E1 enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in Corynebacterium glutamicum: molecular analysis of the gene and phylogenetic aspects.
ABSTRACT: The E1p enzyme is an essential part of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate with concomitant acetylation of the E2p enzyme within the complex. We analyzed the Corynebacterium glutamicum aceE gene, encoding the E1p enzyme, and constructed and characterized an E1p-deficient mutant. Sequence analysis of the C. glutamicum aceE gene and adjacent regions revealed that aceE is not flanked by genes encoding other enzymes of the PDHC. Transcriptional analysis revealed that aceE from C. glutamicum is monocistronic and that its transcription is initiated 121 nucleotides upstream of the translational start site. Inactivation of the chromosomal aceE gene led to the inability to grow on glucose and to the absence of PDHC and E1p activities, indicating that only a single E1p enzyme is present in C. glutamicum and that the PDHC is essential for the growth of this organism on carbohydrate substrates. Surprisingly, the E1p enzyme of C. glutamicum showed up to 51% identity to homodimeric E1p proteins from gram-negative bacteria but no similarity to E1 alpha- or beta-subunits of heterotetrameric E1p enzymes which are generally assumed to be typical for gram-positives. To investigate the distribution of E1p enzymes in bacteria, we compiled and analyzed the phylogeny of 46 homodimeric E1p proteins and of 58 alpha-subunits of heterotetrameric E1p proteins deposited in public databases. The results revealed that the distribution of homodimeric and heterotetrameric E1p subunits in bacteria is not in accordance with the rRNA-based phylogeny of bacteria and is more heterogeneous than previously assumed.
Project description:The majority of biotechnologically relevant metabolites do not impart a conspicuous phenotype to the producing cell. Consequently, the analysis of microbial metabolite production is still dominated by bulk techniques, which may obscure significant variation at the single-cell level. In this study, we have applied the recently developed Lrp-biosensor for monitoring of amino acid production in single cells of gradually engineered L-valine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum strains based on the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient (PDHC) strain C. glutamicum ?aceE. Online monitoring of the sensor output (eYFP fluorescence) during batch cultivation proved the sensor's suitability for visualizing different production levels. In the following, we conducted live cell imaging studies on C. glutamicum sensor strains using microfluidic chip devices. As expected, the sensor output was higher in microcolonies of high-yield producers in comparison to the basic strain C. glutamicum ?aceE. Microfluidic cultivation in minimal medium revealed a typical Gaussian distribution of single cell fluorescence during the production phase. Remarkably, low amounts of complex nutrients completely changed the observed phenotypic pattern of all strains, resulting in a phenotypic split of the population. Whereas some cells stopped growing and initiated L-valine production, others continued to grow or showed a delayed transition to production. Depending on the cultivation conditions, a considerable fraction of non-fluorescent cells was observed, suggesting a loss of metabolic activity. These studies demonstrate that genetically encoded biosensors are a valuable tool for monitoring single cell productivity and to study the phenotypic pattern of microbial production strains.
Project description:Spectroscopic identification and characterization of covalent and noncovalent intermediates on large enzyme complexes is an exciting and challenging area of modern enzymology. The Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDHc), consisting of multiple copies of enzymic components and coenzymes, performs the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and is central to carbon metabolism linking glycolysis to the Krebs cycle. On the basis of earlier studies, we hypothesized that the dynamic regions of the E1p component, which undergo a disorder-order transition upon substrate binding to thiamin diphosphate (ThDP), play a critical role in modulation of the catalytic cycle of PDHc. To test our hypothesis, we kinetically characterized ThDP-bound covalent intermediates on the E1p component, and the lipoamide-bound covalent intermediate on the E2p component in PDHc and in its variants with disrupted active-site loops. Our results suggest that formation of the first covalent predecarboxylation intermediate, C2?-lactylthiamin diphosphate (LThDP), is rate limiting for the series of steps culminating in acetyl-CoA formation. Substitutions in the active center loops produced variants with up to 900-fold lower rates of formation of the LThDP, demonstrating that these perturbations directly affected covalent catalysis. This rate was rescued by up to 5-fold upon assembly to PDHc of the E401K variant. The E1p loop dynamics control covalent catalysis with ThDP and are modulated by PDHc assembly, presumably by selection of catalytically competent loop conformations. This mechanism could be a general feature of 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes because such interfacial dynamic regions are highly conserved.
Project description:The Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) catalyzing conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA comprises three components: E1p, E2p, and E3. The E2p is the five-domain core component, consisting of three tandem lipoyl domains (LDs), a peripheral subunit binding domain (PSBD), and a catalytic domain (E2pCD). Herein are reported the following. 1) The x-ray structure of E2pCD revealed both intra- and intertrimer interactions, similar to those reported for other E2pCDs. 2) Reconstitution of recombinant LD and E2pCD with E1p and E3p into PDHc could maintain at least 6.4% activity (NADH production), confirming the functional competence of the E2pCD and active center coupling among E1p, LD, E2pCD, and E3 even in the absence of PSBD and of a covalent link between domains within E2p. 3) Direct acetyl transfer between LD and coenzyme A catalyzed by E2pCD was observed with a rate constant of 199 s(-1), comparable with the rate of NADH production in the PDHc reaction. Hence, neither reductive acetylation of E2p nor acetyl transfer within E2p is rate-limiting. 4) An unprecedented finding is that although no interaction could be detected between E1p and E2pCD by itself, a domain-induced interaction was identified on E1p active centers upon assembly with E2p and C-terminally truncated E2p proteins by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. The inclusion of each additional domain of E2p strengthened the interaction with E1p, and the interaction was strongest with intact E2p. E2p domain-induced changes at the E1p active site were also manifested by the appearance of a circular dichroism band characteristic of the canonical 4'-aminopyrimidine tautomer of bound thiamin diphosphate (AP).
Project description:L-Valine can be formed successfully using C. glutamicum strains missing an active pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC). Wild-type C. glutamicum and four PDHC-deficient strains were compared by (13)C metabolic flux analysis, especially focusing on the split ratio between glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Compared to the wild type, showing a carbon flux of 69% ± 14% through the PPP, a strong increase in the PPP flux was observed in PDHC-deficient strains with a maximum of 113% ± 22%. The shift in the split ratio can be explained by an increased demand of NADPH for l-valine formation. In accordance, the introduction of the Escherichia coli transhydrogenase PntAB, catalyzing the reversible conversion of NADH to NADPH, into an L-valine-producing C. glutamicum strain caused the PPP flux to decrease to 57% ± 6%, which is below the wild-type split ratio. Hence, transhydrogenase activity offers an alternative perspective for sufficient NADPH supply, which is relevant for most amino acid production systems. Moreover, as demonstrated for L-valine, this bypass leads to a significant increase of product yield due to a concurrent reduction in carbon dioxide formation via the PPP.
Project description:“Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera” is a newly discovered anaerobic methanotroph that, surprisingly, oxidizes methane through an aerobic methane oxidation pathway. The second step in this aerobic pathway is the oxidation of methanol. In Gramnegative bacteria, the reaction is catalyzed by pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (MDH). The genome of “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” putatively encodes three different MDHs that are localized in one large gene cluster: one so-called MxaFI-type MDH and two XoxF-type MDHs (XoxF1 and XoxF2). MxaFI MDHs represent the canonical enzymes, which are composed of two PQQ-containing large (?) subunits (MxaF) and two small (?) subunits (MxaI). XoxF MDHs are novel, ecologically widespread, but poorly investigated types of MDHs that can be phylogenetically divided into at least five different clades. The XoxF MDHs described thus far are homodimeric proteins containing a large subunit only. Here, we purified a heterotetrameric MDH from “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” that consisted of two XoxF and two MxaI subunits. The enzyme was localized in the periplasm of “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” cells and catalyzed methanol oxidation with appreciable specific activity and affinity (Vmax of 10 micromole min(-1) mg(-1) protein, Km of 17 microM). PQQ was present as the prosthetic group,which has to be taken up from the environment since the known gene inventory required for the synthesis of this cofactor is lacking. The MDH from “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” is the first representative of type 1 XoxF proteins to be described.
Project description:The Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components, E1p, E2p, and E3, that sequentially carry out distinct steps in the overall reaction converting pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. Efficient functioning requires the enzymatic components to assemble into a large complex, the integrity of which is maintained by tethering of the displaced, peripheral E1p and E3 components to the E2p core through non-covalent binding. We here report the crystal structure of a subcomplex between E1p and an E2p didomain containing a hybrid lipoyl domain along with the peripheral subunit-binding domain responsible for tethering to the core. In the structure, a region at the N terminus of each subunit in the E1p homodimer previously unseen due to crystallographic disorder was observed, revealing a new folding motif involved in E1p-E2p didomain interactions, and an additional, unexpected, flexibility was discovered in the E1p-E2p didomain subcomplex, both of which probably have consequences in the overall multienzyme complex assembly. This represents the first structure of an E1p-E2p didomain subcomplex involving a homodimeric E1p, and the results may be applicable to a large range of complexes with homodimeric E1 components. Results of HD exchange mass spectrometric experiments using the intact, wild type 3-lipoyl E2p and E1p are consistent with the crystallographic data obtained from the E1p-E2p didomain subcomplex as well as with other biochemical and NMR data reported from our groups, confirming that our findings are applicable to the entire E1p-E2p assembly.
Project description:Enzymes of central carbon metabolism (CCM) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) make an important contribution to the pathogen's virulence. Evidence is emerging that some of these enzymes are not simply playing the metabolic roles for which they are annotated, but can protect the pathogen via additional functions. Here, we found that deficiency of 2-hydroxy-3-oxoadipate synthase (HOAS), the E1 component of the ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) dehydrogenase complex (KDHC), did not lead to general metabolic perturbation or growth impairment of Mtb, but only to the specific inability to cope with glutamate anaplerosis and nitroxidative stress. In the former role, HOAS acts to prevent accumulation of aldehydes, including growth-inhibitory succinate semialdehyde (SSA). In the latter role, HOAS can participate in an alternative four-component peroxidase system, HOAS/dihydrolipoyl acetyl transferase (DlaT)/alkylhydroperoxide reductase colorless subunit gene (ahpC)-neighboring subunit (AhpD)/AhpC, using ?-KG as a previously undescribed source of electrons for reductase action. Thus, instead of a canonical role in CCM, the E1 component of Mtb's KDHC serves key roles in situational defense that contribute to its requirement for virulence in the host. We also show that pyruvate decarboxylase (AceE), the E1 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHC), can participate in AceE/DlaT/AhpD/AhpC, using pyruvate as a source of electrons for reductase action. Identification of these systems leads us to suggest that Mtb can recruit components of its CCM for reactive nitrogen defense using central carbon metabolites.
Project description:Nitrogenase-like light-independent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) is involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Bacteriochlorophyll formation additionally requires the structurally related chlorophyllide oxidoreductase (COR). During catalysis, homodimeric subunit BchL(2) or ChlL(2) of DPOR transfers electrons to the corresponding heterotetrameric catalytic subunit, (BchNB)(2) or (ChlNB)(2). Analogously, subunit BchX(2) of the COR enzymes delivers electrons to subunit (BchYZ)(2). Various chimeric DPOR enzymes formed between recombinant subunits (BchNB)(2) and BchL(2) from Chlorobaculum tepidum or (ChlNB)(2) and ChlL(2) from Prochlorococcus marinus and Thermosynechococcus elongatus were found to be enzymatically active, indicating a conserved docking surface for the interaction of both DPOR protein subunits. Biotin label transfer experiments revealed the interaction of P. marinus ChlL(2) with both subunits, ChlN and ChlB, of the (ChlNB)(2) tetramer. Based on these findings and on structural information from the homologous nitrogenase system, a site-directed mutagenesis approach yielded 10 DPOR mutants for the characterization of amino acid residues involved in protein-protein interaction. Surface-exposed residues Tyr(127) of subunit ChlL, Leu(70) and Val(107) of subunit ChlN, and Gly(66) of subunit ChlB were found essential for P. marinus DPOR activity. Next, the BchL(2) or ChlL(2) part of DPOR was exchanged with electron-transferring BchX(2) subunits of COR and NifH(2) of nitrogenase. Active chimeric DPOR was generated via a combination of BchX(2) from C. tepidum or Roseobacter denitrificans with (BchNB)(2) from C. tepidum. No DPOR activity was observed for the chimeric enzyme consisting of NifH(2) from Azotobacter vinelandii in combination with (BchNB)(2) from C. tepidum or (ChlNB)(2) from P. marinus and T. elongatus, respectively.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Promoters are commonly used to regulate the expression of specific target genes or operons. Although a series of promoters have been developed in Corynebacterium glutamicum, more precise and unique expression patterns are needed that the current selection of promoters cannot produce. RNA-Seq technology is a powerful tool for helping us to screen out promoters with expected transcriptional strengths. RESULTS:The promoter PCP_2836 of an aldehyde dehydrogenase coding gene from Corynebacterium glutamicum CP was identified via RNA-seq and RT-PCR as a growth-regulated promoter. Comparing with the strong constitutive promoter Ptuf, the transcriptional strength of PCP_2836 showed a significant decrease that from about 75 to 8% in the stationary phase. By replacing the native promoters of the aceE and gltA genes with PCP_2836 in the C. glutamicum ATCC 13032-derived L-valine-producing strain AN02, the relative transcriptional levels of the aceE and gltA genes decreased from 1.2 and 1.1 to 0.35 and 0.3, and the activity of their translation products decreased to 43% and 35%, respectively. After 28 h flask fermentation, the final cell density of the obtained strains, GRaceE and GRgltA, exhibited a 7-10% decrease. However, L-valine production increased by 23.9% and 27.3%, and the yield of substrate to product increased 43.8% and 62.5%, respectively. In addition, in the stationary phase, the intracellular citrate levels in GRaceE and GRgltA decreased to 27.0% and 33.6% of AN02, and their intracellular oxaloacetate levels increased to 2.7 and 3.0 times that of AN02, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The PCP_2836 promoter displayed a significant difference on its transcriptional strength in different cell growth phases. With using PCP_2836 to replace the native promoters of aceE and gltA genes, both the transcriptional levels of the aceE and gltA genes and the activity of their translation products demonstrated a significant decrease in the stationary phase. Thus, the availability of pyruvate was significantly increased for the synthesis of L-valine without any apparent irreversible negative impacts on cell growth. Use of this promoter can enhance the selectivity and control of gene expression and could serve as a useful research tool for metabolic engineering.
Project description:Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (ODH) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complexes catalyze key reactions in central metabolism, and in Corynebacterium glutamicum there is indication of an unusual supercomplex consisting of AceE (E1), AceF (E2), and Lpd (E3) together with OdhA. OdhA is a fusion protein of additional E1 and E2 domains, and odhA orthologs are present in all Corynebacterineae, including, for instance, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we show that deletion of any of the individual domains of OdhA in C. glutamicum resulted in loss of ODH activity, whereas PDH was still functional. On the other hand, deletion of AceF disabled both PDH activity and ODH activity as well, although isolated AceF protein had solely transacetylase activity and no transsuccinylase activity. Surprisingly, the isolated OdhA protein was inactive with 2-oxoglutarate as the substrate, but it gained transsuccinylase activity upon addition of dihydrolipoamide. Further enzymatic analysis of mutant proteins and mutant cells revealed that OdhA specifically catalyzes the E1 and E2 reaction to convert 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA) but fully relies on the lipoyl residues provided by AceF involved in the reactions to convert pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. It therefore appears that in the putative supercomplex in C. glutamicum, in addition to dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase E3, lipoyl domains are also shared, thus confirming the unique evolutionary position of bacteria such as C. glutamicum and M. tuberculosis.