ABSTRACT: 1. A method is described by which substances inhibiting caeruloplasmin oxidase activity directly may be distinguished from those acting on stimulatory contaminant iron or on the product of enzyme action. 2. Many previously reported inhibitors, including saturated aliphatic carboxylates, hydrazines, 1,10-phenanthroline, borate and various psycho-active drugs, are found either not to act on the enzyme or to inhibit it only weakly. 3. A series of inorganic anions are compared as inhibitors. Anions such as azide and cyanide with strong copper-binding properties are the most effective inhibitors. There is a general inverse relationship between anion size and inhibitory power. Iodide is anomalous, the order of effectiveness of halides being F(-)>I(-)[unk]Cl(-)>Br(-). 4. Multidentate copperchelating ligands have little inhibitory effect. 5. A group of substances containing the structural unit [unk]C=[unk].CO(2)H, including fumarate and benzoate, cause inhibition. 6. Relative inhibitions by a series of mono-substituted benzoates are inversely related to molecular size. 7. Results are discussed in relation to earlier work on the disposition and function of the copper atoms of caeruloplasmin.
Project description:Investigation of copper status can be a diagnostic challenge. The non-caeruloplasmin-bound copper (NCC) has deficiencies; accordingly, the copper:caeruloplasmin ratio has been suggested as an alternative index of copper status. A reference interval for this index was derived. In addition to making the interpretation of copper easier, the copper:caeruloplasmin ratio should also enable adjustment for relatively high caeruloplasmin concentrations without recourse to producing gender- and age-derived intervals. The copper:caeruloplasmin ratio has weaknesses similar to those identified for NCC in that immunological methods used for caeruloplasmin can cross react with apocaeruloplasmin and there is no standardised method for caeruloplasmin. Caeruloplasmin assays also have uncertainty from precision, bias and specificity and, accordingly, method-related differences may have a large effect on the copper:caeruloplasmin ratio in a manner similar to the NCC.
Project description:To examine the mechanisms of holo-caeruloplasmin biosynthesis, we measured the serum caeruloplasmin concentration and oxidase activity, hepatic caeruloplasmin mRNA content and hepatocyte caeruloplasmin biosynthesis and secretion in normal and copper-deficient rats. Copper deficiency resulted in a near-complete loss of serum caeruloplasmin oxidase activity, yet only a 60% reduction in serum caeruloplasmin concentration and no change in the abundance of hepatic caeruloplasmin mRNA or the rate of caeruloplasmin biosynthesis. Both interleukin-1 alpha and lipopolysaccharide increased hepatic caeruloplasmin mRNA content and caeruloplasmin biosynthesis in normal and copper-deficient animals, but neither mediator increased caeruloplasmin oxidase activity in the copper-deficient group. Pulse-chase studies in primary hepatocytes from normal and copper-deficient rats revealed that the secretory rates for newly synthesized caeruloplasmin were identical, despite little or no holo-caeruloplasmin synthesis in hepatocytes of copper-deficient rats. We conclude that hepatocyte copper content has no effect on hepatic caeruloplasmin-gene expression or caeruloplasmin biosynthesis and that the incorporation of copper into newly synthesized caeruloplasmin is not a rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis or secretion of the apoprotein from rat hepatocytes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: An investigation on copper metabolism usually includes the measurement of serum levels of copper and caeruloplasmin. Using these levels, some laboratories derive levels of non-caeruloplasmin-bound copper (NCC); however, a considerable number of patients may show negative values, which is not physiologically possible. AIM: To derive an equation for adjusted copper in a manner similar to that widely accepted for adjusted calcium. METHODS: A linear regression equation for the relationship between caeruloplasmin and copper was used: [copper] (micromol/l) = 0.052x[caeruloplasmin] (mg/l). An equation for copper adjusted for caeruloplasmin was derived using this equation and the reference interval of 10-25 micromol/l for copper. RESULTS: The derived equation was [adjusted copper] (micromol/l) = [total copper] (micromol/l)+0.052x[caeruloplasmin] (mg/l)+17.5 (micromol/l). The adjusted copper concentrations on the 2.5th and 97.5th centiles were 12.7 and 21.5 micromol/l, respectively, with the population having a gaussian distribution. The relationship between NCC and the adjusted copper concentrations is linear and independent of caeruloplasmin concentration. CONCLUSION: Calculation of copper adjusted for caeruloplasmin uses the same variables as those for NCC. Accordingly, the problems that are caused by the lack of specificity of caeruloplasmin immunoassays are the same as those identified for NCC. This calculation, however, overcomes the negative values that are found in a considerable minority of patients with NCC, as well as age and sex differences in the caeruloplasmin reference interval. As the concept is already familiar to non-laboratory healthcare professionals in the form of calcium adjusted for albumin, this method is potentially less confusing than that for NCC.
Project description:The blue copper protein caeruloplasmin is synthesized mainly by hepatocytes. An alternative transcript for caeruloplasmin produced in certain extrahepatic tissues, CP-1, contains an additional 12 nucleotides encoding 4 amino acids not present in the hepatic transcript, CP-2 [Yang, Friedrichs, Cupples, Bonifacio, S Sanford, Horton & Bowman (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 10780-10785]. We have demonstrated transcription of caeruloplasmin mRNA by a well-differentiated human uterine epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line, Ishikawa, and by human uterine endometrium and purified endometrial glands. Identical CP-2 nucleotide sequences were obtained for partial caeruloplasmin transcripts from human liver and Ishikawa cells, indicating that CP-2 transcripts are produced by uterine epithelial lining cells. The synthesis of caeruloplasmin protein was demonstrated for Ishikawa cells and another uterine adenocarcinoma cell line, ECC1. Peptide-mapping analysis indicated that caeruloplasmin secreted by Ishikawa cells was structurally identical with the protein synthesized by the human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2. The secretion of a 135,000-M(r) caeruloplasmin by Ishikawa and ECC1 cells, comparable with that of the human hepatoblastoma cell line, HepG2, indicated similar processing of uterine and hepatic caeruloplasmin. Incorporation of 67Cu into caeruloplasmin was demonstrated for Ishikawa and ECC1 cells, suggesting that the human uterus produces a bioactive form of caeruloplasmin and possesses the necessary metal transporters and intracellular machinery for copper incorporation into this protein.
Project description:1. The interpretation of the effects of mixtures of inhibitors on enzymes is considered. 2. The effects of inhibitor mixtures on caeruloplasmin were determined. 3. Fluoride, chloride and cyanate inhibit at one type of site (alpha), whereas bromide and iodide inhibit at another type (beta) present in the same enzyme intermediate. 4. Effects of inhibitor mixtures containing azide or cyanide are consistent with previous indications (Speyer & Curzon, 1968) that these ligands form inhibited complexes with different enzyme intermediates. 5. Isobols of halides or of cyanate with azide indicate that azide inhibits caeruloplasmin by bridging two alpha sites, these being reduced copper atoms. 6. Iodide and cyanate give hyperbolic plots of 1/v against [I]. 7. It is suggested that in the cyanate-inhibited complex the inhibitor binds to a reduced copper atom (alpha site) but that binding of cyanate at another copper atom is sterically prevented. It is suggested that the less bulky alpha-site inhibitors, fluoride and chloride, cause complete inhibition by binding to both of these copper atoms, which can also be bridged by a single azide group. 8. Each halide shows a pattern of effects on caeruloplasmin that is qualitatively distinct from that of other halides.
Project description:A novel method is reported for isolation of bovine caeruloplasmin from plasma; it involves a rapid and mild procedure, namely two column chromatographies with stepwise elution and one (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, and results in a proteolytically undegraded homogeneous protein. The general structure of the protein, as evaluated by molecular-weight determination and amino acid composition, is very similar to that established for human and rat caeruloplasmin. Copper determination and e.p.r. spectral analysis on the native and NO-treated protein gave a metal-to-protein stoichiometry of six atoms of copper per molecule. Three copper atoms were detectable by e.p.r., with Type 2/Type 1 ratio = 1 : 3 in most samples. The protein is very sensitive to storage and/or handling. A component was isolated from aged samples, which was found to contain approximately four copper atoms per 125000 daltons, two of which were detectable by e.p.r. with the characters of Type 2 copper. However, the same component was found to be present, although to a lesser extent, in the fresh preparation and does not seem to be related to proteolytic degradation. This component has no oxidase activity. On the basis of these results it is suggested that caeruloplasmin molecules are intrinsically heterogeneous with respect to both copper content and copper type, and this can explain the intriguing stoichiometry regarding the different types of copper centres.
Project description:1. The inhibition of the oxidase activity of caeruloplasmin by azide was investigated at 25 degrees and 7.5 degrees . 2. The inhibition is reversible on dilution or Sephadex treatment, indicating a caeruloplasmin-azide complex. 3. The enzyme is protected against azide inhibition by chloride, acetate or EDTA, the last-named acting not by chelation but by a non-specific effect similar to that of acetate. 4. Lineweaver-Burk plots with different concentrations of azide are parallel. This may occur either when the enzyme-substrate complex or when a subsequent intermediate structure of the enzyme forms the inhibited complex. 5. At 7.5 degrees inhibition may be shown not to occur until after the initial reaction of enzyme with substrate. 6. At 7.5 degrees , the inhibition is of the mutual-depletion type, inhibitory concentrations of azide being comparable with the concentration of caeruloplasmin. It is shown that the binding of a single azide group completely inhibits a caeruloplasmin molecule. 7. An arrangement of the four valence-changing copper atoms of caeruloplasmin is proposed in which they are so close together in the cuprous form that reoxidation may occur by the simultaneous transfer of four electrons from the copper atoms to a single oxygen molecule.
Project description:1. The reversible inhibition of the oxidase activity of caeruloplasmin by cyanide was investigated. 2. The kinetics are unusual, being competitive but with the inhibited complex formed only during cycling. 3. Inhibitory concentrations of cyanide are comparable with that of caeruloplasmin. 4. One azide group completely inhibits a caeruloplasmin molecule but two cyanide groups are required. 5. The results suggest that azide binds to a half-reduced or fully reduced conformational isomer of the enzyme whereas cyanide binds to completely reoxidized isomers, and that inhibited complexes contain ligand bridges between copper atoms.
Project description:Hormonally produced changes in the synthesis and secretion of the serum copper-containing protein caeruloplasmin were studied in primary cultures of rat liver parenchymal cells isolated by the collagenase-perfusion technique. A rabbit antibody directed against rat caeruloplasmin was used to immunoprecipitate labelled caeruloplasmin. Isolated liver cells synthesized and secreted caeruloplasmin over a period of 3 days. Synthesis and secretion of this protein was enhanced when cells were treated with dexamethasone. The accumulation of copper was also moderately enhanced with glucocorticoid treatment. Inclusion of adrenaline in the culture medium resulted in elevated incorporation of copper into newly synthesized caeruloplasmin as well as an increase in 64Cu-labelled caeruloplasmin in the culture medium. However, adrenaline did not seem to increase the secretion of 3H-labelled protein, despite the elevation in secreted 64Cu-caeruloplasmin. This may be due to a large increase in the intracellular pool of 64Cu caused by enhanced accumulation of this metal when adrenaline is included in the incubation medium. Enhanced copper accumulation was also seen when cells were treated with glucagon. Adrenaline-stimulated accumulation of 64Cu could be inhibited by including phenoxybenzamine, an alpha-adrenergic blocker, in the culture medium. Elevation of extracellular copper caused enhancement in the detection of labelled caeruloplasmin in the medium of cultured cells, probably owing to the ability of this metal to stabilize the protein.
Project description:Caeruloplasmin and albumin were compared as potential donors of copper to Cu2Zn2-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) in culture. Aortas from 15-day copper-deficient chicks were suspended in oxygenated, serum-free, Waymouth medium (752/1) for 24 h. SOD activity was restored when the medium was supplemented with CuCl2, a copper-albumin complex or caeruloplasmin, all present at a level equivalent to 5 microM-copper. Activation did not occur at 4 degrees C or with Cu-EDTA as the supplement. Mn2+ and Zn2+, alone or in combination, did not activate nor enhance the activation achieved by CuCl2. The activation with CuCl2 was not inhibited by cycloheximide or cordycepin. [67Cu]Caeruloplasmin and albumin when added to the medium transferred radioactive copper to at least three cytosolic protein fractions, one of which was determined by immunoprecipitation to be CuZn-SOD. The transfer of 67Cu from caeruloplasmin was inhibited by increasing amounts of unlabelled caeruloplasmin; disodium EDTA (1.0 mM) had no effect on the transfer of copper from caeruloplasmin. These data show that aortic SOD activity, suppressed in copper deficiency, can be restored by incubating the aortas in culture medium supplemented with copper salts. In this system, caeruloplasmin and Cu-albumin appear equally capable of activating aortic CuZn-SOD. Moreover, the transfer of copper into the enzyme structure appears to be the primary event restoring catalytic activity to the enzyme.