The carbohydrate components of hydrolysates of gastric secretion and extracts from mucous glands of the gastric body mucosa and antrum.
ABSTRACT: 1. The sugars and amino sugars of hydrolysates of gastric secretion were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. 2. All the gastric aspirations examined showed on hydrolysis the presence of fucose, galactose, mannose, glucose, galactosamine, glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic acid and sulphate. 3. Galactose and glucosamine were always found in equimolar amounts, but the galactose/galactosamine ratio in different aspirations was 2:1, 3:1, 4:1 or 5:1. Repeated gastric aspirations of each subject examined showed constant ratios of these carbohydrate components. 4. Fucose and sialic acid appear to be related to glucosamine and galactosamine respectively. 5. The carbohydrate components of extracts from the mucous glands of the body mucosa and antrum did not differ from those of gastric secretion.
Project description:Pig lymphocyte plasma membrane isolated from mesenteric lymph node contained 69 mug of carbohydrate/mg dry wt., which was made up of neutral sugar, amino sugar and sialic acid in the molar proportions 5:1.7:1. The neutral sugar comprised fucose, ribose, mannose, glucose, galactose and inositol (molar proportions 2:9:11:15:26:1), and the amino sugar glucosamine and galactosamine (molar ratio 2:1). The ribose was most probably derived from RNA. All of the fucose and mannose and almost all of the glucosamine were associated with the membrane protein whereas the membrane lipid contained all of the inositol. The remaining sugars were distributed in various ratios between the protein and lipid fractions.
Project description:The carbohydrate composition of arterial basement-membrane-like material was investigated. Basement-membrane-like material was isolated from cultures of aortic myomedial cells by a sonication/differential-centrifugation technique. Purified basement-membrane-like material contained a total of 5% sugars, comprising glucose, galactose, mannose, fucose, sialic acid, glucosamine and galactosamine in the approximate molar proportions 3.2:3.5:3.4:3.2:1:5.5:3.1. In addition, small amounts of xylose were found. Analyses for uronic acid showed that glycosaminoglycans comprised about 1% of isolated basement-membrane-like material. The carbohydrate composition indicated the presence of complex-type oligosaccharides in addition to hydroxylysine-linked disaccharides. [3H]Glucosamine-labelled glycopeptides obtained by proteinase digestion and gel filtration were resistant to endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase D, but more than 10% were susceptible to alpha-mannosidase, demonstrating the presence of high-mannose-type oligosaccharides. The distribution of carbohydrates among peptides of basement-membrane-like material on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis was investigated after labelling with [3H]mannose, [3H]fucose, [3H]galactose and [3H]glucosamine. Among peptides that appeared to carry carbohydrates were a proteoglycan(s) and seven glycoproteins in the molecular-weight range 120 000-700 000.
Project description:A glycoprotein (GP72) has been isolated from Trypanosoma cruzi and found to contain 41% protein, 49% carbohydrate and 10% phosphate. All phosphate was covalently attached to the carbohydrate which contained the following sugars: ribose, xylose, fucose, galactose, mannose, glucose and glucosamine. The carbohydrate side chains were linked to protein by fucose, xylose and N-acetylglucosamine; 50% of the total N-acetylglucosamine was involved in glycoprotein linkages. Two classes of carbohydrate side chains were detected. One class comprised 15% of the total carbohydrate and contained glucosamine, mannose and galactose; some of these chains were phosphorylated. The other class comprised 85% of the total carbohydrate and contained xylose, ribose, fucose, galactose, mannose, glucosamine and phosphate; these chains were antigenic and reacted with a monoclonal antibody with specificity for the whole glycoprotein.
Project description:1. Crystalline beta-lactamase I from Bacillus cereus 569/H yielded only amino acids on acid hydrolysis, but crystalline beta-lactamase II from the same organism yielded also substantial quantities of neutral sugars and amino sugars. 2. Analysis with an amino acid analyser indicated that the two enzymes were similar though not identical in overall amino acid composition. Analysis of neutral and amino sugars as their silyl derivatives by gas-liquid chromatography showed that the carbohydrate moiety of beta-lactamase II contained residues of glucose, galactose, mannose, fucose, glucosamine and galactosamine. 3. After oxidation and hydrolysis both beta-lactamases gave small amounts of cysteic acid. After treatment of inactive Zn(2+)-free beta-lactamase II with N-ethylmaleimide or iodoacetate enzymic activity was not restored by the addition of Zn(2+).
Project description:Transport of D-glucose was studied in Percoll-gradient-purified rat liver lysosomes. D-Glucose uptake had a Km of 22 mM and a t1/2 of approx. 30 s. D-Fucose, 2-deoxyglucose and methyl alpha-glucoside were the most effective competitors for uptake of D-glucose, although D-galactose, D-mannose, D-xylose and L-fucose also appeared to compete for uptake. L-Glucose was a poor competitor for uptake. No competition was observed with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-glucuronic acid, N-acetylneuraminic acid, D-glucosamine or the amino acids L-glycine, L-lysine and L-proline. Uptake was unaffected by N-ethylmaleimide, dithiothreitol, KCl, NaCl, ATP/Mg or alteration of buffer pH. D-Glucose efflux from lysosomes was temperature-dependent, with a Q10 of 2.3, and was inhibited by cytochalasin B. Counter-transport could not be demonstrated. In contrast, L-fucose uptake had a Km of 65 mM and was largely unaffected by 5 M excess of neutral D-sugars. Both uptake and efflux of L-fucose were inhibited by cytochalasin B. It appears that lysosomes possess a facilitated transport system for D-glucose and perhaps other neutral D-sugars that is discrete from transport systems for acetylated and acidic sugars.
Project description:1. Incubation of sheep colonic mucosal scrapings in Krebs-Ringer buffer for 2(1/2)hr. in the presence of salicylate (15mm) resulted in decreased incorporation of radioactivity into the epithelial glycoprotein from the following labelled precursors: 16.6mum-d-[2-(14)C]glucose (83.9% inhibition), 20mum-l-[U-(14)C]threonine (82%) and (35)SO(4) (2-)(79%). Oxygen uptake measured simultaneously was diminished to 41% of the control value. 2. At lower concentrations of salicylate (e.g. 3.75mm), incorporation of 20mum-l-[U-(14)C]threonine was little affected (3-6% inhibition), whereas utilization of 4mum-d-[U-(14)C]glucose and (35)SO(4) (2-) was inhibited (41-48% and 40-59% of the control values respectively). 3. Analysis of the papain-digested glycoprotein from tissue incubations with 16.6mum-d-[2-(14)C]glucose in the presence of salicylate (3.75mm) showed large decreases in labelling of N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-glycollylneuraminic acid residues (57% and 34% of the control values respectively) and of hexosamine constituents (glucosamine, 55% inhibition; galactosamine, 33% inhibition). Labelling of neutral sugars (galactose and fucose) was relatively little affected (9 and 11% inhibition respectively). 4. Glucose 6-phosphate transaminase and glucosamine 6-phosphate acetylase in particle-free enzyme preparations of the sheep tissue were unaffected by salicylate at the above concentrations. Acetyl-CoA synthetase was markedly inhibited. 5. Human gastric mucosa (from operation), on incubation as above, had in one experiment an oxygen consumption of 9.9mul./hr./mg. dry wt. of tissue and incorporated 5mum-d-[U-(14)C]glucose (15.8% of the total radioactivity added) into bound hexosamine (20.6% of the total radioactivity incorporated), hexoses (glucose and galactose, 5.7%) and fucose (14.2%). The presence of salicylate (15mm) decreased the incorporation of 5mum-d-[U-(14)C]glucose into the glycoprotein by 74%, all sugar constituents being affected, without influence on the rate of oxygen consumption. 6. The results suggest an inhibitory effect of salicylate on glycoprotein biosynthesis at the level of the amino sugar intermediates.
Project description:The surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) belongs to the collectin family, a group of C-type lectins encompassing also surfactant-associated protein D, mannan-binding protein (MBP) and conglutinin. These proteins all have carbohydrate-recognition domains joined to collagen stalks. It seems likely that SP-A, like MBP and conglutinin, may mediate anti-microbial activity through binding to carbohydrates on the microorganisms and collectin receptors on phagocytic cells. We have studied the influence of carbohydrates on the binding of SP-A, MBP and conglutinin to mannan in an enzyme-linked lectin-binding assay. All sugars were of D-configuration, except fucose of which both L- and D-configurations were tested. The order of inhibiting potency on the binding of SP-A was: N-acetylmannosamine > L-fucose, maltose > glucose > mannose. The following sugars were non-inhibitory: galactose, D-fucose, glucosamine, mannosamine, galactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, and N-acetylgalactosamine. The best inhibitor of MBP was N-acetylglucosamine. Otherwise MBP showed a selectivity similar to that of SP-A. Conglutinin binding was inhibited by all the sugars examined except N-acetylgalactosamine. For conglutinin, as for MBP, the best inhibitor was N-acetylglucosamine. Normal human SP-A, alveolar-proteinosis SP-A purified by ion-exchange chromatography, and alveolar-proteinosis SP-A purified by n-butanol extraction showed no difference in sugar selectivity. The influence of pH and of the calcium concentration was also examined. Organic solvent-extracted SP-A from patients suffering from alveolar proteinosis and normal SP-A showed different sensitivity profiles.
Project description:Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains several allergenic proteins that are involved in type I allergy. One of them is Hev b 2, which is a beta-1,3-glucanase enzyme that exists in different isoforms with variable glycosylation content. Two glucanase isoforms were isolated from trees of the GV-42 clone by gel filtration, affinity and ion-exchange chromatography. Isoform I had a carbohydrate content of about 20%, with N-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine, fucose and galactose residues as the main sugars, while isoform II showed 6% carbohydrate content consisting of N-acetyl-glucosamine, fucose, mannose and xylose. Both isoforms were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Isoform I crystals were grown using 0.2 M trisodium citrate dihydrate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 20%(v/v) 2-propanol, but these crystals were not appropriate for data collection. Isoform II crystals were obtained under two conditions and X-ray diffraction data were collected from both. In the first condition (0.2 M trisodium citrate, 0.1 M sodium cacodylate pH 6.5, 30% 2-propanol), crystals belonging to the tetragonal space group P4(1) with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.17, c = 77.41 A were obtained. In the second condition [0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M trisodium citrate dihydrate pH 5.6, 30%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 4000] the isoform II crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 85.08, b = 89.67, c = 101.80 A, beta = 113.6 degrees. Preliminary analysis suggests that there are four molecules of isoform II in both asymmetric units.
Project description:1. The composition of the hypobranchial mucin from Buccinum undatum is reported. 2. The amino acid composition was determined; aspartic acid and glutamic acid contribute almost 24% of the total amino acids in the mucin. 3. Serine, threonine and alanine, in the proportions 2:1:1 respectively, were detected as N-terminal residues, implying the presence of at least four protein chains. 4. A glycoprotein component was isolated by phenol precipitation. 5. The glycoprotein contained 8% of neutral sugars comprising glucose, galactose, mannose and fucose, and 4.5% of hexosamine, comprising glucosamine and galactosamine in equal proportions. 6. A method is described for the preparation of glycopeptides from the glycoprotein. 7. The comparative biochemistry of the mucin is discussed.
Project description:The carbohydrate structure of rabbit immunoglobulin G isolated from pooled sera was investigated. Amino sugar analysis of fragments of the molecule allowed three oligosaccharides to be located at separate sites on the H-chain. The corresponding glycopeptides were isolated. The average composition of the C1-oligosaccharide was 2 glucosamine, 1 mannose and 2 galactose residues. It appeared to be present in approx. 15% of the H-chains; the carbohydrate was coupled through the amide group of asparagine in a peptide containing asparagine, glycine and threonine within the Fd fragment of the molecule. The average composition of the C2-oligosaccharide was 1 galactosamine, 1 galactose and either 1 or 2 sialic acid residues. It was present on approx. 40% of the H-chains and was attached glycosidically to the OH group of threonine in a peptide Ser-Lys-Pro-Thr-Cys-Pro-Pro-Glu-Leu in the hinge region of the molecule. The average composition of the C3-oligosaccharide was 5 glucosamine, 2 galactose, 5 mannose, 1 fucose and 1 sialic acid residue. It appeared to be present in all the H-chains and was linked through the amide group of asparagine in a peptide Gln-Gln-Phe-Asn-Ser-Thr-Ile-Arg within the Fc fragment of the molecule.