Defective thermoregulation, impaired lipid metabolism, but preserved adrenergic induction of gene expression in brown fat of mice lacking C/EBPbeta.
ABSTRACT: C/EBPbeta (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta) is a transcriptional regulator of the UCP1 (uncoupling protein-1) gene, the specific marker gene of brown adipocytes that is responsible for their thermogenic capacity. To investigate the role of C/EBPbeta in brown fat, we studied the C/EBPbeta-null mice. When placed in the cold, C/EBPbeta(-/-) mice did not maintain body temperature. This cold-sensitive phenotype occurred, although UCP1 and PGC-1alpha (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1alpha) gene expression was unaltered in brown fat of C/EBPbeta(-/-) mice. The UCP1 gene promoter was repressed by the truncated inhibitory C/EBPbeta isoform LIP (liver-enriched transcriptional inhibitory protein, the truncated inhibitory C/EBPbeta isoform). Since C/EBPbeta-null mice lack both C/EBPbeta isoforms, active LAP (liver-enriched transcriptional activatory protein, the active C/EBPbeta isoform) and LIP, the absence of LIP may have a stronger effect than the absence of LAP upon UCP1 gene expression. Gene expression for UCP2 and UCP3 was not impaired in all tissues analysed. In primary brown adipocytes from C/EBPbeta(-/-) mice, induction of gene expression by noradrenaline was preserved. In contrast, the expression of genes related to lipid storage was impaired, as was the amount of triacylglycerol mobilized after acute cold exposure in brown fat from C/EBPbeta(-/-) mice. LPL (lipoprotein lipase) activity was also impaired in brown fat, but not in other tissues of C/EBPbeta(-/-) mice. LPL protein levels were also diminished, but this effect was independent of changes in LPL mRNA, suggesting that C/EBPbeta is involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of LPL gene expression in brown fat. In summary, defective thermoregulation owing to the lack of C/EBPbeta is associated with the reduced capacity to supply fatty acids as fuels to sustain brown fat thermogenesis.
Project description:The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers a stress response program that protects cells early in the response and can lead to apoptosis during prolonged stress. The basic leucine zipper transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta), is one of the genes with increased expression during ER stress. Translation of the C/EBPbeta mRNA from different initiation codons leads to the synthesis of two transcriptional activators (LAP-1 and -2) and a transcriptional repressor (LIP). The LIP/LAP ratio is a critical factor in C/EBPbeta-mediated gene transcription. It is shown here that the LIP/LAP ratio decreased by 5-fold during the early phase of ER stress and increased by 20-fold during the late phase, mostly because of changes in LIP levels. The early decrease in LIP required degradation via the proteasome pathway and phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor, eIF2alpha. The increased LIP levels during the late phase were due to increased synthesis and increased stability of the protein. It is proposed that regulation of synthesis and degradation rates during ER stress controls the LIP/LAP ratio. The importance of C/EBPbeta in the ER-stress response program was demonstrated using C/EBPbeta-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts. It is shown that C/EBPbeta attenuates expression of pro-survival ATF4 target genes in late ER stress and enhances expression of cell death-associated genes downstream of CHOP. The inhibitory effect of LIP on ATF4-induced transcription was demonstrated for the cat-1 amino acid transporter gene. We conclude that regulation of LIP/LAP ratios during ER stress is a novel mechanism for modulating the cellular stress response.
Project description:Disequilibrium between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts is central to many bone diseases. Here, we show that dysregulated expression of translationally controlled isoforms of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) differentially affect bone mass. Alternative translation initiation that is controlled by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway generates long transactivating (LAP(*), LAP) and a short repressive (LIP) isoforms from a single C/EBPbeta transcript. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR signalling increases the ratio of LAP over LIP and inhibits osteoclastogenesis in wild type (WT) but not in C/EBPbeta null (c/ebpbeta(-/-)) or in LIP knock-in (L/L) osteoclast precursors. C/EBPbeta mutant mouse strains exhibit increased bone resorption and attenuated expression of MafB, a negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis. Ectopic expression of LAP and LIP in monocytes differentially affect the MafB promoter activity, MafB gene expression and dramatically affect osteoclastogenesis. These data show that mTOR regulates osteoclast formation by modulating the C/EBPbeta isoform ratio, which in turn affects osteoclastogenesis by regulating MafB expression.
Project description:The mechanism by which mice, exposed to the cold, mobilize endogenous or exogenous fuel sources for heat production is unknown. To address this issue we carried out experiments using 3 models of obesity in mice: C57BL/6J+/+ (wild-type B6) mice with variable susceptibility to obesity in response to being fed a high-fat diet (HFD), B6. Ucp1-/- mice with variable diet-induced obesity (DIO) and a deficiency in brown fat thermogenesis and B6. Lep-/- with defects in thermogenesis, fat mobilization and hyperphagia. Mice were exposed to the cold and monitored for changes in food intake and body composition to determine their energy balance phenotype. Upon cold exposure wild-type B6 and Ucp1-/- mice with diet-induced obesity burned endogenous fat in direct proportion to their fat reserves and changes in food intake were inversely related to fat mass, whereas leptin-deficient and lean wild-type B6 mice fed a chow diet depended on increased food intake to fuel thermogenesis. Analysis of gene expression in the hypothalamus to uncover a central regulatory mechanism revealed suppression of the Npvf gene in a manner that depends on the reduced ambient temperature and degree of exposure to the cold, but not on adiposity, leptin levels, food intake or functional brown fat.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS: C/EBPbeta is involved in numerous process as carcinogenesis but its role is still not clear due to the existence of an active form (LAP) and an inhibitory form (LIP) of this transcription factor. The main goals of the present research were (i) the identification of genes inversely regulated by LAP and LIP i-e the genuine C/EBPbeta molecular signature in the Hep3B human hepatoma cell line (ii) a better understanding of LAP and LIP respective role in hepatic cells survival and proliferation (iii) the search of the C/EBPbeta signature among hepatocellular carcinomas. METHODS: Using Tet-off expression system we engineered Hep3BLAP and Hep3BLIP cells, in which LAP and LIP were over-expressed respectively. Then, using both expression profiling (DNA arrays) and ChIP-on-chip analysis, we identified genes inversely and/or directly regulated by each of the C/EBPbeta isoforms. The expression levels of these genes regulated by LAP/LIP were compared in controls and HCCs patients. RESULTS: We identified 676 genes inversely regulated by LAP and LIP and among these, 45 are direct targets. Using functional studies, we displayed the opposite role of LAP and LIP in staurosporine-induced cell death and the implication of LAP in the repression of Hep3B cells proliferation. Finally we identified a subgroup of HCCs with a deregulation of 165 genes belonging to C/EBPbeta signature and coding for proteins involved in chemoresistance and metastasis formation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study increases knowledge on LAP and LIP functions and provides first evidence that their molecular signature in the HCCs could predict tumor evolution. Overall design: Total genomic DNA were extracted from 3 Hep3BLAP expressing LAP and were labelled Cy3 fluorochrome. Genomic DNA were extracted from 3 Hep3BLAP expressing LAP, were immunoprecipited with anti-CEBPbeta antibody and were labelled with Cy5 fluorochrome. Each sample was hybridized on an Agilent two-color microarray G4489A (Human Promoter ChIP-on-Chip Set 244K).
Project description:Chronic adrenergic activation leads to the emergence of beige adipocytes in some depots of white adipose tissue in mice. Despite their morphological similarities to brown adipocytes and their expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a thermogenic protein exclusively expressed in brown adipocytes, the beige adipocytes have a gene expression pattern distinct from that of brown adipocytes. However, it is unclear whether the thermogenic function of beige adipocytes is different from that of classical brown adipocytes existing in brown adipose tissue. To examine the thermogenic ability of UCP1 expressed in beige and brown adipocytes, the adipocytes were isolated from the fat depots of C57BL/6J mice housed at 24°C (control group) or 10°C (cold-acclimated group) for 3 weeks. Morphological and gene expression analyses revealed that the adipocytes isolated from brown adipose tissue of both the control and cold-acclimated groups consisted mainly of brown adipocytes. These brown adipocytes contained large amounts of UCP1 and increased their oxygen consumption when stimulated with norepinephirine. Adipocytes isolated from the perigonadal white adipose tissues of both groups and the inguinal white adipose tissue of the control group were white adipocytes that showed no increase in oxygen consumption after norepinephrine stimulation. Adipocytes isolated from the inguinal white adipose tissue of the cold-acclimated group were a mixture of white and beige adipocytes, which expressed UCP1 and increased their oxygen consumption in response to norepinephrine. The UCP1 content and thermogenic ability of beige adipocytes estimated on the basis of their abundance in the cell mixture were similar to those of brown adipocytes. These results revealed that the inducible beige adipocytes have potent thermogenic ability comparable to classical brown adipocytes.
Project description:Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays an important role in energy homeostasis. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether or not adiponectin regulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and thermogenesis.Core body temperatures (CBTs) of genetic mouse models were monitored at room temperature and during cold exposure. Cultured brown adipocytes and viral vector-mediated gene transduction were used to study the regulatory effects of adiponectin on Ucp1 gene expression and the underlying mechanisms.The CBTs of adiponectin knockout mice (Adipoq(-/-)) were significantly higher than those of wild type (WT) mice both at room temperature and during the cold (4°C) challenge. Conversely, reconstitution of adiponectin in Adipoq(-/-) mice significantly blunted ? adrenergic receptor agonist-induced thermogenesis of interscapular BAT. After 10 days of intermittent cold exposure, Adipoq(-/-) mice exhibited higher UCP1 expression and more brown-like structure in inguinal fat than WT mice. Paradoxically, we found that the anti-thermogenic effect of adiponectin requires neither AdipoR1 nor AdipoR2, two well-known adiponectin receptors. In sharp contrast to the anti-thermogenic effects of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and especially AdipoR2 promote BAT activation. Mechanistically, adiponectin was found to inhibit Ucp1 gene expression by suppressing ?3-adrenergic receptor expression in brown adipocytes.This study demonstrates that adiponectin suppresses thermogenesis, which is likely to be a mechanism whereby adiponectin reduces energy expenditure.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS: C/EBPbeta is involved in numerous process as carcinogenesis but its role is still not clear due to the existence of an active form (LAP) and an inhibitory form (LIP) of this transcription factor. The main goals of the present research were (i) the identification of genes inversely regulated by LAP and LIP i-e the genuine C/EBPbeta molecular signature in the Hep3B human hepatoma cell line (ii) a better understanding of LAP and LIP respective role in hepatic cells survival and proliferation (iii) the search of the C/EBPbeta signature among hepatocellular carcinomas. METHODS: Using Tet-off expression system we engineered Hep3BLAP and Hep3BLIP cells, in which LAP and LIP were over-expressed respectively. Then, using both expression profiling (DNA arrays) and ChIP-on-chip analysis, we identified genes inversely and/or directly regulated by each of the C/EBPbeta isoforms. The expression levels of these genes regulated by LAP/LIP were compared in controls and HCCs patients. RESULTS: We identified 676 genes inversely regulated by LAP and LIP and among these, 45 are direct targets. Using functional studies, we displayed the opposite role of LAP and LIP in staurosporine-induced cell death and the implication of LAP in the repression of Hep3B cells proliferation. Finally we identified a subgroup of HCCs with a deregulation of 165 genes belonging to C/EBPbeta signature and coding for proteins involved in chemoresistance and metastasis formation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study increases knowledge on LAP and LIP functions and provides first evidence that their molecular signature in the HCCs could predict tumor evolution. Total genomic DNA were extracted from 3 Hep3BLAP expressing LAP and were labelled Cy3 fluorochrome. Genomic DNA were extracted from 3 Hep3BLAP expressing LAP, were immunoprecipited with anti-CEBPbeta antibody and were labelled with Cy5 fluorochrome. Each sample was hybridized on an Agilent two-color microarray G4489A (Human Promoter ChIP-on-Chip Set 244K).
Project description:Obesity causes insulin resistance, and PPAR? ligands such as rosiglitazone are insulin sensitizing, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. In C57BL/6 (B6) mice, obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) has major effects on visceral epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT). Here, we report that HFD-induced obesity in B6 mice also altered the activity of gene regulatory elements and genome-wide occupancy of PPAR?. Rosiglitazone treatment restored insulin sensitivity in obese B6 mice, yet, surprisingly, had little effect on gene expression in eWAT. However, in subcutaneous inguinal fat (iWAT), rosiglitazone markedly induced molecular signatures of brown fat, including the key thermogenic gene Ucp1. Obesity-resistant 129S1/SvImJ mice (129 mice) displayed iWAT browning, even in the absence of rosiglitazone. The 129 Ucp1 locus had increased PPAR? binding and gene expression that were preserved in the iWAT of B6x129 F1-intercrossed mice, with an imbalance favoring the 129-derived alleles, demonstrating a cis-acting genetic difference. Thus, B6 mice have genetically defective Ucp1 expression in iWAT. However, when Ucp1 was activated by rosiglitazone, or by iWAT browning in cold-exposed or young mice, expression of the B6 version of Ucp1 was no longer defective relative to the 129 version, indicating epigenomic rescue. These results provide a framework for understanding how environmental influences like drugs can affect the epigenome and potentially rescue genetically determined disease phenotypes.
Project description:Although variants in the IGF2BP2/IMP2 gene confer risk for type 2 diabetes, IMP2, an RNA binding protein, is not known to regulate metabolism. Imp2(-/-) mice gain less lean mass after weaning and have increased lifespan. Imp2(-/-) mice are highly resistant to diet-induced obesity and fatty liver and display superior glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, increased energy expenditure, and better defense of core temperature on cold exposure. Imp2(-/-) brown fat and Imp2(-/-) brown adipocytes differentiated in vitro contain more UCP1 polypeptide than Imp2(+/+) despite similar levels of Ucp1 mRNA; the Imp2(-/-)adipocytes also exhibit greater uncoupled oxygen consumption. IMP2 binds the mRNAs encoding Ucp1 and other mitochondrial components, and most exhibit increased translational efficiency in the absence of IMP2. In vitro IMP2 inhibits translation of mRNAs bearing the Ucp1 untranslated segments. Thus IMP2 limits longevity and regulates nutrient and energy metabolism in the mouse by controlling the translation of its client mRNAs.
Project description:Cold and other environmental factors induce "browning" of white fat depots-development of beige adipocytes with morphological and functional resemblance to brown fat. Similar to brown fat, beige adipocytes are assumed to express mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and are thermogenic due to the UCP1-mediated H+ leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane. However, this assumption has never been tested directly. Herein we patch clamped the inner mitochondrial membrane of beige and brown fat to provide a direct comparison of their thermogenic H+ leak (IH). All inguinal beige adipocytes had robust UCP1-dependent IH comparable to brown fat, but it was about three times less sensitive to purine nucleotide inhibition. Strikingly, only ?15% of epididymal beige adipocytes had IH, while in the rest UCP1-dependent IH was undetectable. Despite the absence of UCP1 in the majority of epididymal beige adipocytes, these cells employ prominent creatine cycling as a UCP1-independent thermogenic mechanism.