Studies on the effect of vitamin D on calcium absorption and transport.
ABSTRACT: 1. Mucosal cells of the small intestine obtained from rats deprived of vitamin D or given excessive amounts of the vitamin accumulated significantly more calcium than did cells from control animals. 2. Mucosal cells from vitamin D-deficient rats released less calcium than did cells from normal or hypervitaminotic D animals. 3. Studies in vivo showed that the transfer of (45)Ca from the intestine to the blood was delayed in vitamin D deficiency, but was accelerated in hypervitaminosis D. 4. The findings support the thesis that vitamin D is involved in the release of calcium rather than in its uptake by mucosal cells. 5. Further evidence is presented suggesting that uptake of calcium by intestinal mucosal cells at 0 degrees is primarily passive, whereas at 38 degrees uptake and release are effected by an active process that depends on energy derived from glycolytic activity.
Project description:1. Young rats were kept for several weeks on a diet deficient in vitamin A. Some were undosed, others were given marginal (25i.u. weekly), adequate (1000i.u. weekly) or excessive (50000i.u. daily) doses of vitamin A acetate. The undosed rats developed signs of vitamin A deficiency, and the overdosed animals had skeletal fractures indicative of hypervitaminosis A. 2. The rats were decapitated. Their livers, and sometimes their kidneys, were homogenized and processed by centrifugal methods to sediment most of the lysosome fractions. Proteolytic activity was measured, after treatment with a detergent, in the whole homogenate (;total' activity), in the pellet obtained after 20min. at 15000g (;bound' activity) and, without treatment with detergent, in the supernatant (;free' activity). 3. In rats suffering from hypervitaminosis A the free activity and to a smaller extent the total activity were increased. Free activity was also raised in most rats suffering from avitaminosis A, but less than in those suffering from hypervitaminosis. 4. The vitamin A status appeared to have little effect on the proteolytic activity of the kidneys. Results for total and free activities, but not for bound activities, were higher than for corresponding liver preparations. 5. Control experiments were done on starved rats and on rats which were pair-fed with hypervitaminotic animals. Short periods of starvation caused an increase in free activity in young rats, but not in adults. The increases caused by starvation were much less than those caused by hypervitaminosis A. 6. For studies of the distribution of vitamin A more complete separation of the subcellular fractions was carried out on the combined livers from several hypervitaminotic rats. The concentration of vitamin A in the lysosome fraction was less than in the liver as a whole. 7. Our finding that the free proteolytic activity of the liver is increased by toxic oral dosing with vitamin A can be considered an extension of the previous observation that proteolytic enzymes are liberated when lysosomes are treated in vitro with vitamin A.
Project description:1. The total lipid, phospholipid, total and free fatty acid, free and esterified cholesterol contents of the long bones of normal, hypervitaminotic A, D and A plus D rats were determined. 2. Toxic amounts of vitamin A decreased the total fatty content, whereas toxic amounts of vitamin D increased triglycerides, esterified cholesterol and in particular the phospholipids of bone. 3. An interaction occurred between toxic amounts of vitamins A and D, which prevented, to a large extent, the alterations in bone lipids that occur in hypervitaminosis D. 4. The studies suggest an involvement of vitamin D in lipid metabolism and tend to support the idea that lipids are involved in ossification.
Project description:1. An attempt has been made to locate the site of action of vitamin D(3) as it affects the translocation of calcium across the intestine. 2. Calcium appears to be pumped out of cells by a process dependent on energy from metabolism. 3. The effects of cold, inhibitors and vitamin D(3) on the translocation of calcium by everted sacs of intestine were studied and compared with results obtained in vivo. 4. A model was proposed to explain the results which suggests that vitamin D(3) inhibits a metabolically operated pump that returns calcium from the mucosal cell to the lumen. 5. Some observations on the effect of sodium lauryl sulphate on the translocation of calcium in vivo and in vitro are reported.
Project description:1. The synthesis of l-ascorbic acid from either d-glucuronolactone or l-gulonolactone by liver microsomes of rats is decreased under conditions of hypervitaminosis A; under hypervitaminosis D the synthesis from d-glucuronolactone is increased and that from l-gulonolactone is not affected. 2. The microsomal conversion of l-gulonolactone into l-ascorbic acid is impaired in liver tissues of rats made deficient with respect to either vitamin A or vitamin D when compared with the controls maintained on stock diet.
Project description:Angulated femurs are present prenatally both in CYP26B1 deficient humans with a reduced capacity to degrade retinoic acid (RA, the active metabolite of vitamin A), and mice overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor a (Vegfa). Since excessive ingestion of vitamin A is known to induce spontaneous fractures and as the Vegfa-induced femur angulation in mice appears to be caused by intrauterine fractures, we analyzed bones from a CYP26B1 deficient human and rats with hypervitaminosis A to further explore Vegfa as a mechanistic link for the effect of vitamin A on bone. We show that bone from a human with CYP26B1 mutations displayed periosteal osteoclasts in piles within deep resorption pits, a pathognomonic sign of hypervitaminosis A. Analysis of the human angulated fetal femur revealed excessive bone formation in the marrow cavity and abundant blood vessels. Normal human endothelial cells showed disturbed cell-cell junctions and increased CYP26B1 and VEGFA expression upon RA exposure. Studies in rats showed increased plasma and tissue Vegfa concentrations and signs of bone marrow microhemorrhage on the first day of excess dietary vitamin A intake. Subsequently hypervitaminosis A rats displayed excess bone formation, fibrosis and an increased number of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, which are known characteristics of Vegfa overexpression. This study supports the notion that the skeletal phenotype in CYP26B1 deficient human bone is caused by excess RA. Our findings suggest that an initial part of the vitamin A mechanism causing bone alterations is mediated by excess Vegfa and disturbed bone marrow microvessel integrity.
Project description:O2-dependent CA2+ uptake by rat duodenal discs has been characterized and used in a revised assay for 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-induced intestinal Ca2+ transport. Although both muscle and mucosal surfaces are exposed in this free-floating-disc assay, the Ca2+ influx across the muscle surface is small, not O2- or vitamin D-dependent, and can be subtracted out. Depriving the animals of food for 9-14 h before assay increases the O2-dependent uptake by about 75%. Half-saturation values for O2-dependent Ca2+ uptake as determined with this assay are: 0.8mM-Ca2+ (fed) and 0.5mM-Ca2+ (food-deprived) for vitamin D-deficient rats, and 0.9mM-Ca2+ (fed) and 1.5mM-Ca2+ (food-deprived) for rats dosed with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. The maximum velocity of uptake varies from 6.7nmol of Ca2+ per cm2/min (fed) to 7.0nmol of Ca2+ per cm2/min (food-deprived) for vitamin D-deficient rats and 16.7nmol of Ca2+ per cm2/min (fed) to 29 nmol of Ca2+ per cm2/min (food-deprived) for 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-treated rats. By using a 5 min preincubation and 15 min incubation with 1.0mM-Ca2+, duodenal tissue taken from vitamin D-treated rats shows about a 3-fold increase in O2-dependent Ca2+ uptake when compared with tissue taken from vitamin D-deficient animals. The calcium ionophore A23187, depending on concentration, either has no significant effect on or inhibits the O2-dependent uptake, rather than increasing it. Actinomycin D, at a dose of 2 micrograms/g, inhibits the O2-dependent uptake in intestinal discs from both vitamin D-deficient and vitamin D-treated rats by 58 and 80% respectively, when administered in vivo 3 1/2 h before assay.
Project description:1. The metabolism of 3-dehydroretinal was found to be similar to that of retinal. It alleviated all the symptoms of vitamin A deficiency, and promoted the growth of vitamin A-deficient rats. 2. When administered orally, 3-dehydroretinal was reduced in the intestine of the rat and subsequently esterified and transported to the liver, where it was stored mainly as the higher fatty acid ester. 3. Intraperitoneal administration of the compound led to the accumulation of 3-dehydrovitamin A in liver and other tissues. Subcutaneous administration of the compound showed a good growth response in the rat. 4. The ratio of 3-dehydroretinyl higher fatty acid ester to 3-dehydroretinol in liver, in the post-absorptive state, was nearly 93:7. 5. There was a linear relationship between the 3-dehydroretinol concentrations of blood and liver of rats. 6. Administration of 3-dehydroretinal at a dosage of 7.5mg./day for 3 days brought about hypervitaminosis A in the rat. 7. The maximal retention of 3-dehydrovitamin A by the kidneys was at an optimum dosage of 4.5mg./day for 3 days.
Project description:Background:Minimal human data exist on liver vitamin A (VA) compared with serum biomarkers. Cutoffs of 5% and 10% total serum VA as retinyl esters (REs) suggest a VA intoxication diagnosis. Objectives:We compared total liver VA reserves (TLRs) with the percentage of total serum VA as REs to evaluate hypervitaminosis with the use of US adult autopsy samples. Secondary objectives evaluated serum retinol sensitivity, TLRs among lobes, and hepatic ?-retinol concentrations, an ?-carotene cleavage product. Design:Matched serum and liver samples were procured from cadavers (n = 27; mean ± SD age: 70.7 ± 14.9 y; range: 49-101 y). TLRs and ?-REs were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Pearson correlations showed liver and serum associations. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for >5%, 7.5%, and 10% total serum VA as REs to predict TLRs and for serum retinol <0.7 and 1 ?mol/L to predict deficiency. Results:Serum RE concentrations were correlated with TLRs (r = 0.497, P < 0.001). Nine subjects (33%) had hypervitaminosis A (?1.0 ?mol VA/g liver), 2 of whom had >7.5% total serum VA as REs; histologic indicators corroborated toxicity at 3 ?mol/g liver. No subject had >10% total serum VA as REs. Serum retinol sensitivity to determine deficiency (TLRs <0.1 ?mol VA/g) was 83% at 0.7 and 1 ?mol/L. Hepatic ?-retinol was positively correlated with age (P = 0.047), but removing an outlier nullified significance. Conclusions:This study evaluated serum REs as a biomarker of VA status against TLRs (gold standard), and abnormal histology suggested that 7.5% total serum VA as REs is diagnostic for toxicity at the individual level in adults. The long-term impact of VA supplements and fortificants on VA status is currently unknown. Considering the high prevalence of hypervitaminotic TLRs in this cohort, and given that many countries are adding preformed VA to processed products, population biomarkers diagnosing hypervitaminosis before toxicity are urgently needed. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.govas NCT03305042.
Project description:This analysis was performed in Zambian children who had a high prevalence of hypervitaminosis A, defined as >?1.0 ?mol retinol/g liver. Bone parameters included markers of bone formation (P1NP), bone resorption (CTX), parathyroid hormone, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin D. Low dietary vitamin A intake increased P1NP. PURPOSE:Vitamin A (VA) interacts with bone health, but mechanisms require clarification. In countries where multiple interventions exist to eradicate VA deficiency, some groups are consuming excessive VA. Bone metabolism and inflammatory parameters were measured in Zambian children who had high prevalence of hypervitaminosis A determined by 13C-retinol isotope dilution. METHODS:Children (n?=?143), 5 to 7 years, were recruited into a placebo-controlled biofortified orange maize feeding study for 90 days. Bone turnover (P1NP and CTX) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein) biomarkers were measured in fasting blood samples before and/or after intervention with the following: (1) VA at the recommended dietary allowance (400 ?g retinol activity equivalents/day (as retinyl palmitate)), (2) maize enhanced with the provitamin A carotenoid ?-carotene (2.86 mg/day), or (3) a placebo. Parathyroid hormone, calcium, and 25(OH)-vitamin D were measured at end line. RESULTS:Bone formation, as measured by P1NP, increased (P?<?0.0001) in the placebo group who consumed low preformed VA during the intervention. Bone resorption, measured by CTX, was not affected. P1NP and CTX were negatively associated with inflammation, most strongly with CRP. Serum calcium did not differ among groups and was low (7.29?±?0.87 ?g/dL). Serum 25(OH) D did not differ among groups (54.5?±?15 nmol/L), with 91% <?75 nmol/L and 38% <?50 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS:Reduction of dietary preformed VA in Zambian children for 4 months improved bone formation. Chronic consumption of preformed VA caused hypervitaminosis A and may impair bone formation. In children, this could be associated with failure to accrue optimal peak bone mass. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The NIH Clinical Trial registry number is NCT01814891; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01814891 .
Project description:1. Glutathione reductase and glutathione-cystine transhydrogenase activity in supernatant fractions of whole homogenates and homogenates of mucosal and muscular layers were determined in developing rat intestine after determination of the optimum conditions for assay of the two enzymes. In jejunum from adult rat, the K(m) values for GSSG reductase and GSH-cystine transhydrogenase activities were 0.25mm-GSSG and 0.23mm-cystine respectively. 2. The two activities could be differentiated by stability studies since GSSG reductase was stable at 60 degrees C for 10min and could be stored at 4 degrees C for 24h without loss of activity. GSH-cystine transhydrogenase, on the other hand, was denatured at 60 degrees C and completely inactive after 24h storage at 4 degrees C. 3. Based on calculations of total activities, both enzymes increased from the eighteenth day until the animals were young adults. 4. Total GSSG reductase activity increased at a greater rate with age than total GSH-cystine transhydrogenase activity as evidenced by activity ratios for GSH-cystine transhydrogenase/GSSG reductase of 0.44 and 0.12 in ileum from suckling and adult rats respectively, and 0.31 and 0.24 in jejunum from suckling and adult rats respectively. 5. In mucosa from adult rats GSSG reductase was more active in the ileum than in the jejunum, whereas GSH-cystine transhydrogenase activity was higher in the jejunum. 6. GSH-cystine transhydrogenase was active only in the muscle cells of the ileum of 7-day-old rats but became localized primarily in the mucosal layer in the adult rat. However, GSSG reductase activity was distributed evenly between the two layers throughout the intestine.