Responsiveness to glucagon by isolated rat hepatocytes controlled by the redox state of the cytosolic nicotinamide--adenine dinucleotide couple acting on adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate phosphodiesterase.
ABSTRACT: 1. The effects of changes in the cytoplasmic [NADH]/[NAD+] ratio on the efficacy of glucagon to alter rates of metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes were examined. 2. Under reduced conditions (with 10mM-lactate), 10nM-glucagon stimulated both gluconeogenesis and urea synthesis in isolated hepatocytes from 48h-starved rats; under oxidized conditions (with 10mM-pyruvate), 10nM-glucagon had no effect on either of these rates. 3. The ability of glucagon to alter the concentration of 3':5'-cyclic AMP and the rates of glucose output, glycogen breakdown and glycolysis in cells from fed rats were each affected by a change in the extracellular [lactate]/[pyruvate] ratio; minimal effects of glucagon occurred at low [lactate]/[pyruvate] ratios. 4. Dose-response curves for glucagon-mediated changes in cyclic AMP concentration and glucose output indicated that under oxidized conditions the ability of glucagon to alter each parameter was decreased without affecting the concentration of hormone at which half-maximal effects occurred. 5. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (0.05 mM) significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of pyruvate on glucagon-stimulated glucose output. 6. For exogenously added cyclic [3H]AMP(0.1 mM), oxidized conditions decreased the stimulatory effect on glucose output as well as the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP attained, but did not alter the amount of cyclic [3H]AMP taken up. 7. The effects of lactate, pyruvate, NAD+ and NADH on cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activities of rat hepatocytes were examined. 8. NADH (0.01--1 MM) inhibited the low-Km enzyme, particularly that which was associated with the plasma membrane. 9. The inhibition of membrane-bound cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase by NADH was specific, reversible and resulted in a decrease in the maximal velocity of the enzyme. 10. It is proposed that regulation of the membrane-bound low-Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase by nicotinamide nucleotides provides the molecular basis for the effect of redox state on the hormonal control of hepatocyte metabolism by glucagon.
Project description:Glucagon (10nM) prevented insulin (10nM) from activating the plasma-membrane cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. This effect of glucagon was abolished by either PIA [N6-(phenylisopropyl)adenosine] (100nM) or adenosine (10 microM). Neither PIA nor adenosine exerted any effect on the plasma-membrane cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity either alone or in combination with glucagon. Furthermore, PIA and adenosine did not potentiate the action of insulin in activating this enzyme. 2-Deoxy-adenosine (10 microM) was ineffective in mimicking the action of adenosine. The effect of PIA in preventing the blockade by glucagon of insulin's action was inhibited by low concentrations of theophylline. Half-maximal effects of PIA were elicited at around 6nM-PIA. It is suggested that adenosine is exerting its effects on this system through an R-type receptor. This receptor does not appear to be directly coupled to adenylate cyclase, however, as PIA did not affect either the activity of adenylate cyclase or intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations. Insulin's activation of the plasma-membrane cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, in the presence of both glucagon and PIA, was augmented by increasing intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations with either dibutyryl cyclic AMP or the cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor Ro-20-1724. PIA also inhibited the ability of glucagon to uncouple (desensitize) adenylate cyclase activity in intact hepatocytes. This occurred at a half-maximal concentration of around 3 microM-PIA. However, if insulin (10 nM) was also present in the incubation medium, PIA exerted its action at a much lower concentration, with a half-maximal effect occurring at around 4 nM.
Project description:The hormonal regulation of L-type pyruvate kinase in hepatocytes from phosphorylase b kinase-deficient (gsd/gsd) rats was investigated. Adrenaline (10 microM) and glucagon (10 nM) each led to an inactivation and phosphorylation of pyruvate kinase. Dose-response curves for adrenaline-mediated inactivation of pyruvate kinase, phosphorylation of pyruvate kinase and the stimulation of gluconeogenesis from 1.8 mM-lactate were similar for hepatocytes from control and gsd/gsd rats. Time-course studies indicated that adrenaline-mediated inactivation and phosphorylation of pyruvate kinase proceeded more slowly in phosphorylase kinase-deficient hepatocytes than in control hepatocytes. The age-dependent change in the adrenergic control of pyruvate kinase was similar between control and phosphorylase kinase-deficient hepatocytes. Adrenaline, glucagon and noradrenaline activated the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and inhibited pyruvate kinase in phosphorylase kinase-deficient hepatocytes. Vasopressin (0.2-2 nM), angiotensin (10nM) and A23187 (10 microM) had no effect on the activity ratio of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase or pyruvate kinase in these cells. It is concluded that phosphorylase kinase plays no significant role in the hormonal control of pyruvate kinase and that phosphorylation and inactivation of this enzyme results predominantly from the action of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.
Project description:The Na+-induced efflux of Ca2+ from liver mitochondria was activated by tissue pretreatment with 1 microM-adrenaline, 1 microM-isoprenaline, 10 nM-glucagon and 100 microM-cyclic AMP when 10 mM-lactate plus 1 mM-pyruvate were present in the perfusion medium. Infusion of the alpha 1-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (10 microM), was ineffective. The activation induced by the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoprenaline, was maximal after infusion of agonist for 2 min. The isoprenaline-induced activation was very marked (120-220%), with about 7 nmol of intramitochondrial Ca2+/mg of protein, but was not evident with greater than 15 nmol of Ca2+/mg. Ca2+ efflux in the absence of Na+ and in the presence of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was not affected by isoprenaline pretreatment over the range 6-23 nmol of internal Ca2+/mg. With 10 mM-lactate plus 1 mM-pyruvate in the perfusion medium, glucagon and isoprenaline infusion increased tissue cyclic AMP content about 8-fold and 3-fold respectively. With 10 mM-pyruvate alone, neither glucagon nor isoprenaline caused a significant increase in cyclic AMP. Omission of lactate also abolished the ability of glucagon, but not of isoprenaline, to activate the Na+-induced efflux of Ca2+. The data indicate that cyclic AMP may mediate the activation caused by glucagon, but provide no evidence that cyclic AMP is an obligatory link in the beta-adrenergic-induced activation.
Project description:Treatment of intact hepatocytes with glucagon led to the rapid desensitization of adenylate cyclase, which reached a maximum around 5 min after application of glucagon, after which resensitization ensued. Complete resensitization occurred some 20 min after the addition of glucagon. In hepatocytes which had been preincubated with the cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), glucagon elicited a stable desensitized state where resensitization failed to occur even 20 min after exposure of hepatocytes to glucagon. Treatment with IBMX alone did not elicit desensitization. The action of IBMX in stabilizing the glucagon-mediated desensitized state was mimicked by the non-methylxanthine cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor Ro-20-1724 [4-(3-butoxy-4-methoxylbenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone]. IBMX inhibited the resensitization process in a dose-dependent fashion with an EC50 (concn. giving 50% of maximal effect) of 26 +/- 5 microM, which was similar to the EC50 value of 22 +/- 6 microM observed for the ability of IBMX to augment the glucagon-stimulated rise in intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations. Pre-treatment of hepatocytes with IBMX did not alter the ability of either angiotensin or the glucagon analogue TH-glucagon, ligands which did not increase intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations, to cause the rapid desensitization and subsequent resensitization of adenylate cyclase. It is suggested that, although desensitization of glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase is elicited by a cyclic AMP-independent process, the resensitization of adenylate cyclase can be inhibited by a process which is dependent on elevated cyclic AMP concentrations. This action can be detected by attenuating the degradation of cyclic AMP by using inhibitors of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Project description:The mechanism of the antihyperglycaemic action of dexfenfluramine (DEXF) was investigated in isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to glucagon. Preincubation of hepatocytes with DEXF caused a dose-dependent inhibition of cyclic AMP formation by 100 nM glucagon (Ki = 0.29 mM) that was almost complete at 1 mM DEXF. Surprisingly, glucagon-induced phosphorylase activation was not affected by DEXF despite the significant drop in cyclic AMP levels. Glucose production stimulated by glucagon was inhibited by up to 48% by 1 mM DEXF, and the rate of glucose production correlated positively with the steady-state concentration of glucose 6-phosphate. DEXF also partially restored lactate + pyruvate production which was abolished by an optimal concentration of glucagon. Although DEXF was not able to prevent the inactivation of pyruvate kinase by glucagon, the lack of further accumulation of phosphoenolpyruvate in DEXF-treated cells supports the conclusion that the flux through pyruvate kinase is stimulated, probably via the increase in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, thereby increasing glycolysis. Our results thus indicate that DEXF counteracts the inhibition of glycolysis by glucagon and that this property might contribute to the antihyperglycaemic effect of this drug. Furthermore, this study shows that, in the presence of the drug, glucagon caused phosphorylase activation and pyruvate kinase inactivation without a significant increase in cyclic AMP levels.
Project description:The effect of adenosine analogues on glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in rat hepatocytes was explored. N6-Cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine and N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the cyclic AMP accumulation induced by glucagon. This effect seems to be mediated through A1 adenosine receptors. Pertussis toxin completely abolished the effect of CPA on glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in whole cells which suggested that a pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-protein was involved. On the other hand, this action of adenosine analogues on glucagon-induced cyclic AMP accumulation was reverted by the selective low-Km cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor Ro 20-1724. Analysis of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase activity in purified hepatocyte plasma membranes showed that glucagon in the presence of GTP inhibited basal PDE activity by 45% and that CPA reverted this inhibition in dose-dependent manner. In membranes derived from pertussis-toxin-treated rats, we observed no inhibition of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase activity by glucagon in the absence or presence of CPA. Our results indicate that in hepatocyte plasma membranes, stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity and inhibition of a low-Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity are co-ordinately regulated by glucagon, and that A1 adenosine receptors can inhibit glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation by blocking glucagon's effect on phosphodiesterase activity.
Project description:Treatment of hepatocytes with either NH4Cl (10mM) or fructose (10mM) blocks insulin's activation of the 'dense-vesicle' cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. The ability of insulin (10 nM) to decrease intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations raised by glucagon (10 nM) was unaffected by pre-treatment with either NH4Cl (10 mM) or fructose (10 mM). It is concluded that the 'dense-vesicle' enzyme does not play a significant role in this action of insulin and that as yet unidentified cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase(s) must be activated by insulin. Treatment of hepatocytes with either NH4Cl or fructose appeared to increase, reversibly, cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity. When N6-(phenylisopropyl)adenosine was used to prevent glucagon from blocking insulin's activation of the plasma-membrane cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity, insulin's ability to decrease intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations in glucagon-treated hepatocytes was increased markedly. Insulin's activation of the plasma-membrane cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity can exert a potent effect in decreasing intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations elevated by glucagon.
Project description:The interaction between forskolin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the regulation of cyclic AMP production in GH3 pituitary tumour cells was investigated. Both forskolin (10nM-10 microns) and VIP (10pM-10nM) increased the cyclic AMP content of GH3 cells. Forskolin (50-100nM) was additive with VIP in stimulating cyclic AMP accumulation when low concentrations (less than 1 nM) of the peptide were used, but exhibited a synergistic interaction with higher VIP concentrations (10-100 nM). These effects on cyclic AMP accumulation were reflected in a leftward shift in the concentration-response curve for VIP-stimulated prolactin release from GH3 cells, a process known to be regulated by intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations. The synergy observed did not appear to be related to changes in cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity, since it was even more marked in the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Studies of the time-course of VIP-induced changes in GH3-cell cyclic AMP content revealed that, with high concentrations of VIP, production ceased within 2 min of addition. This attenuation of cyclic AMP synthesis was still observed in the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine, but was markedly inhibited by low concentrations of forskolin (50-100nM). The results suggest that VIP-induced cyclic AMP production rapidly becomes desensitized. This process, which is prevented by forskolin, may be related to changes in the ability of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein to couple receptor occupancy to activation of adenylate cyclase.
Project description:Vasopressin and angiotensin are able to lower the glucagon-induced increase of cyclic AMP levels in isolated hepatocytes. Results presented are in favour of an enhanced phosphodiesterase activity to account for this cyclic AMP lowering effect. In particular, vasopressin prevents exogenous cyclic AMP from activating glycogen phosphorylase: in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, the hormone becomes unable to decrease glucagon-induced cyclic AMP levels. This anti-glucagon effect of vasopressin and angiotensin might be physiologically more important than their glycogenolytic effect; indeed, the latter is very transient in nature and, in addition, requires higher hormone concentrations [Bréant, Keppens & De Wulf (1981) Biochem. J. 200, 509-514] than those needed for the anti-glucagon effect, as reported here.
Project description:Treatment of intact adipocytes with either or both insulin and adrenaline stimulated membrane cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity only in the endoplasmic reticulum subfraction. The cyclic GMP-inhibited cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity was also found in this fraction. Quantitative Western blotting using a specific polyclonal antibody, raised against the homogeneous 'dense-vesicle' cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase from rat liver, identified a single 63 kDa species which was localized in the adipocyte endoplasmic reticulum fraction. The ability of adrenaline to stimulate adipocyte membrane cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase was shown to be mediated via beta-adrenoceptors and not alpha 1-adrenoceptors. Membrane cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase was stimulated by glucagon but not by vasopressin, A23187 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Treatment of adipocytes with either chloroquine or dansyl cadaverine failed to affect the ability of insulin to stimulate cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity. Treatment of an isolated adipocyte endoplasmic reticulum membrane fraction with purified protein kinase A increased its cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity some 2-fold. When this fraction was treated with purified protein kinase A and [32P]ATP, label was incorporated into a 63 kDa protein which was specifically immunoprecipitated with the antiserum against the liver 'dense-vesicle' cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.