Proteins of the kidney microvillar membrane. The amphipathic form of dipeptidyl peptidase IV.
ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl peptidase IV was solubilized from the microvillar membrane of pig kidney by Triton X-100. The purified enzyme was homogeneous on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation, although immunoelectrophoresis indicated that amino-peptidase M was a minor contaminant. A comparison of the detergent-solubilized and proteinase (autolysis)-solubilized forms of the enzyme was undertaken to elucidate the structure and function of the hydrophobic domain that serves to anchor the protein to the membrane. No differences in catalytic properties, nor in sensitivity to inhibition by di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate were found. On the other hand, several structural differences could be demonstrated. Both forms were about 130,000 subunit mol.wt., but the detergent form appeared to be larger by no more than about 4,000. Electron microscopy showed both forms to be dimers, and gel filtration revealed a difference in the dimeric mol.wt. of about 38 000, mainly attributable to detergent molecules bound to the hydrophobic domain. Papain converted the detergent form into a hydrophilic form that could not be distinguished in properties from the autolysis form. A hydrophobic peptide of about 3500 mol.wt. was identified as a product of papain treatment. The detergent and proteinase forms differed in primary structure. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequences were shown to be different, and the pattern of release of amino acids from the C-terminus by carboxypeptidase Y was essentially similar. The results are consistent with a model in which the protein is anchored to the microvillar membrane by a small hydrophobic domain located within the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chain. The significance of these results in relation to biosynthesis of the enzyme and assembly in the membrane is discussed.
Project description:Antibodies raised in rabbits to detergent-solubilized pig kidney microvillar proteins have been used to investigate the membrane hydrolases by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Eight enzymes were detected by specific staining methods: aminopeptidase M, dipeptidylpeptidase IV, neutral endopeptidase, aminopeptidase A, carboxypeptidase P, gamma-glutamyltransferase, trehalase and phosphodiesterase I. The mobility of all these enzymes, with the exception of trehalase and neutral endopeptidase, was increased by treatment of the detergent-solubilized preparation with papain. The difference between the detergent and proteinase forms of these enzymes is attributed to the removal of a small, non-antigenic peptide to which detergent is bound in significant quantities. This interpretation was further supported by experiments in which the microvillus fraction was labelled with an intramembrane photolabelling reagent, 1-azido-4-[125I]iodobenzene. After photolysis, the radioactivity in the membrane could be solubilized by detergent treatment but not by papain treatment. Radioautography after crossed charge-shift immunoelectrophoresis showed a good correlation between charge-shift (signifying the presence of detergent bound to a hydrophobic domain) and the presence of the label.
Project description:Pig kidney microvillar proteins were extracted with octyl beta-glucoside and reconstituted in liposomes prepared from microvillar lipids of known composition. Four peptidases, namely endopeptidase (EC 220.127.116.11), aminopeptidases N (EC 18.104.22.168) and A (EC 22.214.171.124) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (EC 126.96.36.199), were shown to be reconstituted. At lipid/protein ratios greater than 4:1, about half the detergent-solubilized protein and nearly all of the activity of the four peptidases were reconstituted. Dissolution of the liposomes with Triton X-100 did not increase the activity of any of these peptidases, a result consistent with an asymmetric, 'right-side-out', orientation of these enzymes. When purified, endopeptidase was subjected to the same procedure; the two amphipathic forms of the enzyme (the detergent form and the trypsin-treated detergent form) were fully reconstituted. The amphiphilic form, purified after toluene/trypsin treatment, failed to reconstitute. Electron microscopy of microvilli showed that the appearance of the surface particles was profoundly altered by treatment with papain. Before treatment, the microvilli were coated with particles of stalk lengths ranging from 2.5 to 9 nm. After papain treatment nearly all the particles had stalks of 2-3 nm. Reconstituted microvillar proteins in liposomes showed the same heterogeneity of stalk length. In contrast, liposomes containing reconstituted endopeptidase revealed a very homogeneous population of particles of stalk length 2 nm. Since the smallest dimension of a papain molecule is 3.7 nm, the ability of papain, and other proteinases of similar molecular size, to release microvillar enzymes is crucially affected by the length of the junctional peptide that constitutes the stalk of this type of membrane protein.
Project description:Two methods were used to label pig kidney microvillar membrane proteins from the luminal and cytoplasmic surfaces of closed membrane vesicles. The first method was lactoperoxidase-catalysed radioiodination. The enzyme reagents, lactoperoxidase and glucose oxidase, were positioned inside the vesicles before sealing or externally after sealing, iodination being initiated by the subsequent addition of glucose and 125I-. After resolution of the labelled proteins by electrophoresis in the presence of dodecyl sulphate, asymmetric labelling patterns on radioautographs were observed. However, the major disadvantage of this method is the high degree of intramembrane labelling of the fatty acid chains of membrane lipids, a reaction that undermines any conclusions about the location of the label in that region of the protein supposedly exposed at the surface of the membrane. The second method overcame this disadvantage. A new hydrophilic photoreagent, 3,5-di[125I]iodo-4-azidobenzesulphonate, was synthesized via the intermediate, diazotized 3,5-di[125I]iodosulphanilic acid. It was transported by a Na+-dependent system into microvillar vesicles, thus permitting labelling from either side of the membrane when the vesicles were photolysed. The labelling of membrane lipids was less than with the first method and was essentially confined to the polar headgroups. The activity of several microvillar peptidases survived the labelling reaction and they could be identified in the immunoprecipitates after resolution of the detergent-solubilized membrane proteins by crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Treatment with papain converted the detergent-solubilized form of susceptible enzymes into the proteinase-solubilized form, which lacked the intramembrane domain and any portion exposed at the cytoplasmic surface. Radioautography established that aminopeptidases M and A, dipeptidyl peptidase IV and neutral endopeptidase were transmembrane proteins. This novel approach to the investigation of membrane topology may be applicable to other complex membranes.
Project description:Renal dipeptidase (EC 188.8.131.52) has been solubilized from pig kidney microvillar membranes with n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and then purified by affinity chromatography on cilastatin-Sepharose. The enzyme exists as a disulphide-linked dimer of two identical subunits of Mr 45,000 each. The purified dipeptidase partitioned into the detergent-rich phase upon phase separation in Triton X-114 and reconstituted into liposomes consistent with the presence of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol membrane anchor. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the amphipathic, detergent-solubilized, form of renal dipeptidase was identical with that of the hydrophilic, phospholipase-solubilized, form, locating the membrane anchor at the C-terminus of the protein. The glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor of both purified and microvillar membrane renal dipeptidase was a substrate for an activity in pig plasma which displayed properties similar to those of a previously described phospholipase D. The cross-reacting determinant of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor was generated by incubation of purified renal dipeptidase with bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase c, whereas the anchor-degrading activity in plasma failed to generate this determinant.
Project description:The pattern of solubilization of nine kidney microvillar ectoenzymes by a range of detergents distinguished two classes of membrane proteins: those released from the membrane by bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and those not so released. The latter group of transmembrane proteins were solubilized efficiently (greater than 80%) by all the detergents examined. In contrast, proteins released by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C were solubilized effectively only by octyl glucoside, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulphonate and sodium deoxycholate. Octyl glucoside solubilized the amphipathic forms of the ectoenzymes examined, suggesting that this may be a useful detergent in the purification of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored ectoenzymes.
Project description:Mammalian angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; EC 184.108.40.206) is one of several proteins that exist in both membrane-bound and soluble forms as a result of a post-translational proteolytic processing event. For ACE we have previously identified a metalloprotease (secretase) responsible for this proteolytic cleavage. The effect of a range of structurally related zinc metalloprotease inhibitors on the activity of the secretase has been examined. Batimastat (BB94) was the most potent inhibitor of the secretase in pig kidney microvillar membranes, displaying an IC50 of 0.47 microM, whereas TAPI-2 was slightly less potent (IC50 18 microM). Removal of the thienothiomethyl substituent adjacent to the hydroxamic acid moiety or the substitution of the P2' substituent decreased the inhibitory potency of batimastat towards the secretase. Several other non-hydroxamate-based collagenase inhibitors were without inhibitory effect on the secretase, indicating that ACE secretase is a novel zinc metalloprotease that is realted to, but distinct from, the matrix metalloproteases. The full-length amphipathic form of ACE was labelled selectively with 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine in the membrane-spanning hydrophobic region. Although trypsin was able to cleave the hydrophobic anchoring domain from the bulk of the protein, there was no cleavage of full-length ACE by a Triton X-100-solubilized pig kidney secretase preparation when the substrate was in detergent solution. In contrast, the Triton X-100-solubilized secretase preparation released ACE from pig intestinal microvillar membranes, which lack endogenous secretase activity, and cleaved the purified amphipathic form of ACE when it was incorporated into artificial lipid vesicles. Thus the secretase has an absolute requirement for its substrate to be inserted in a lipid bilayer, a factor that might have implications for the development of cell-free assays for other membrane protein secretases. ACE secretase could be solubilized from the membrane with Triton-X-100 and CHAPS, but not with n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside. Furthermore trypsin could release the secretase from the membrane, implying that like its substrate, ACE, it too is a stalked integral membrane protein.
Project description:Treatment of kidney microvillar membranes with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-114 at 0 degrees C, followed by low-speed centrifugation, generated a detergent-insoluble pellet and a detergent-soluble supernatant. The supernatant was further fractionated by phase separation at 30 degrees C into a detergent-rich phase and a detergent-depleted or aqueous phase. Those ectoenzymes with a covalently attached glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (G-PI) membrane anchor were recovered predominantly (greater than 73%) in the detergent-insoluble pellet. In contrast, those ectoenzymes anchored by a single membrane-spanning polypeptide were recovered predominantly (greater than 62%) in the detergent-rich phase. Removal of the hydrophobic membrane-anchoring domain from either class of ectoenzyme resulted in the proteins being recovered predominantly (greater than 70%) in the aqueous phase. This technique was also applied to other membrane types, including pig and human erythrocyte ghosts, where, in both cases, the G-PI-anchored acetylcholinesterase partitioned predominantly (greater than 69%) into the detergent-insoluble pellet. When the microvillar membranes were subjected only to differential solubilization with Triton X-114 at 0 degrees C, the G-PI-anchored ectoenzymes were recovered predominantly (greater than 63%) in the detergent-insoluble pellet, whereas the transmembrane-polypeptide-anchored ectoenzymes were recovered predominantly (greater than 95%) in the detergent-solubilized supernatant. Thus differential solubilization and temperature-induced phase separation in Triton X-114 distinguished between G-PI-anchored membrane proteins, transmembrane-polypeptide-anchored proteins and soluble, hydrophilic proteins. This technique may be more useful and reliable than susceptibility to release by phospholipases as a means of identifying a G-PI anchor on an unpurified membrane protein.
Project description:Maltase/glucoamylase from the rat intestinal brush-border membrane was solubilized by homogenization of the intestinal mucosa in buffer containing 0.5% Triton X-100. After removal of the detergent with butan-1-ol, the enzyme was purified by chromatography on Sepharose 4B and DEAE-cellulose. The final specific activity was 70.3 units/mg of protein in six preparations, comparing favourably with the specific activity of 65.0 units/mg of protein of a pure papain-solubilized maltase/glucoamylase previously isolated and characterized by us [Flanagan & Forstner (1978) Biochem. J.173, 553-563]. The two enzymes were compared. Both migrated as single bands with the same mobility on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, were eluted at the same volume from Sepharose 4B, and had the same sedimentation pattern in mannitol gradients. The amino acid composition was similar; content of total apolar residues differed by 1.0mol%. Antibodies prepared against either enzyme gave identical precipitin lines with each. Neither enzyme bound tritiated Triton X-100. The only difference noted was the tendency of the detergent-solubilized enzyme to aggregate on storage, whereas the papain-solubilized enzyme remained unchanged. Both enzymes had two N-termini, glycine and arginine. When the two enzymes were dissociated by boiling in sodium dodecyl sulphate, each exhibited the same five species on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Single N-termini were found in the two smaller species, 1 (glycine) and 2 (arginine), whereas larger species (3-5) had both N-terminal amino acids. Both the Triton- and papain-solubilized enzymes appear to be oligomers of species 1 and 2, indicating that the native enzyme contains two subunit types. Aggregation in aqueous solutions does not depend on a proteolytically susceptible peptide fragment at the N-terminus of either subunit.
Project description:The hybridoma GK5C1, secreting a monoclonal IgG1 antibody, was generated after immunizing a mouse with pig kidney microvillar membranes. An immunoradiometric assay showed that only kidney and intestine contained detectable amounts of the antigen recognized by the antibody, the highest concentration being observed in the ileum. Immunocytochemistry confirmed this observation and revealed that the antigen was associated with renal and intestinal brush borders. By 'Western' blotting, the antigen in kidney microvilli was shown to be a 130 kDa polypeptide. Papain treatment of the membrane before blotting converted the antigen to a 125 kDa polypeptide, no longer associated with membrane. Immunoaffinity chromatography of detergent-solubilized kidney membranes yielded a pure 130 kDa protein. When one purification was monitored by the immunoradiometric assay, the yield was 3.5% and the purification factor was 1000-fold. The antigen constituted about 0.8% of the microvillar membrane protein. The protein could be reconstituted into liposomes, where electron microscopy revealed an asymmetric orientation, similar to that of ectoenzymes in this membrane. The stalk length was about 3 nm. In electron micrographs the purified protein appeared to be dimeric. A search for enzymic activity was rewarded when L-leucyl-L-tryptophan was observed to be hydrolysed. Failure to hydrolyse N-blocked peptides and the ability to release the N-terminal residue from extended peptides, including Leu-Trp-Leu and Leu-Trp-Met-Arg, showed that the activity was that of an aminopeptidase. The enzyme was maximally active at pH 7.5 and irreversibly inactivated outside the range pH 6-10. This activity could not be attributed to trace contamination with aminopeptidase N. The best substrates so far identified for the 130 kDa protein were those with tryptophan in the P1', position. This protein is a new microvillar enzyme and it is proposed that it be called aminopeptidase W.
Project description:The phosphoramidon-insensitive endopeptidase-2 in rat renal brush borders was investigated by immunochemical approaches with a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised to the purified enzyme released from the membrane by papain. An immunoaffinity column successfully purified the detergent-solubilized form of endopeptidase-2. This preparation had an apparent subunit Mr of 80,000, and did not show the two subunits, of Mr 80,000 and 74,000, consistently found in the papain-solubilized forms, indicating that the latter resulted from proteolysis by papain. SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of non-reduced samples of the enzyme revealed a band of Mr 220,000, confirming the presence of disulphide-bridged subunits. Treatment with endoglycosidases H and F generated smaller molecular forms, indicating that endopeptidase-2 contained about 30% asparagine-linked carbohydrate and that a few of these oligosaccharide chains were of the high-mannose type. Treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase indicated that the enzyme did not possess a glycolipid membrane anchor. A survey of rat tissues examined immunohistochemically and by immunoblotting revealed that only the kidney and intestinal tract expressed the antigen in significant amounts. Although some weak staining was seen in salivary glands and thyroid, other organs and tissues including brain and spinal cord were negative by both immunochemical techniques. In the kidney the antigen was confined to the lumen of the proximal tubule and was seen mainly in the population of juxtamedullary nephrons. In the gut, luminal staining was observed throughout its whole length, from duodenum to rectum. Excellent cross-reactivity of the antibody with Balb/c mouse tissues was observed. Immunohistochemistry of mouse kidney and gut revealed a distribution identical with that observed in the rat. Immunopurification of the detergent-solubilized mouse kidney antigen showed it to be a protein containing disulphide-linked subunits of Mr 90,000. It possessed endopeptidase-2-like activity, but was more efficient in hydrolysing azo-casein and less efficient in hydrolysing a model substrate than the rat enzyme. The close similarity between rat endopeptidase-2 and mouse meprin is further supported by these results.