P-NN'-phenylenebismaleimide, a specific cross-linking agent for F-actin.
ABSTRACT: Covalent cross-links can be inserted between the subunits of F-actin by using p-NN'-phenylenebismaleimide. Cross-linking reaches its maximum value when one molecule of reagent has reacted with each actin subunit. p-NN'-Phenylenebismaleimide reacts initially with a cysteine residue on one subunit, the slower cross-linking reaction involving a lysine residue on a neighbouring subunit. Hydrolysis of the actin-bound reagent limits the extent of cross-linking. Quantitative analysis of the amounts of cross-linked oligomers seen on polyacrylamide gels containing sodium dodecyl sulphate suggests that neither the binding of the reagent to actin nor the formation of cross-links introduces strain into the structure. The cross-links do not join together different F-actin filaments, and evidence is presented that suggests that the cross-links join subunits of the same long-pitched helix.
Project description:To understand the extent of the cross-linking of proteins by the bifunctional reagent p-NN'-phenylenebismaleimide, a quantitative study of competing reactions has been undertaken. The two reactive maleimide rings of the bismaleimide are hydrolysed in mildly alkaline aqueous solutions much more rapidly than is the single maleimide ring of the monofunctional analogue N-ethylmaleimide. The kinetics of hydrolysis are second-order, depending on both imide and hydroxyl ion concentration in the pH range 8-10. The hydrolysis of the first imide ring of the bismaleimide is more rapid than the second, with second-order rate constants of 1600 M-1 . s-1 and 500 M-1 . s-1 respectively, at 25 degrees C. The half-times for hydrolysis of the first and second imide rings at pH 9.0 are therefore only 43s and 140s. Because it renders the maleimide ring unreactive towards cysteine, this rapid hydrolysis can limit the extent of cross-linking of proteins by the bismaleimide.
Project description:1. Walls of certain Gram-positive bacteria dissolved on incubation with dilute aqueous NN-dimethylhydrazine in the presence of air, by a reaction that probably involves free radicals. 2. Under the conditions described, the soluble products from the peptidoglycan were almost all non-diffusible. After brief incubation of walls of some organisms with reagent, part of the peptidoglycan component was obtained as a high-molecular-weight gel, the viscosity of which was rapidly decreased by incubation with lysozyme. 3. The extent to which peptidoglycan dissolved varied with different organisms, depending possibly on the extent of cross-linking, but the nature of the bonds that were destroyed has not been established. 4. Teichoic acids and polysaccharides were solubilized by this treatment and could be isolated in high overall yield. 5. The procedure is valuable in the examination of the distribution of heteropolymers in walls, and has been used to show that the polysaccharide present in walls of Lactobacillus arabinosus 17-5 is phosphorylated and may account for 20% of the total phosphate of the wall.
Project description:Previous kinetic studies have demonstrated that the activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase by cyclic AMP involves the formation of a ternary complex of cyclic AMP, the regulatory subunit (R) and the catalytic subunit (C). It is suggested that only this ternary complex breaks down to liberate the enzymically active catalytic subunit. We have performed cross-linking experiments with the holoenzyme and its dissimilar subunits in the presence of MgATP and various concentrations of cyclic AMP. Results from these cross-linking studies indicate that regulatory subunits exist as dimers in the native form. Moreover, dissociation of the holoenzyme or the reconstituted enzyme is promoted by cyclic AMP, and the effect of MgATP is to stabilize the enzyme in the tetrameric form. The success in cross-linking the regulatory and the catalytic subunits of protein kinase with the lysine-specific bifunctional cross-linking reagent dimethyl suberimidate may be attributed to the presence of a large number of lysine residues in the enzyme.
Project description:The structure of bovine heart mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase was investigated by cross-linking constituent subunits with disuccinimidyl tartrate, (ethylene glycol)yl bis(succinimidyl succinate) and dimethyl suberimidate. Cross-linked products were identified by Western blotting with monospecific antisera to nine subunits of the enzyme. Cross-links between subunits within the flavoprotein, iron-protein and hydrophobic domains of the enzyme were identified. Cross-linking between the 75 kDa iron-protein-domain subunit and the 51 kDa flavoprotein-domain subunit was modulated by the substrate NADH. Cross-linking of subunits of the iron-protein and flavoprotein domains to constituents of the hydrophobic domain was also found. This was further substantiated by photolabelling subunits of the latter region, which were in contact with the membrane lipid, with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine. One such subunit of Mr 19,000 could be cross-linked to components of the iron-protein domain.
Project description:4-NN-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 4'-isothiocyanate was synthesized for the purpose of improving the ease and sensitivity of peptide sequence analysis. The method of 4-NN-dimethylaminoazobenzene 4'-isothiocyanate synthesis, the preparation of 24 4-NN-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4'-thiohydantoins of amino acids and their t.l.c. separation are described. All the thiohydantoins, except those of leucine and isoleucine, could be satisfactorily separated by chromatography on a two-dimensional polyamide sheet. The sensitive azo group permits the detection of 4-NN-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4'-thiohydantoins of amino acids as red spots down to pmol amounts directly on the sheet. A simple sensitive method for sequencing dipeptides and the first two or three N-terminal amino acids of proteins is also reported. The colour change of the spots from purple to blue to red after being exposed to HCl vapour, corresponding to the chemical change from 4-NN-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4' isothiocyanate to the 4-NN-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4'-thiocarbamoyl amino acid derivative to the 4-NN-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4'-thiohydantoin amino acid derivative, reveals a very interesting and valuable feature of this reagent.
Project description:eIF2B facilitates and controls protein synthesis in eukaryotes by mediating guanine nucleotide exchange on its partner eIF2. We combined mass spectrometry (MS) with chemical cross-linking, surface accessibility measurements and homology modelling to define subunit stoichiometry and interactions within eIF2B and eIF2. Although it is generally accepted that eIF2B is a pentamer of five non-identical subunits (α-ε), here we show that eIF2B is a decamer. MS and cross-linking of eIF2B complexes allows us to propose a model for the subunit arrangements within eIF2B where the subunit assembly occurs through catalytic γ- and ε-subunits, with regulatory subunits arranged in asymmetric trimers associated with the core. Cross-links between eIF2 and eIF2B allow modelling of interactions that contribute to nucleotide exchange and its control by eIF2 phosphorylation. Finally, we identify that GTP binds to eIF2Bγ, prompting us to propose a multi-step mechanism for nucleotide exchange.
Project description:The structure of bovine heart mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase was investigated by using two cleavable cross-linking agents, disuccinimidyl tartrate and (ethylene glycol)yl bis-(succinimidyl succinate). Cross-linking was analysed primarily by immunoblotting to detect products containing subunits of the iron-protein fraction from chaotropic resolution of the enzyme, namely those of 75, 49, 30 and 13 kDa. By using both the isolated iron-protein fraction and the intact dehydrogenase, cross-links were identified between these four subunits, from these subunits to the largest subunit of the flavoprotein fraction, which contains the active site for NADH, and from these subunits to polypeptides in the hydrophobic shell, which surrounds the hydrophilic iron-protein and flavoprotein fractions.
Project description:The capsid of bacteriophage HK97 is stabilized by approximately 400 covalent cross-links between subunits which form without any action by external enzymes or cofactors. Cross-linking only occurs in fully assembled particles after large-scale structural changes bring together side chains from three subunits at each cross-linking site. Isopeptide cross-links form between asparagine and lysine side chains on two subunits. The carboxylate of glutamic acid 363 (E363) from a third subunit is found approximately 2.4 A from the isopeptide bond in the partly hydrophobic pocket that contains the cross-link. It was previously reported without supporting data that changing E363 to alanine abolishes cross-linking, suggesting that E363 plays a role in cross-linking. This alanine mutant and six additional substitutions for E363 were fully characterized and the proheads produced by the mutants were tested for their ability to cross-link under a variety of conditions. Aspartic acid and histidine substitutions supported cross-linking to a significant extent, while alanine, asparagine, glutamine, and tyrosine did not, suggesting that residue 363 acts as a proton acceptor during cross-linking. These results support a chemical mechanism, not yet fully tested, that incorporates this suggestion, as well as features of the structure at the cross-link site. The chemically identical isopeptide bonds recently documented in bacterial pili have a strikingly similar chemical geometry at their cross-linking sites, suggesting a common chemical mechanism with the phage protein, but the completely different structures and folds of the two proteins argues that the phage capsid and bacterial pilus proteins have achieved shared cross-linking chemistry by convergent evolution.
Project description:A new method for the chemical labelling of nucleic acid with biotin to produce non-radioactive probes has been developed. NN'-Bis-(3-aminopropyl)butane-1,4-diamine (spermine) and long-chain diamino compounds (diaminohexane, diaminodecane and diaminododecane) were linked covalently to biotin and the resultant conjugates were attached to nucleic acid by using a cross-linking reagent (glutaraldehyde or diepoxyoctane). Iodoacetylation and biotinylation of the long-chain diamino compounds produced modified biotinylated conjugates that can be linked to DNA without the use of a cross-linking reagent. These types of probes attach one biotin molecule to each linker arm of spermine, diamino and iodoacetylated amino derivatives. Such probes have long linker arms separating the biotin moiety from the hybridization sites of the nucleic acid. These probes can detect 10 pg of target DNA by dot-blot hybridization.
Project description:The Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteasome comprises a 19-subunit regulatory particle and a 28-subunit core particle. To be degraded, substrates must cross the core particle-regulatory particle interface, a site for complex conformational changes and regulatory events. This interface includes two aligned heteromeric rings, one formed by the six ATPase (Rpt) subunits of the regulatory particle and the other by the seven ? subunits of the core particle. The Rpt C termini bind to intersubunit cavities in the ?-ring, thus directing core particle gating and proteasome assembly. We mapped the Rpt C termini to the ? subunit pockets, using a cross-linking approach that revealed an unexpected asymmetry: one side of the ring shows 1:1 contacts of Rpt2-?4, Rpt6-?3 and Rpt3-?2, whereas on the opposite side, the Rpt1, Rpt4 and Rpt5 tails each cross-link to multiple ? pockets. Rpt-core particle cross-links are all sensitive to nucleotides, implying that ATP hydrolysis drives dynamic alterations at the core particle-regulatory particle interface.