Systematic variations in the content of the purine nucleotides in the steady-state perfused rat heart. Evidence for the existence of controlled storage and release of adenine nucleotides.
ABSTRACT: 1. The contents of the major purine nucleotides in the isolated non-working perfused rat heart varied systematically during 80min of perfusion. In particular the amounts of ATP, ADP, GTP, cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in the well-oxygenated myocardium showed changes ranging from 25 to 60% of the mean concentrations. The apparent periodicity was about 30min for some and about 60min for other nucleotides. 2. These data are in contrast with measurements of parameters reflecting heart performance, which remained constant over this period of perfusion. 3. The ATP/ADP ratio, the cyclic AMP content, the GTP content and the GTP/GDP ratio in the tissue bore a constant relationship to one another, and all showed the same temporal variation. 4. Increasing the energy demand on the heart by administration of bovine somatotropin (1mug/ml) tended to damp the variations, and generally lower the content of all the nucleotides. 5. The total extractable adenine nucleotide pool also showed systematic temporal variations of as much as 1.3mumol/g wet wt. of tissue within 10min. 6. These variations could not be accounted for as inter-conversion with adenosine, other purine nucleotides, nucleosides or purine-degradation products either in the tissue or in the perfusion medium. No evidence was found in this preparation of the purine nucleotide oscillations described by Lowenstein and his co-workers [see Tornheim & Lowenstein (1975) J. Biol. Chem.250, 6304-6314]. 7. Further, the pool size increases cannot be satisfactorily explained by either synthesis de novo or the breakdown of any purine macromolecular species in the cell. Thus it is suggested that an unsuspected substantial storage form of purine nucleotide may exist in heart.
Project description:1. Using the incorporation of [methyl-3H]thymidine as a proliferation marker, the effects of various nucleosides and nucleotides on endothelial LLC-MK2 cells were studied. We found that ATP, ADP, AMP and adenosine in concentrations of 10 microM or higher stimulate the proliferation of these cells. 2. Inhibition of ecto-ATPase (EC 22.214.171.124), 5'-nucleotidase (EC 126.96.36.199) or alkaline phosphatase (EC 188.8.131.52) significantly diminished the stimulatory effect of ATP, indicating that the effect is primarily caused by adenosine and not by adenine nucleotides. Also, the effect depends only on extracellular nucleosides, since inhibition of nucleoside uptake by dipyridamole has no influence on proliferation. 3. Other purine nucleotides and nucleosides (ITP, GTP, inosine and guanosine) also stimulate cell proliferation, while pyrimidine nucleotides and nucleosides (CTP, UTP, cytidine and uridine) inhibit proliferation. Furthermore, the simultaneous presence of adenosine and any of the other purine nucleosides is not entirely additive in its effect on cell proliferation. At the same time any pyrimidine nucleoside, when added together with adenosine, has the same inhibitory effect as the pyrimidine nucleoside alone. 4. Apparently these proliferative effects are neither caused by any pharmacologically known P1-purinoceptor, nor are they mediated by cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, or D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate as second messenger, nor by extracellular Ca2+. 5. Therefore, we conclude that various purine and pyrimidine nucleosides can influence the proliferation of LLC-MK2 cells by acting on putative purinergic and pyrimidinergic receptors not previously described.
Project description:Perfused rat heart incorporated L-[14C]tyrosine into protein at a constant rate for up to 75 min. A purified bovine growth-hormone preparation (1 mug/ml) stimulated the incorporation to a new constant rate that was more than three times the control rate by 10 min after hormone addition to perfusate. The hormone, however, did not alter the intracellular tracer amino acid pool, and the relationship of this to the aminoacyl-tRNA precursor pool is discussed. It is concluded that the increased incorporation largely reflected a rapid increase in protein synthesis at the ribosomes. Measurements of cyclic nucleotide contents during the perfusion showed that these appeared to vary in a systematic way during the perfusion. This strands in contrast with the constant values given by several other parameters measured in this preparation. Futher, the cyclic nucleotide variation seems to be independent of external effectors. The steady-state performance of the heart correlates more closely the [cyclic AMP]/[cyclic GMP] ratio than with the content of the individual cyclic nucleotides. At 10 min after the addition of growth hormone a slight decrese in cyclic AMP content and a large decrease in cyclic GMP were found, suggesting that the hormone's effect in stimulating protein synthesis may be mediated by a decrease in cyclic nucleotide concentrations or an increase in the [cyclic AMP]/[cyclic |p] ratio. The findings are also consistent with an intracellularly directed role for these nucleotides, and the possibility that the cyclic nucleotide changes are an indirect result of growth-hormone action is discussed.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Non-shivering thermogenesis in mammalian brown adipose tissue depends on thermogenic uncoupling protein 1. Its activity is triggered by free fatty acids while purine nucleotides mediate inhibition. During activation, it is thought that free fatty acids overcome purine-mediated inhibition. We measured the cellular concentration and the release of purine nucleotide metabolites to uncover a possible role of purine nucleotide degradation in uncoupling protein 1 activation. METHODS:With mass spectrometry, purine nucleotide metabolites were quantified in cellular homogenates and supernatants of cultured primary brown adipocytes. We also determined oxygen consumption in response to a ?-adrenergic agonist. RESULTS:Upon adrenergic activation, brown adipocytes decreased the intracellular concentration of inhibitory nucleotides (ATP, ADP, GTP and GDP) and released the respective degradation products. At the same time, an increase in cellular calcium occurred. None of these phenomena occurred in white adipocytes or myotubes. The brown adipocyte expression of enzymes implicated in purine metabolic remodeling is altered upon cold exposure. Pharmacological and genetic interference of purine metabolism altered uncoupling protein 1 mediated uncoupled respiration. CONCLUSION:Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocytes lowers the intracellular concentration of purine nucleotides, thereby contributing to uncoupling protein 1 activation.
Project description:Correlations between gene transcription and the abundance of high-energy purine nucleotides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have often been noted. However, there has been no systematic investigation of this phenomenon in the absence of confounding factors such as nutrient status and growth rate, and there is little hard evidence for a causal relationship. Whether transcription is fundamentally responsive to prevailing cellular energetic conditions via sensing of intracellular purine nucleotides, independently of specific nutrition, remains an important question. The controlled nutritional environment of chemostat culture revealed a strong correlation between ATP and GTP abundance and the transcription of genes required for growth. Short pathways for the inducible and futile consumption of ATP or GTP were engineered into S. cerevisiae, permitting analysis of the transcriptional effect of an increased demand for these nucleotides. During steady-state growth using the fermentable carbon source glucose, the futile consumption of ATP led to a decrease in intracellular ATP concentration but an increase in GTP and the guanylate energy charge (GEC). Expression of transcripts encoding proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis, and those controlled by promoters subject to SWI/SNF-dependent chromatin remodelling, was correlated with these nucleotide pool changes. Similar nucleotide abundance changes were observed using a nonfermentable carbon source, but an effect on the growth-associated transcriptional programme was absent. Induction of the GTP-cycling pathway had only marginal effects on nucleotide abundance and gene transcription. The transcriptional response of respiring cells to glucose was dampened in chemostats induced for ATP cycling, but not GTP cycling, and this was primarily associated with altered adenine nucleotide levels.IMPORTANCE This paper investigates whether, independently of the supply of any specific nutrient, gene transcription responds to the energy status of the cell by monitoring ATP and GTP levels. Short pathways for the inducible and futile consumption of ATP or GTP were engineered into the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the effect of an increased demand for these purine nucleotides on gene transcription was analyzed. The resulting changes in transcription were most consistently associated with changes in GTP and GEC levels, although the reprogramming in gene expression during glucose repression is sensitive to adenine nucleotide levels. The results show that GTP levels play a central role in determining how genes act to respond to changes in energy supply and that any comprehensive understanding of the control of eukaryotic gene expression requires the elucidation of how changes in guanine nucleotide abundance are sensed and transduced to alter the global pattern of transcription.
Project description:Infusion of adenine nucleotides and adenosine into perfused rat livers resulted in stimulation of hepatic glycogenolysis, transient increases in the effluent perfusate [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio, and increased portal vein pressure. In livers perfused with buffer containing 50 microM-Ca2+, transient efflux of Ca2+ was seen on stimulation of the liver with adenine nucleotides or adenosine. ADP was the most potent of the nucleotides, stimulating glucose output at concentrations as low as 0.15 microM, with half-maximal stimulation at approx. 1 microM, and ATP was slightly less potent, half-maximal stimulation requiring 4 microM-ATP. AMP and adenosine were much less effective, doses giving half-maximal stimulation being 40 and 20 microM respectively. Non-hydrolysed ATP analogues were much less effective than ATP in promoting changes in hepatic metabolism. ITP, GTP and GDP caused similar changes in hepatic metabolism to ATP, but were 10-20 times less potent than ATP. In livers perfused at low (7 microM) Ca2+, infusion of phenylephrine before ATP desensitized hepatic responses to ATP. Repeated infusions of ATP in such low-Ca2+-perfused livers caused homologous desensitization of ATP responses, and also desensitized subsequent Ca2+-dependent responses to phenylephrine. A short infusion of Ca2+ (1.25 mM) after phenylephrine infusion restored subsequent responses to ATP, indicating that, during perfusion with buffer containing 7 microM-Ca2+, ATP and phenylephrine deplete the same pool of intracellular Ca2+, which can be rapidly replenished in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. Measurement of cyclic AMP in freeze-clamped liver tissue demonstrated that adenosine (150 microM) significantly increased hepatic cyclic AMP, whereas ATP (15 microM) was without effect. It is concluded that ATP and ADP stimulate hepatic glycogenolysis via P2-purinergic receptors, through a Ca2+-dependent mechanism similar to that in alpha-adrenergic stimulation of hepatic tissue. However, adenosine stimulates glycogenolysis via P1-purinoreceptors and/or uptake into the cell, at least partially through a mechanism involving increase in cyclic AMP. Further, the hepatic response to adenine nucleotides may be significant in regulating hepatic glucose output in physiological and pathophysiological states.
Project description:As second messengers, the cyclic purine nucleotides adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) play an essential role in intracellular signaling. Recent data suggest that the cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides cytidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cCMP) and uridine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cUMP) also act as second messengers. Hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases (PDEs) is the most important degradation mechanism for cAMP and cGMP. Elimination of cUMP and cCMP is not completely understood, though. We have shown that human PDEs hydrolyze not only cAMP and cGMP but also cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides, indicating that these enzymes may be important for termination of cCMP- and cUMP effects as well. However, these findings were acquired using a rather expensive HPLC/mass spectrometry assay, the technical requirements of which are available only to few laboratories. N'-Methylanthraniloyl-(MANT-)labeled nucleotides are endogenously fluorescent and suitable tools to study diverse protein/nucleotide interactions. In the present study, we report the synthesis of new MANT-substituted cyclic purine- and pyrimidine nucleotides that are appropriate to analyze substrate specificity and kinetics of PDEs with more moderate technical requirements. MANT-labeled nucleoside 3',5'-cyclic monophosphates (MANT-cNMPs) are shown to be substrates of various human PDEs and to undergo a significant change in fluorescence upon cleavage, thus allowing direct, quantitative and continuous determination of hydrolysis via fluorescence detection. As substrates of several PDEs, MANT-cNMPs show similar kinetics to native nucleotides, with some exceptions. Finally, they are shown to be also appropriate tools for PDE inhibitor studies.
Project description:1. Techniques have been developed to measure the concentrations of the ribonucleotides of the immature rat uterus in vivo. Tissue was frozen rapidly in liquid nitrogen, ground to a fine powder, dispersed in frozen perchloric acid and thawed slowly. Nucleotides were separated from other acid-soluble constituents on short columns of polyethyleneimine-cellulose and the mixture was resolved into individual nucleotides by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography on polyethyl-eneimine-cellulose plates. 2. The nucleotides of immature rat uterus consisted of approximately 75% of ATP-ADP, 10-12% each of GTP-GDP and UTP-UDP and less than 2% of CTP. 3. Injection of oestradiol (5mug) promoted a linear decrease in the amounts of purine nucleotides to approximately 60% of control values in 4-5h, followed by a return to greater than control values in 8-10h. Concentrations of the pyrimidine nucleotides remained constant for 4-6h and then increased to 200% of control at 12h after hormone treatment.
Project description:1. The mode of action of purine nucleotides and amino acids on the activity of ox-liver glutamate dehydrogenase was investigated. 2. The addition of two chemically unrelated activators, at concentrations below saturation levels, enhanced the enzyme activity much more than a twofold concentration of each one separately. No such synergistic activation was observed when a combination of two members of the same group was tested. 3. With saturating concentrations of the activators, the increase in enzymic activity produced by a pair of chemically related effectors was either identical with or even below that achieved by the more active effector. However, the combination of two unrelated activators, at saturating amounts, still yielded a higher enzyme activity than with each one singly. 4. Unlike ADP, l-leucine was incapable of overcoming completely the inhibition produced by GTP. 5. It is suggested that purine nucleotides and amino acids bind to separate group-specific allosteric sites of this enzyme. 6. The possible physiological significance of these findings with regard to the regulation of the cellular functions of this enzyme is discussed.
Project description:Non-shivering thermogenesis in mammalian brown adipose tissue is a powerful mechanism to defend normothermia in cold climates. To minimize the loss of chemical energy, the central functional component, mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1, UCP1, must be tightly regulated. The canonical pathway of UCP1 activation includes lipolytic release of free fatty acids in response to an adrenergic signal. Activating fatty acids overcome constitutive inhibition of UCP1 by the di- and triphosphate forms of purine nucleotides, i.e., ATP, ADP, GTP, and GDP. Cellular concentrations of inhibitory, free nucleotides are subject to significant, adrenergically induced alterations. The regulatory components involved may constitute novel drug targets to manipulate brown fat thermogenesis and thereby organismic energy balance. We here review evidence for and against a dominant role of nucleotides in thermogenic control, describe conceptual routes to endogenously and pharmacologically alter free nucleotide pool size, speculate on a signaling role of degradation products released from active brown fat, and highlight gaps in our understanding of signaling and metabolic pathways involved.
Project description:1. Loading the isolated perfused liver from well-fed rats with xylitol (20mm) caused a depletion of adenine nucleotides and P(i) and an accumulation of alpha-glycerophosphate. The ATP content fell to 66% of the control value after 10min and to 32% after 80min. The ADP and AMP contents also fell. After 80min 63% of the total adenine nucleotides and 59% of the P(i) had been lost. 2. The alpha-glycerophosphate content rose from 0.13 to 4.74mumol/g at 10min and reached 8.02mumol/g at 40min. 3. Xylitol was rapidly metabolized, the main products being glucose, lactate and pyruvate. 4. The [lactate]/[pyruvate] ratio in the presence of xylitol rose to 30-40. 5. On perfusion of livers from starved animals the main product of xylitol metabolism was glucose and the mean ratio xylitol removed/glucose formed was 1.29 (corrected for endogenous glucose and lactate production). This is close to the predicted value of 1.2. 6. Evidence is presented indicating that the loss of adenine nucleotides caused by xylitol is not due to the increased ATP consumption but to the accumulation of alpha-glycerophosphate and depletion of P(i). 7. The loss of adenine nucleotides accounts for the hyperuricaemia which can occur after xylitol infusion in man. 8. The relevance of the findings to the clinical use of xylitol as an energy source is discussed.