Neutral glycosphingolipids and gangliosides of human lung and lung tumours.
ABSTRACT: In order to help determine whether alterations of the profiles of glycosphingolipids occur consistently in human tumours, the neutral glycosphingolipids and gangliosides of nine lung tumours (one adenocarcinoma, four squamous cell, two mixed adeno-squamous cell, one large cell and one oat-cell carcinomata) were analysed. The control tissue consisted of adjacent lung; it contained neutral glycosphingolipids corresponding in properties to glucosyl-, lactosyl-, globotriaosyl- and globotetraosyl-ceramides. All of the tumours also contained these four neutral glycosphingolipids. However, in addition, five of the tumours (two of the squamous, the large cell and the two mixed adeno-squamous cell carcinomata) contained neutral glycosphingolipids corresponding in properties to lactotriaosyl- and neolactotetraosyl-ceramides; these same tumours also exhibited higher amounts of lactosylceramide than the other tumours analysed. Both of the two former neutral glycosphingolipids and very substantial amounts of the latter neutral glycosphingolipid were detected in pneumonic lung and in polymorphonuclear leucocytes; it thus appears possible that these particular compounds were derived from these latter cells rather than from the tumour cells. The ganglioside patterns of the tumours were almost equivalent in complexity to that exhibited by the control lung tissue. This study shows that the profiles of two major classes of glycosphingolipids (neutral glycosphingolipids and gangliosides) occurring in lung tumours are almost as complex as those of the parent tissue, a finding in contrast with the notably simplified patterns of these lipids found in many cancer cells grown in vitro. It also suggests that when lactotriaosyl- and neolactotetraosyl-ceramides and high amounts of lactosylceramide are detected in human tumours, the possibility must be considered that these compounds are derived from polymorphonuclear leucocytes.
Project description:Chicken egg yolk was found to contain a unique glycosphingolipid pattern not seen in other types of tissue or cell. These glycosphingolipids were isolated in pure form and their structures established by sequential enzymic hydrolysis and permethylation analysis. The major gangliosides in chicken egg yolk are N-acetylneuraminosylgalactosylceramide, N-acetylneuraminosyl-lactosylceramide and di-N-acetylneuraminosyl-lactosylceramide. The only neutral glycosphingolipid found in chicken egg yolk is galactosylceramide.
Project description:1. The lipid fraction of the plasma membrane of pig mesenteric lymph-node lymphocytes contained primarily (94%) neutral lipids and phospholipids in about equal weights. The remianing lipid comprised glycosphingolipids (1.8%), gangliosides (o.27%)and probably ceramides (1.3%). The major phospholipid was phosphatidylcholine (46% of the total), and mono- and tri-hexosylceramides accounted for 72% of the glycosphingolipids. Haematoside was distributed between the glycosphingolipid and ganglioside fractions. The major ganglioside was monosialoganglioside. About 90% of the sialic acid was N-glycollylated. 2. A comparision of the lipid composition of the plasma-membrane fraction with that of the initial lymph-node homogenate showed that the purified membrane contained increased proportions of phospholipids, especially sphingomyelin, glycosphingolipids and gangliosides. 3. Fatty acid analyses showed that the membrane phosphatidylcholine was rich in palmitic acid, that the sphingomeyelin and phosphatidylethanolamine were high in myristic acid and that the glycosphingolipids were rich in oleic acid.
Project description:It was previously shown that sphingomyelin and gangliosides can be biosynthesized starting from sphingosine or sphingosine-containing fragments which originated in the course of GM1 ganglioside catabolism. In the present paper we investigated which fragments were specifically re-used for sphingomyelin and ganglioside biosynthesis in rat liver. At 30 h after intravenous injection of GM1 labelled at the level of the fatty acid ([stearoyl-14C]GM1) or of the sphingosine ([Sph-3H]) moiety, it was observed that radioactive sphingomyelin was formed almost exclusively after the sphingosine-labelled-GM1 administration. This permitted the recognition of sphingosine as the metabolite re-used for sphingomyelin biosynthesis. Conversely, gangliosides more complex than GM1 were similarly radiolabelled after the two treatments, thus ruling out sphingosine re-utilization for ganglioside biosynthesis. For the identification of the lipid fragment re-used for ganglioside biosynthesis, we administered to rats neutral glycosphingolipids (galactosylceramide, glucosylceramide and lactosylceramide) each radiolabelled in the sphingosine moiety or in the terminal sugar residue. Thereafter we compared the formation of radiolabelled gangliosides in the liver with respect to the species administered and the label location. After galactosylceramide was injected, no radiolabelled gangliosides were formed. After the administration of differently labelled glucosylceramide, radiolabelled gangliosides were formed, regardless of the position of the label. After lactosylceramide administration, the ganglioside fraction became more radioactive when the long-chain-base-labelled precursors were used. These results suggest that glucosylceramide, derived from glycosphingolipid and ganglioside catabolism, is recycled for ganglioside biosynthesis.
Project description:The glycosphingolipids of normal human lymphocytes from individual donors were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In addition, purified T- and B-lymphocytes were examined separately. Lactosylceramide was shown to be the major neutral glycosphingolipid in human lymphocytes, and monohexosylceramide, trihexosylceramide, globoside and paragloboside were all detected in smaller amounts. Analysis of purified B- and T-cell fractions revealed that each of these populations contained a similar qualitative profile for neutral glycosphingolipids, but that quantitatively, B-cells contained several times more of each glycosphingolipid per cell than did T-cells.
Project description:Cell surface glycoconjugates are used as markers for undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells. Here, antibody binding and mass spectrometry characterization of acid glycosphingolipids isolated from a large number (1 × 10(9) cells) of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines allowed identification of several novel acid glycosphingolipids, like the gangliosides sialyl-lactotetraosylceramide and sialyl-globotetraosylceramide, and the sulfated glycosphingolipids sulfatide, sulf-lactosylceramide, and sulf-globopentaosylceramide. A high cell surface expression of sialyl-lactotetra on hESC and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) was demonstrated by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy, whereas sulfated glycosphingolipids were only found in intracellular compartments. Immunohistochemistry showed distinct cell surface anti-sialyl-lactotetra staining on all seven hESC lines and three hiPSC lines analyzed, whereas no staining of hESC-derived hepatocyte-like or cardiomyocyte-like cells was obtained. Upon differentiation of hiPSC into hepatocyte-like cells, the sialyl-lactotetra epitope was rapidly down-regulated and not detectable after 14 days. These findings identify sialyl-lactotetra as a promising marker of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells.
Project description:Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, are membrane constituents of vertebrates and are known to have important roles in cellular differentiation, adhesion, and recognition. We report here the isolation of a bacterium capable of degrading gangliotetraose-series gangliosides and a new method for the production of glucosylceramide with this bacterium. GM1a ganglioside was found to be sequentially degraded by Paenibacillus sp. strain TS12, which was isolated from soil, as follows: GM1a --> asialo GM1 --> asialo GM2 --> lactosylceramide --> glucosylceramide. TS12 was found to produce a series of ganglioside-degrading enzymes, such as sialidases, beta-galactosidases, and beta-hexosaminidases. TS12 also produced beta-glucosidases, but glucosylceramide was somewhat resistant to the bacterial enzyme under the conditions used. Taking advantage of the specificity, we developed a new method for the production of glucosylceramide using TS12 as a biocatalyst. The method involves the conversion of crude bovine brain gangliosides to glucosylceramide by coculture with TS12 and purification of the product by chromatography with Wakogel C-300 HG.
Project description:The binding profile of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 and 2 to various glycosphingolipids was evaluated by using thin-layer chromatogram overlay. A. pleuropneumoniae whole cells recognized glucosylceramide (Glcbeta1Cer), galactosylceramide (Galbeta1Cer) with hydroxy and nonhydroxy fatty acids, sulfatide (SO(3)-3Galbeta1Cer), lactosylceramide (Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1Cer), gangliotriaosylceramide GgO3 (GalNAcbeta1-4Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1Cer), and gangliotetraosylceramide GgO4 (Galbeta1-3GalNAcbeta1-4Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1Cer) glycosphingolipids. We observed no binding to globoseries, globotriaosylceramide Gb3, globoside Gb4, or Forssman Gb5 glycosphingolipids or to gangliosides GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GD3, and GT1b. The A. pleuropneumoniae strains tested also failed to detect phosphatidylethanolamine or ceramide. Interestingly, extracted lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of serotype 1 and serotype 2 as well as detoxified LPS of serotype 1 showed binding patterns similar to that of whole bacterial cells. Binding to GlcCer, GalCer, sulfatide, and LacCer, but not to GgO3 and GgO4 glycosphingolipids, was inhibited after incubation of the bacteria with monoclonal antibodies against LPS O antigen. These findings indicate the involvement of LPS in recognition of three groups of glycosphingolipids: (i) GlcCer and LacCer, where glucose is probably an important saccharide sequence required for LPS binding; (ii) GalCer and sulfatide glycosphingolipids, where the sulfate group is part of the binding epitope of the isoreceptor; and (iii) GgO3 and GgO4, where GalNacbeta1-4Gal disaccharide represents the minimal common binding epitope. Taken together, our results indicate that A. pleuropneumoniae LPS recognize various saccharide sequences found in different glycosphingolipids, which probably represents a strong virulence attribute.
Project description:Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids that are present on all mammalian plasma membranes where they participate in recognition and signaling activities. We have established mutant mice that lack GM3 synthase (CMP-NeuAc:lactosylceramide alpha2,3-sialyltransferase; EC 2.4.99.-). These mutant mice were unable to synthesize GM3 ganglioside, a simple and widely distributed glycosphingolipid. The mutant mice were viable and appeared without major abnormalities but showed a heightened sensitivity to insulin. A basis for the increased insulin sensitivity in the mutant mice was found to be enhanced insulin receptor phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. Importantly, the mutant mice were protected from high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Our results show that GM3 ganglioside is a negative regulator of insulin signaling, making it a potential therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the major nonepithelial neoplasms of the human gastrointestinal tract with a worldwide incidence between 11 and 15 per million cases annually. In this study the acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids of three GISTs were characterized using a combination of thin-layer chromatography, chemical staining, binding of carbohydrate recognizing ligands, and mass spectrometry. In the non-acid glycosphingolipid fractions of the tumors globotetraosylceramide, neolactotetraosylceramide, and glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group A, B, H, Lex, Lea, Ley and Leb determinants were found. The relative amounts of these non-acid compounds were different in the three tumour samples. The acid glycosphingolipid fractions had sulfatide, and the gangliosides GM3, GD3, GM1, Neu5Ac?3neolactotetraosylceramide, GD1a, GT1b and GQ1b. In summary, we have characterized the glycosphingolipids of GISTs and found that the pattern differs in tumours from different individuals. This detailed characterization of glycosphingolipid composition of GISTs could contribute to recognition of new molecular targets for GIST treatment and sub-classification.
Project description:The effect of neutral (galactocerebroside and asialo-ganglioside GM1) or anionic (sulphatide and gangliosides GM1, GD1a and GT1b) glycosphingolipids on the activity of phospholipase A2 from pig pancreas was studied in mixed monolayers of dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine with the glycosphingolipids in different molar fractions at various constant surface pressures. The activity of the enzyme depends on the proportion and type of glycosphingolipid in the interface. Sulphatide activates the enzyme at all proportions, whereas galactocerebroside shows inhibition or activation depending on its proportion in the film. Asialo-ganglioside GM1 and gangliosides GM1, GD1a and GT1b can strongly inhibit the enzyme at relatively low molar fractions in the film in the following order: asialo-ganglioside GM1 less than ganglioside GM1 less than ganglioside GT1b less than ganglioside GD1a. The changes of activity are not due to a direct action of the lipids on the active centre or interfacial recognition region of the enzyme.