophoretic and chromatographic methods and by u.v. spectrometry. The general applicability of the synthetic methods used is discussed in relation to the preparation of other affinity adsorbents. Examples are given where these derivatives have been successful in reversibly binding dehydrogenases, kinases and myosin and its proteolytic subfragments. The partial purification of rat liver glucokinase on an ADP derivative is shown.
Project description:We have analysed the pattern of expression of the hexokinase isoenzyme group in RIN-m5F insulinoma cells. Three hexokinase forms were resolved by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The most abundant isoenzyme co-eluted with hexokinase type II from rat adipose tissue and displayed a Km for glucose of 0.15 mM, similar to the adipose-tissue enzyme. Hexokinase type II was in large part associated with a particulate subcellular fraction in RIN-m5F cells. The two other hexokinases separated by ion-exchange chromatography were an enzyme similar to hexokinase type I from brain and glucokinase (or hexokinase type IV). The latter isoenzyme was identified as the liver-type glucokinase by the following properties: co-elution with hepatic glucokinase from DEAE-cellulose and DEAE-Sephadex; sigmoid saturation kinetics with glucose with half-maximal velocity at 5.6 mM and Hill coefficient (h) of 1.54; suppression of enzyme activity by antibodies raised against rat liver glucokinase; apparent Mr of 56,500 and pI of 5.6, as shown by immunoblotting after one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis; peptide map identical with that of hepatic glucokinase after proteolysis with chymotrypsin and papain. These data indicate that the gene coding for hepatic glucokinase is expressed in RIN-m5F cells, a finding consistent with indirect evidence for the presence of glucokinase in the beta-cell of the islet of Langerhans. On the other hand, the overall pattern of hexokinases is distinctly different in RIN-m5F cells and islets of Langerhans, since hexokinase type II appears to be lacking in islets. Alteration in hexokinase expression after tumoral transformation has been reported in other systems.
Project description:1. Procedures for the extensive purification in high yield of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine kinase from rat liver and kidney are described. The separation of this enzyme from hepatic glucokinase depended primarily on their differing behaviour on an affinity column of Sepharose--N-(6-aminohexanoyl)-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose. 2. This N-acetyl-D-glucosamine kinase also catalyses the phosphorylation of N-acetyl-D-mannosamine and, at a lower rate, several other sugar analogues, including D-glucose. 3. A comparison of the behaviour of the enzyme during gel filtration and electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels suggests that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine kinase is a symmetrical dimer of mol.wt. 80000.
Project description:A crude preparation of alkaline phosphatase (EC 220.127.116.11) from calf intestinal mucosa was purified by affinity chromatography on Sepharose-bound derivatives of arsanilic acid, which was found to be a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. Three biospecific adsorbents were prepared for the chromatography, and the best results were obtained with a tyraminyl-Sepharose derivative coupled with the diazonium salt derived from 4-(p-aminophenylazo)phenylarsonic acid. Alkaline phosphatase was the only enzyme retained by the affinity column in the absence of Pi. The enzyme eluted by phosphate buffer had a specific activity of about 1200 units per mg of protein at pH 10.0, with 5.5mM-p-nitrophenyl phosphate as the substrate.
Project description:Homogeneous glucokinase (EC 18.104.22.168) from the thermophile Bacillus stearothermophilus was isolated on the large scale by using four major steps: precipitation of extraneous material at pH 5.5, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, pseudo-affinity chromatography on Procion Brown H-3R-Sepharose 4B and gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA 34. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of about 330 units/mg of protein and was shown to exist as a dimer of subunit Mr 33,000. Kinetic parameters for the enzyme were determined with a variety of substrates. The glucokinase was highly specific for alpha-D-glucose, and the only other sugar substrate utilized was N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine. The enzyme shows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km value of 150 microM for alpha-D-glucose. The glucokinase was maximally active at pH 9.0.
Project description:Biotinylated derivatives of calmodulin (CaM) were prepared and their biological properties characterized by using enzyme assays, affinity and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography. Several N-hydroxysuccinimidobiotin derivatives [sulphosuccinimidobiotin (sulpho-NHS) and sulphosuccinimido-6-(biotinamido)hexanoate (BNHS-LC)] differing in spacer arm length were used to modify CaM. The shorter-spacer-arm CaM derivative (sulpho-CaM) activated CaM-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and CaM-dependent protein kinase II; preincubation with avidin blocked its ability to activate these enzymes. The extended-spacer-arm derivative (BNHS-LC-CaM) activated CaM-dependent enzymes both in the presence and in the absence of avidin, suggesting that the longer spacer arm diminished steric effects from avidin preincubation. Other biotinylated CaM derivatives were prepared with biotinylated tyrosine and/or histidine residues (diazobenzoylbiocytin; DBB-CaM) or nucleophilic sites (photobiotin acetate; photo-CaM). These derivatives activated CaM-dependent enzymes in the presence and in the absence of avidin. Oriented affinity columns were constructed with covalently immobilized avidin complexed to each biotinylated CaM derivative. The chromatographic profiles obtained revealed that each column interacted with a specific subset of CaM-binding proteins. Elution profiles of biotinyl CaM derivatives on phenyl-Sepharose hydrophobic-interaction chromatography suggested that several derivatives displayed diminished binding to the matrix in the presence of Ca2+. Development and characterization of a series of biotinylated CaM molecules can be used to identify domains of CaM that interact with specific CaM-dependent enzymes.
Project description:Soluble rat liver glucokinase was expressed at high levels at 22 degrees C in the BL21(DE3)pLysS strain of Escherichia coli. Aspartate-211 of yeast hexokinase has been implicated as a catalytic residue from crystallographic data. The corresponding residue in rat liver glucokinase, aspartate-205, was mutated to alanine and the expressed mutant had 1/500th of the activity of the wild type, with no change in the Km values for glucose or ATP. The results support a role for this residue as a base catalyst in the glucokinase reaction and, most probably, a similar role in the reactions of all members of the hexokinase family.