IRP1 Ser-711 is a phosphorylation site, critical for regulation of RNA-binding and aconitase activities.
ABSTRACT: In iron-starved cells, IRP1 (iron regulatory protein 1) binds to mRNA iron-responsive elements and controls their translation or stability. In response to increased iron levels, RNA-binding is inhibited on assembly of a cubane [4Fe-4S] cluster, which renders IRP1 to a cytosolic aconitase. Phosphorylation at conserved serine residues may also regulate the activities of IRP1. We demonstrate that Ser-711 is a phosphorylation site in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells) treated with PMA, and we study the effects of the S711E (Ser-711-->Glu) mutation on IRP1 functions. A highly purified preparation of recombinant IRP1(S711E) displays negligible IRE-binding and aconitase activities. It appears that the first step in the aconitase reaction (conversion of citrate into the intermediate cis-aconitate) is more severely affected, as recombinant IRP1(S711E) retains approx. 45% of its capacity to catalyse the conversion of cis-aconitate into the end-product isocitrate. When expressed in mammalian cells, IRP1(S711E) completely fails to bind to RNA and to generate isocitrate from citrate. We demonstrate that the apparent inactivation of IRP1(S711E) is not related to mutation-associated protein misfolding or to alterations in its stability. Sequence analysis of IRP1 from all species currently deposited in protein databases shows that Ser-711 and flanking sequences are highly conserved in the evolutionary scale. Our results suggest that Ser-711 is a critical residue for the control of IRP1 activities.
Project description:The crystal structure of the S642A mutant of mitochondrial aconitase (mAc) with citrate bound has been determined at 1.8 A resolution and 100 K to capture this binding mode of substrates to the native enzyme. The 2.0 A resolution, 100 K crystal structure of the S642A mutant with isocitrate binding provides a control, showing that the Ser --> Ala replacement does not alter the binding of substrates in the active site. The aconitase mechanism requires that the intermediate product, cis-aconitate, flip over by 180 degrees about the C alpha-C beta double bond. Only one of these two alternative modes of binding, that of the isocitrate mode, has been previously visualized. Now, however, the structure revealing the citrate mode of binding provides direct support for the proposed enzyme mechanism.
Project description:Iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) is a cytosolic bifunctional [4Fe-4S] protein which exhibits aconitase activity or binds iron responsive elements (IREs) in untranslated regions of specific mRNA encoding proteins involved in cellular iron metabolism. Superoxide radical (O2.-) converts IRP1 from a [4Fe-4S] aconitase to a [3Fe-4S] "null" form possessing neither aconitase nor trans-regulatory activity. Genetic ablation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), an antioxidant enzyme that acts to reduce O2.- concentration, revealed a new O2.--dependent regulation of IRP1 leading to the reduction of IRP1 protein level and in consequence to the diminution of IRP1 enzymatic and IRE-binding activities. Here, we attempted to establish whether developmental changes in SOD1 activity occurring in the mouse liver, impact IRP1 expression. We show no correlation between hepatic SOD1 activity and IRP1 protein level neither in pre- nor postnatal period probably because the magnitude of developmental fluctuations in SOD1 activity is relatively small. The comparison of SOD1 activity in regards to IRP1 protein level in the liver of threeSOD1 genotypes (Sod1+/+, Sod1+/- and Sod1-/-) demonstrates that only drastic SOD1 deficiency leads to the reduction of IRP1 protein level. Importantly, we found that in the liver of fetuses lacking SOD1, IRP1 is not down-regulated. To investigate O2.--dependent regulation of IRP1 in a cellular model, we exposed murine RAW 264.7 and bone marrow-derived macrophages to paraquat, widely used as a redox cycler to stimulate O2.-production in cells. We showed that IRP1 protein level as well as aconitase and IRE-binding activities are strongly reduced in macrophages treated with paraquat. The analysis of the expression of IRP1-target genes revealed the increase in L-ferritin protein level resulting from the enhanced transcriptional regulation of the LFt gene and diminished translational repression of L-ferritin mRNA by IRP1. We propose that O2.--dependent up-regulation of this cellular protectant in paraquat-treated macrophages may counterbalance iron-related toxic effects of O2.-.
Project description:Iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) binds to mRNA iron-responsive elements (IREs) and thereby controls the expression of IRE-containing mRNAs. In iron-replete cells, assembly of a cubane [4Fe-4S] cluster inhibits IRE-binding activity and converts IRP1 to a cytosolic aconitase. Earlier experiments with Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggested that phosphomimetic mutations of Ser-138 negatively affect the stability of the cluster (N. M. Brown, S. A. Anderson, D. W. Steffen, T. B. Carpenter, M. C. Kennedy, W. E. Walden, and R. S. Eisenstein, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:15235-15240, 1998). Along these lines, we show here that a highly purified preparation of recombinant human IRP1 bearing a phosphomimetic S138E substitution (IRP1(S138E)) lacks aconitase activity, which is a hallmark of [4Fe-4S] cluster integrity. Similarly, IRP1(S138E) expressed in mammalian cells fails to function as aconitase. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the impairment of [4Fe-4S] cluster assembly in mammalian cells sensitizes IRP1(S138E) to iron-dependent degradation. This effect can be completely blocked by the iron chelator desferrioxamine or by the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin. As expected, the stability of wild-type or phosphorylation-deficient IRP1(S138A) is not affected by iron manipulations. Ser-138 and flanking sequences appear to be highly conserved in the IRP1s of vertebrates, whereas insect IRP1 orthologues and nonvertebrate IRP1-like molecules contain an S138A substitution. Our data suggest that phosphorylation of Ser-138 may provide a basis for an additional mechanism for the control of vertebrate IRP1 activity at the level of protein stability.
Project description:Iron-sulfur cluster-dependent interconversion of iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) between its RNA binding and cytosolic aconitase (c-acon) forms controls vertebrate iron homeostasis. Cluster removal from c-acon is thought to include oxidative demetallation as a required step, but little else is understood about the process of conversion to IRP1. In comparison with c-acon(WT), Ser(138) phosphomimetic mutants of c-acon contain an unstable [4Fe-4S] cluster and were used as tools to further define the pathway(s) of iron-sulfur cluster disassembly. Under anaerobic conditions cluster insertion into purified IRP1(S138E) and cluster loss on treatment with NO regulated aconitase and RNA binding activity over a similar range as observed for IRP1(WT). However, activation of RNA binding of c-acon(S138E) was an order of magnitude more sensitive to NO than for c-acon(WT). Consistent with this, an altered set point between RNA-binding and aconitase forms was observed for IRP1(S138E) when expressed in HEK cells. Active c-acon(S138E) could only accumulate under hypoxic conditions, suggesting enhanced cluster disassembly in normoxia. Cluster disassembly mechanisms were further probed by determining the impact of iron chelation on acon activity. Unexpectedly EDTA rapidly inhibited c-acon(S138E) activity without affecting c-acon(WT). Additional chelator experiments suggested that cluster loss can be initiated in c-acon(S138E) through a spontaneous nonoxidative demetallation process. Taken together, our results support a model wherein Ser(138) phosphorylation sensitizes IRP1/c-acon to decreased iron availability by allowing the [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster to cycle with [3Fe-4S](0) in the absence of cluster perturbants, indicating that regulation can be initiated merely by changes in iron availability.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pancreatic tumors cause changes in whole-body metabolism, but whether prediagnostic circulating metabolites predict survival is unknown. METHODS:We measured 82 metabolites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in prediagnostic plasma from 484 pancreatic cancer case patients enrolled in four prospective cohort studies. Association of metabolites with survival was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, cohort, race/ethnicity, cancer stage, fasting time, and diagnosis year. After multiple-hypothesis testing correction, a P value of .0006 or less (.05/82) was considered statistically significant. Based on the results, we evaluated 33 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ACO1 gene, requiring a P value of less than .002 (.05/33) for statistical significance. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS:Two metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle--isocitrate and aconitate--were statistically significantly associated with survival. Participants in the highest vs lowest quintile had hazard ratios (HRs) for death of 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06 to 3.35, Ptrend < .001) for isocitrate and 2.54 (95% CI = 1.42 to 4.54, Ptrend < .001) for aconitate. Isocitrate is interconverted with citrate via the intermediate aconitate in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme aconitase 1 (ACO1). Therefore, we investigated the citrate to aconitate plus isocitrate ratio and SNPs in the ACO1 gene. The ratio was strongly associated with survival (P trend < .001) as was the SNP rs7874815 in the ACO1 gene (hazard ratio for death per minor allele = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.61, P < .001). Patients had an approximately three-fold hazard for death when possessing one or more minor alleles at rs7874851 and high aconitate or isocitrate. CONCLUSIONS:Prediagnostic circulating levels of TCA cycle intermediates and inherited ACO1 genotypes were associated with survival among patients with pancreatic cancer.
Project description:When cells of Pseudomonas are grown on citrate as the sole carbon source they oxidize citrate and isocitrate rapidly. Fluorocitrate inhibits the oxidation of citrate. Fluorocitrate-treated cells accumulate [6-(14)C]citrate, as shown by a rapid Millipore-filtration technique. In the absence of fluorocitrate most of the [6-(14)C]-citrate is lost in the form of (14)CO(2). The isolation of a pseudomonad characterized by its ability to grow on tricarballylate as a sole carbon source has facilitated the study of the tricarboxylate-carrier specificity. Cells grown on citrate will exchange radioactive citrate for unlabelled citrate or isocitrate but not for cis-aconitate, trans-aconitate or tricarballylate. Cells grown on tricarballylate will exchange radioactive citrate for unlabelled citrate, cis-aconitate or tricarballylate, but not for isocitrate or trans-aconitate. The properties of the exchange system involved are compared with those of the related system in mitochondria.
Project description:Iron Regulatory Protein 1 (IRP1) is a bifunctional cytosolic iron sensor. When iron levels are normal, IRP1 harbours an iron-sulphur cluster (holo-IRP1), an enzyme with aconitase activity. When iron levels fall, IRP1 loses the cluster (apo-IRP1) and binds to iron-responsive elements (IREs) in messenger RNAs (mRNAs) encoding proteins involved in cellular iron uptake, distribution, and storage. Here we show that mutations in the Drosophila 1,4-Alpha-Glucan Branching Enzyme (AGBE) gene cause porphyria. AGBE was hitherto only linked to glycogen metabolism and a fatal human disorder known as glycogen storage disease type IV. AGBE binds specifically to holo-IRP1 and to mitoNEET, a protein capable of repairing IRP1 iron-sulphur clusters. This interaction ensures nuclear translocation of holo-IRP1 and downregulation of iron-dependent processes, demonstrating that holo-IRP1 functions not just as an aconitase, but throttles target gene expression in anticipation of declining iron requirements.
Project description:Human red cell differentiation requires the action of erythropoietin on committed progenitor cells. In iron deficiency, committed erythroid progenitors lose responsiveness to erythropoietin, resulting in hypoplastic anemia. To address the basis for iron regulation of erythropoiesis, we established primary hematopoietic cultures with transferrin saturation levels that restricted erythropoiesis but permitted granulopoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Experiments in this system identified as a critical regulatory element the aconitases, multifunctional iron-sulfur cluster proteins that metabolize citrate to isocitrate. Iron restriction suppressed mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitase activity in erythroid but not granulocytic or megakaryocytic progenitors. An active site aconitase inhibitor, fluorocitrate, blocked erythroid differentiation in a manner similar to iron deprivation. Exogenous isocitrate abrogated the erythroid iron restriction response in vitro and reversed anemia progression in iron-deprived mice. The mechanism for aconitase regulation of erythropoiesis most probably involves both production of metabolic intermediates and modulation of erythropoietin signaling. One relevant signaling pathway appeared to involve protein kinase Calpha/beta, or possibly protein kinase Cdelta, whose activities were regulated by iron, isocitrate, and erythropoietin.
Project description:The Corynebacterium diphtheriae irp1 gene is negatively regulated by DtxR and iron. The nucleotide sequence of irp1 revealed that it has homology with genes involved in iron acquisition. Expression of the irp1 gene showed that it encodes a lipoprotein (IRP1) with a predicted size of 38 kDa. Northern blot experiments indicated that transcription from the irp1 promoter is repressed in high-iron medium and suggested that irp1 is part of an iron-regulated operon.
Project description:Both iron metabolism and mitophagy, a selective mitochondrial degradation process via autolysosomal pathway, are fundamental for the cellular well-being. Mitochondria are the major site for iron metabolism, especially the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters (ISCs) via the mitochondria-localized ISCs assembly machinery. Here we report that mitochondrial ISCs biogenesis is coupled with receptor-mediated mitophagy in mammalian cells. Perturbation of mitochondrial ISCs biogenesis, either by depleting iron with the iron chelator or by knocking down the core components of the mitochondrial ISCs assembly machinery, triggers FUNDC1-dependent mitophagy. IRP1, one of the cellular iron sensors to maintain iron homeostasis, is crucial for iron stresses induced mitophagy. Knockdown of IRP1 disturbed iron stresses induced mitophagy. Furthermore, IRP1 could bind to a newly characterized IRE in the 5' untranslated region of the Bcl-xL mRNA and suppress its translation. Bcl-xL is an intrinsic inhibitory protein of the mitochondrial phosphatase PGAM5, which catalyzes the dephosphorylation of FUNDC1 for mitophagy activation. Alterations of the IRP1/Bcl-xL axis navigate iron stresses induced mitophagy. We conclude that ISCs serve as physiological signals for mitophagy activation, thus coupling mitophagy with iron metabolism.