Turnover rates of ketone bodies in normal, starved and alloxan-diabetic rats.
ABSTRACT: 1. Rates of appearance and disappearance of total ketone bodies were determined in normal, starved and alloxan-diabetic rats by measuring specific radioactivities and concentrations of blood acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate at different times after injection of 3-hydroxy[(14)C]butyrate. 2. The mean rates of appearance were 1.7, 4.2 and 10.9mumoles/min./100g. body wt. respectively for normal, starved and alloxan-diabetic rats. The rates of disappearance were of the same order of magnitude as the rates of appearance. 3. There was a direct correlation between the rates of appearance and disappearance and the blood concentrations of the ketone bodies. 4. The results indicate that in the rat increased ketone-body production is paralleled by increased ketone-body utilization and that the raised ketone-body concentration in the blood in starvation and alloxan-diabetes is due to a slight imbalance between the rates of production and utilization. 5. The findings are discussed in relation to the concept that ketone bodies can serve as fuels of respiration when the supply of carbohydrate is limited.
Project description:1. Concentrations of ketone bodies, free fatty acids and chloride in fed, 24-120h-starved and alloxan-diabetic rats were determined in plasma and striated muscle. Plasma glucose concentrations were also measured in these groups of animals. 2. Intracellular metabolite concentrations were calculated by using chloride as an endogenous marker of extracellular space. 3. The mean intracellular ketone-body concentrations (+/-s.e.m.) were 0.17+/-0.02, 0.76+/-0.11 and 2.82+/-0.50mumol/ml of water in fed, 48h-starved and alloxan-diabetic rats, respectively. Mean (intracellular water concentration)/(plasma water concentration) ratios were 0.47, 0.30 and 0.32 in fed, 48h-starved and alloxan-diabetic rats respectively. The relationship between ketone-body concentrations in the plasma and intracellular compartments appeared to follow an asymptotic pattern. 4. Only intracellular 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations rose during starvation whereas concentrations of both 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate were elevated in the alloxan-diabetic state. 5. During starvation plasma glucose concentrations were lowest at 48h, and increased with further starvation. 6. There was no significant difference in the muscle intracellular free fatty acid concentrations of fed, starved and alloxan-diabetic rats. Mean free fatty acid intramuscular concentrations (+/-s.e.m.) were 0.81+/-0.08, 0.98+/-0.21 and 0.91+/-0.10mumol/ml in fed, 48h-starved and alloxan-diabetic states. 7. The intracellular ketosis of starvation and the stability of free fatty acid intracellular concentrations suggests that neither muscle membrane permeability nor concentrations of free fatty acids per se are major factors in limiting ketone-body oxidation in these states.
Project description:1. The anti-ketogenic effect of alanine has been studied in normal starved and diabetic rats by infusing l-alanine for 90min in the presence of somatostatin (10mug/kg body wt. per h) to suppress endogenous insulin and glucagon secretion. 2. Infusion of alanine at 3mmol/kg body wt. per h caused a 70+/-11% decrease in [3-hydroxybutyrate] and a 58+/-9% decrease in [acetoacetate] in 48h-starved rats. [Glucose] and [lactate] increased, but [non-esterified fatty acid], [glycerol] and [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] were unchanged. 3. Infusion of alanine at 1mmol/kg body wt. per h caused similar decreases in [ketone body] (3-hydroxybutyrate plus acetoacetate) in 24h-starved normal and diabetic rats, but no change in other blood metabolites. 4. Alanine [3mmol/kg body wt. per h] caused a 72+/-9% decrease in the rate of production of ketone bodies and a 57+/-8% decrease in disappearance rate as assessed by [3-(14)C]acetoacetate infusion. Metabolic clearance was unchanged, indicating that the primary effect of alanine was inhibition of hepatic ketogenesis. 5. Aspartate infusion at 6mmol/kg body wt. per h had similar effects on blood ketone-body concentrations in 48h-starved rats. 6. Alanine (3mmol/kg body wt. per h) caused marked increases in hepatic glutamate, aspartate, malate, lactate and citrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, 2-phosphoglycerate and glucose concentrations and highly significant decreases in [3-hydroxybutyrate] and [acetoacetate]. Calculated [oxaloacetate] was increased 75%. 7. Similar changes in hepatic [malate], [aspartate] and [ketone bodies] were found after infusion of 6mmol of aspartate/kg body wt. per h. 8. It is suggested that the anti-ketogenic effect of alanine is secondary to an increase in hepatic oxaloacetate and hence citrate formation with decreased availability of acetyl-CoA for ketogenesis. The reciprocal negative-feedback cycle of alanine and ketone bodies forms an important non-hormonal regulatory system.
Project description:1. The infusion of sodium dichloroacetate into rats with severe diabetic ketoacidosis over 4h caused a 2mM decrease in blood glucose, and small falls in blood lactate and pyruvate concentrations. Similar findings had been reported in normal rats (Blackshear et al., 1974). In contrast there was a marked decrease in blood ketone-body concentration in the diabetic ketoacidotic rats after dichloroacetate treatment. 2. The infusion of insulin alone rapidly decreased blood glucose and ketone bodies, but caused an increase in blood lactate and pyruvate. 3. Dichloroacetate did not affect the response to insulin of blood glucose and ketone bodies, but abolished the increase of lactate and pyruvate seen after insulin infusion. 4. Neither insulin nor dichloroacetate stimulated glucose disappearance after functional hepatectomy, but both agents decreased the accumulation in blood of lactate, pyruvate and alanine. 5. Dichloroacetate inhibited 3-hydroxybutyrate uptake by the extra-splachnic tissues; insulin reversed this effect. Ketone-body production must have decreased, as hepatic ketone-body content was unchanged by dicholoracetate yet blood concentrations decreased. 6. It was concluded that: (a) dichloroacetate had qualitatively similar effects on glucose metabolism in severely ketotic rats to those observed in non-diabetic starved animals; (b) insulin and dichloroacetate both separately and together, decreased the net release of lactate, pyruvate and alanine from the extra-splachnic tissues, possibly through a similar mechanism; (c) insulin reversed the inhibition of 3-hydroxybutyrate uptake caused by dichloroacetate; (d) dichloroacetate inhibited ketone-body production in severe ketoacidosis.
Project description:1. The effects of starvation and diabetes on brain fuel metabolism were examined by measuring arteriovenous differences for glucose, lactate, acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate across the brains of anaesthetized fed, starved and diabetic rats. 2. In fed animals glucose represented the sole oxidative fuel of the brain. 3. After 48h of starvation, ketone-body concentrations were about 2mm and ketone-body uptake accounted for 25% of the calculated O(2) consumption: the arteriovenous difference for glucose was not diminished, but lactate release was increased, suggesting inhibition of pyruvate oxidation. 4. In severe diabetic ketosis, induced by either streptozotocin or phlorrhizin (total blood ketone bodies >7mm), the uptake of ketone bodies was further increased and accounted for 45% of the brain's oxidative metabolism, and the arteriovenous difference for glucose was decreased by one-third. The arteriovenous difference for lactate was increased significantly in the phlorrhizin-treated rats. 5. Infusion of 3-hydroxybutyrate into starved rats caused marked increases in the arteriovenous differences for lactate and both ketone bodies. 6. To study the mechanisms of these changes, steady-state concentrations of intermediates and co-factors of the glycolytic pathway were determined in freeze-blown brain. 7. Starved rats had increased concentrations of acetyl-CoA. 8. Rats with diabetic ketosis had increased concentrations of fructose 6-phosphate and decreased concentrations of fructose 1,6-diphosphate, indicating an inhibition of phosphofructokinase. 9. The concentrations of acetyl-CoA, glycogen and citrate, a potent inhibitor of phosphofructokinase, were increased in the streptozotocin-treated rats. 10. The data suggest that cerebral glucose uptake is decreased in diabetic ketoacidosis owing to inhibition of phosphofructokinase as a result of the increase in brain citrate. 11. The inhibition of brain pyruvate oxidation in starvation and diabetes can be related to the accelerated rate of ketone-body metabolism; however, we found no correlation between the decrease in glucose uptake in the diabetic state and the arteriovenous difference for ketone bodies. 12. The data also suggest that the rates of acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate utilization by brain are governed by their concentrations in plasma. 13. The finding of very low concentrations of acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate in brain compared with plasma suggests that diffusion across the blood-brain barrier may be the rate-limiting step in their metabolism.
Project description:A newly developed specific radioimmunoassay was used to quantify phosphofructokinase protein directly and independently of assayable activity in liver and kidney cytosol of normal fed, starved and alloxan-diabetic rats. In the fed state, liver phosphofructokinase concentration was 0.096 microM and the kidney enzyme was 0.086 microM (mumol/kg of tissue). In the starved state (24h), liver and kidney phosphofructokinase concentrations decreased by 30%. Prolonged starvation up to 72h did not further decrease enzyme concentration. In liver, total enzyme content during starvation declined by more than 50%, secondary also to a decrease in liver weight. In the alloxan-diabetic rats, there was a 22% decrease in enzyme protein concentration in liver and kidney. Total enzyme content per liver actually decreased much more (46%), because diabetes also resulted in a decrease in liver size. In conjunction with assayable activity measurements, the results of the radioimmunoassay allowed us to calculate the apparent specific activity of the enzyme. The specific activity of the kidney enzyme was 2-3 times that of the liver. Little or no change in specific activity of the liver or kidney enzyme occurred as a result of starvation or chemically induced diabetes. Tissue enzyme concentrations of phosphofructokinase unequivocally reconcile the ultimate results of changing rates of synthesis and degradation and are useful data in the design of spectrophotometric, kinetic, aggregation-disaggregation and other studies.
Project description:Intravenous administration of the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor 2-tetradecylglycidic acid had no effect on the proportion of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the active form in heart, diaphragm or gastrocnemius muscles or in liver, kidney or adipose tissue of fed normal rats. The compound reversed the effect of 48h starvation (which decreased the proportion of active complex) in heart muscle, partially reversed the effect of starvation in kidney, but had no effect in the other tissues listed. The compound failed to reverse the effect of alloxan-diabetes (which decreased the proportion of active complex) in any of these tissues. In perfused hearts of fed normal rats, 2-tetradecylglycidate reversed effects of palmitate (which decreased the proportion of active complex), but it had no effect in the absence of palmitate. In perfused hearts of 48h-starved rats the compound increased the proportion of active complex to that found in fed normal rats in the presence or absence of insulin. In perfused hearts of diabetic rats the compound normalized the proportion of active complex in the presence of insulin, but not in its absence. Palmitate reversed the effects of 2-tetradecylglycidate in perfused hearts of starved or diabetic rats. Evidence is given that 2-tetradecylglycidate only reverses effects of starvation and alloxan-diabetes on the proportion of active complex in heart muscle under conditions in which it inhibits fatty acid oxidation. It is concluded that effects of starvation and alloxan-diabetes on the proportion of active complex in heart muscle are dependent on fatty acid oxidation. Insulin had no effect on the proportion of active complex in hearts or diaphragms of fed or starved rats in vitro. In perfused hearts of alloxan-diabetic rats, insulin induced a modest increase in the proportion of active complex in the presence of albumin, but not in its absence.
Project description:1. Neither alloxan-diabetes nor starvation affected the rate of glucose production in hepatocytes incubated with lactate, pyruvate, propionate or fructose as substrates. In contrast, glucose synthesis with either alanine or glutamine was increased nearly 3- and 12-fold respectively, in comparison with that in fed rabbits. 2. The addition of amino-oxyacetate resulted in about a 50% decrease in glucose formation from lactate in hepatocytes isolated from fed, alloxan-diabetic and starved rats, suggesting that both mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of rabbit phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase function actively during gluconeogenesis. 3. Alloxan-diabetes resulted in about 2-3-fold stimulation of urea production from either amino acid studied or NH4Cl as NH3 donor, whereas starvation caused a significant increase in the rate of ureogenesis only in the presence of alanine as the source of NH3. 4. As concluded from changes in the [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio, in hepatocytes from diabetic animals the mitochondrial redox state was shifted toward oxidation in comparison with that observed in liver cells isolated from fed rabbits.
Project description:The effect of insulin on the conversion of pyruvate into fatty acids in the presence and in the absence of glucose was studied in epididymal adipose tissue of the rat. 1. In adipose tissue from the normal rat, conversion of pyruvate into fatty acids is directly related to its concentration, the maximal rates occurring with 40mm- and the half-maximal rates with approx. 4mm-pyruvate. Insulin treatment did not greatly influence the maximal rates, but the half-maximal rates were at much lower pyruvate concentrations. This effect of insulin could be seen with physiological concentrations of this hormone (50-100muunits/ml). 2. In adipose tissue from acute-alloxan-diabetic and 36h-starved rats the conversion of pyruvate into fatty acids was almost zero until its concentration exceeded 3mm and then increased markedly as the concentration of pyruvate was increased. The lag phase of this S-shaped curve was decreased but not eliminated when insulin was present. This could account for the very low rates of glucose conversion into fatty acids in these metabolic states. Maximum rates of fatty acid synthesis were similar in the presence and in the absence of insulin, but only when 30-40mm-pyruvate was employed. Re-feeding of the starved rats or insulin treatment of the diabetic rats in vivo for several days restored these patterns to normal.
Project description:Compared with glucose, lactate + acetate stimulated ventricular protein synthesis in anterogradely perfused hearts from fed or 72 h-starved rats. Stimulation was greater on a percentage basis in starved rats. Atrial protein synthesis was not detectably stimulated by lactate + acetate. Insulin stimulated protein synthesis in atria and ventricles. The stimulation of protein synthesis by lactate + acetate and insulin was not additive, the percentage stimulation by insulin being less in the ventricles of lactate + acetate-perfused hearts than in glucose-perfused hearts. Perfusion of hearts from 72 h-starved or alloxan-diabetic rats with glucose + lactate + acetate + insulin did not increase protein-synthesis rates or efficiencies (protein synthesis expressed relative to total RNA) to values for fed rats, implying there is a decrease in translational activity in these hearts. In the perfused heart, inhibition of protein synthesis by starvation and its reversal by re-feeding followed a relatively prolonged time course. Synthesis was still decreasing after 3 days of starvation and did not return to normal until after 2 days of re-feeding.
Project description:1. The rates of formation of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate by the isolated perfused rat liver were measured under various conditions. 2. The rates found after addition of butyrate, octanoate, oleate and linoleate were about 100mumoles/hr./g. wet wt. in the liver of starved rats. These rates are much higher than those found with rat liver slices. 3. The differences between the rates given by slices and by the perfused organ were much higher with the long-chain than with short-chain fatty acids. The increments caused by oleate and linoleate were 12 and 16 times as large in the perfused organ as in the slices, whereas the increments caused by butyrate and octanoate were about four times as large. 4. The rates of ketogenesis in the unsupplemented perfused liver of well-fed rats, and the increments caused by the addition of fatty acids, were about half of those in the liver from starved rats. 5. The value of the [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio of the medium was raised by octanoate, oleate and linoleate. 6. Carnitine did not significantly accelerate ketogenesis from fatty acids. 7. Oleate formed up to 82% of the expected yield of ketone bodies. 8. In the liver of alloxan-diabetic rats the endogenous rates of ketogenesis were raised, in some cases as high as in the liver from starved rats, after addition of oleate. 9. On addition of either beta-hydroxybutyrate or acetoacetate to the perfusion medium the liver gradually adjusted the [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio towards the normal range. 10. The [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio of the medium was about 0.4 when slices were incubated, but near the physiological value of 2 when the liver was perfused. 11. The experiments demonstrate that for the study of ketogenesis slices are in many ways grossly inferior to the perfused liver.