A direct pathway for the metabolism of propionate in cell extracts from Moraxella lwoffi.
ABSTRACT: 1. Extracts from Moraxella lwoffi oxidize propionate, but at a low rate when compared with whole cells. 2. This oxidative activity requires the formation of propionyl-CoA. 3. Enzymes catalysing the formation of propionyl phosphate and propionyl-CoA are present. The presence of a propionyl-CoA hydrolase is considered to be an artifact, but partly responsible for the low rates of oxidation. 4. Enzymes catalysing the reduction of NAD(+) and the formation of pyruvate with propionyl-CoA as substrate are also present. 5. That the only pathway for the metabolism of propionate in extracts is a direct one to acetate via pyruvate was confirmed by the use of (14)C-labelled materials. 6. A possible sequence of enzyme-catalysed reactions that will account for the experimental observations is described.
Project description:Accumulation of propionate, or its metabolic product propionyl-CoA, can disrupt normal cellular metabolism. The present study examined the effects of propionate, or propionyl-CoA generated during the oxidation of odd-chain-length fatty acids, on hepatic oxidation of short- and medium-chain-length fatty acids. In isolated hepatocytes, ketone-body formation from odd-chain-length fatty acids was slow as compared with even-chain-length fatty acid substrates, and increased as the carbon chain length was increased from five to seven to nine. In contrast, rates of ketogenesis from butyrate, hexonoate and octanoate were all approximately equal. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited ketogenesis from butyrate, hexanoate and octanoate by 81%, 53% and 18% respectively. Addition of carnitine had no effect on ketogenesis from the even-chain-length fatty acids, but increased the rate of ketone-body formation from pentanoate (by 53%), heptanoate (by 28%) and from butyrate or hexanoate in the presence of propionate. The inhibitory effect of propionate could not be explained by shunting acetyl-CoA into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, as CO2 formation from butyrate was also decreased by propionate. Examination of the hepatocyte CoA pool during oxidation of butyrate demonstrated that addition of propionate decreased acetyl-CoA and CoA as propionyl-CoA accumulated. Addition of carnitine decreased propionyl-CoA by 50% (associated with production of propionylcarnitine) and increased acetyl-CoA and CoA. Similar changes in the CoA pool were seen during the oxidation of pentanoate. These results demonstrate that accumulation of propionyl-CoA results in inhibition of short-chain fatty acid oxidation. Carnitine can partially reverse this inhibition. Changes in the hepatocyte CoA pool are consistent with carnitine acting by generating propionylcarnitine, thereby decreasing propionyl-CoA and increasing availability of free CoA. The data provide further evidence of the potential cellular toxicity from organic acid accretion, and supports the concept that carnitine's interaction with the cellular CoA pool can have a beneficial effect on cellular metabolism and function under conditions of unusual organic acid accumulation.
Project description:1. The identity of the organism previously known as Vibrio O1 (N.C.I.B. 8250) with a species of Moraxella is established. 2. The ability of cells to oxidize propionate is present only in cells with an endogenous respiration and this ability is increased 80-fold when the organism is grown with propionate. 3. Isocitrate lyase activity in extracts from propionate-grown cells is the same as that in extracts from lactate-grown cells, about tenfold greater than that in extracts from succinate-grown cells and slightly greater than half the activity in extracts from acetate-grown cells. 4. With arsenite as an inhibitor conditions were found in which the organism would catalyse the quantitative oxidation of propionate to pyruvate. When propionate was completely utilized pyruvate was metabolized further to 2-oxoglutarate. 5. The oxidation of propionate by cells was incomplete both in a ;closed system' with alkali to trap respiratory carbon dioxide and in an ;open system' with an atmosphere of oxygen+carbon dioxide (95:5). Acetate accumulated. Under these conditions [2-(14)C]- and [3-(14)C]-propionate gave rise to [(14)C]acetate. The rate of conversion of [2-(14)C]propionate into (14)CO(2), although much less than the rate of conversion of [1-(14)C]propionate into (14)CO(2), was slightly greater than the rate of conversion of [3-(14)C]propionate into (14)CO(2). 6. The oxidation of propionate by cells was complete in an ;open system' with an atmosphere of either oxygen or air. Under these conditions very little [1-(14)C]propionate was converted into (14)C-labelled cell material. The conversion of [2-(14)C]- and [3-(14)C]-propionate into (14)C-labelled cell material occurred at an appreciable rate, the rate for the incorporation of [3-(14)C]propionate being slightly more rapid. In the absence of a utilizable nitrogen source part of the [(14)C]propionate was incorporated into some reserve material, which was oxidized when added substrate had been completely utilized. 7. [(14)C]-Pyruvate produced from [(14)C]propionate was chemically degraded. The C((1)) of propionate was found only in C((1)) of pyruvate. At least 86% of C((2)) of pyruvate was derived from C((2)) of propionate and at least 92% of C((3)) of pyruvate from C((3)) of propionate. 8. These results are incompatible with the operation of any of the previously described pathways for propionate metabolism except the direct one, perhaps via an activated acrylate.
Project description:1. The rate of gluconeogenesis from propionate in rat kidney-cortex slices was stimulated up to 3.5-fold by dl-carnitine and by bicarbonate, and was inhibited by inorganic phosphate or high concentrations of propionate (above 3mm). 2. The stimulatory effect of carnitine was dependent on the bicarbonate concentration and could be replaced at low propionate concentration by addition of 25mm-bicarbonate-carbon dioxide buffer. At low bicarbonate concentration the carnitine concentration can be rate-limiting. 3. All observations are in accordance with the view that the action of carnitine is in principle the same as that established for other fatty acids in other tissues, namely that carnitine promotes the appearance of propionyl-CoA within the mitochondrion by acting as a carrier. 4. The accelerating effects of carnitine and bicarbonate and the inhibitory effect of phosphate can be explained on the basis of the known properties of key enzymes of propionate metabolism, i.e. the reversibility of the reactions leading to the formation of methylmalonyl-CoA from propionyl-CoA. 5. 5mm-Propionate caused a five- to ten-fold fall in the free CoA content of the tissue. This fall can account for the inhibition of respiration and gluconeogenesis caused by high propionate concentration. 6. Relatively large quantities of propionyl-l-carnitine (15% of the propionate removed) were formed when dl-carnitine was present; thus the ;activation' of propionate proceeded at a faster rate than the carboxylation of propionyl-CoA. The metabolism of added propionyl-l-carnitine was accompanied by glucose synthesis. 7. The appearance of radioactivity from [2-(14)C]propionate in both glucose and carbon dioxide was as expected on account of the randomization of C-2 and C-3 of propionate, i.e. the formation of succinate as an intermediate. 8. The maximum rate of glucose synthesis from propionate (93.3+/-3.3mumoles/g. dry wt./hr.) was not affected by dietary changes aimed at varying the rate of caecal volatile fatty acid formation in the rat. 9. Inhibition of gluconeogenesis by high propionate concentration was not found in those species where the rate of caecal or ruminal propionate production is high under normal conditions (rabbit, sheep and cow).
Project description:The oxidation of [3-13C]pyruvate and [3-13C]propionate was studied in vivo in infused rats. The infused [3-13C]pyruvate was quickly converted to [3-13C]lactate in the blood, and the [3-13C]lactate formed was well metabolized in both normoxic and ischaemic hearts. Large differences (200-600%) in the 13C enrichment of alanine (C-3) and acetyl-CoA (C-2) compared with lactate (C-3) were found in both normoxic and ischaemic hearts, suggesting that the extracellular [3-13C]lactate preferentially entered a region of the cytoplasm which specifically transfers the labelled pyruvate (formed from [3-13C]lactate) to the mitochondria. The highly enriched mitochondrial pyruvate gave high enrichment in alanine and acetyl-CoA, which was detected by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Ischaemia increased 13C incorporation into the main cytoplasmic lactate pool and decreased 13C incorporation into citric acid cycle intermediates, mainly decreasing the pyruvate anaplerosis. Isoprenaline-induced ischaemia of the heart caused only a slight decrease in pyruvate oxidation. In contrast to the decreased anaplerosis of pyruvate, the anaplerosis of propionate (and propionyl-carnitine) increased significantly in ischaemic hearts, which may contribute to the protective effect of propionyl-carnitine seen in ischaemia. In addition, we found that [3-13C]propionate preferentially labelled aspartate C-3 in rat heart, suggesting incomplete randomization of label in the succinyl-CoA-malate span of the citric acid cycle. These data show that proton observed 13C edited spectroscopic methods, i.e. heteronuclear spin-echo and the one-dimensional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence sequence, can be successfully used to study heart metabolism in vivo.
Project description:1. Low concentrations of l-glutamate were slowly and quantitatively converted into aspartate by aged sheep-liver mitochondria with the loss of C-1 of the glutamate. 2. When propionate was present in addition the rate of conversion of glutamate into aspartate was increased slightly, and the presence of glutamate caused a marked stimulation in the rate at which propionate was metabolized. 3. The stimulatory effect of ;sparker' amounts of l-glutamate on propionate metabolism was matched by the effects of alpha-oxoglutarate, pyruvate, citrate and isocitrate, but not by succinate, fumarate, malate or oxaloacetate. Succinate was stimulatory at higher concentrations, whereas oxaloacetate was inhibitory. 4. When propionate was incubated with l-[1-(14)C]glutamate in the presence of a large excess of unlabelled carbon dioxide, some labelling of dicarboxylic acids and aspartate occurred, but this was much less than would have been expected from an obligatory transcarboxylation from C-1 of alpha-oxoglutarate to propionyl-CoA. 5. Possible mechanisms of these effects are discussed.
Project description:1. The rate and stability to aging of the metabolism of propionate by sheep-liver slices and sucrose homogenates were examined. Aging for up to 20min. at 37 degrees in the absence of added substrate had little effect with slices, whole homogenates or homogenates without the nuclear fraction. 2. Metabolism of propionate by sucrose homogenates was confined to the mitochondrial fraction, but the mitochondrial supernatant (microsomes plus cell sap) stimulated propionate removal. 3. The rate of propionate metabolism by liver slices was higher in a high potassium phosphate-bicarbonate medium [0.88(+/-s.e.m. 0.16)mumole/mg. of N/hr.] than in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate medium [0.44(+/-s.e.m. 0.13)mumole/mg. of N/hr.]. 4. Metabolism of propionate by sucrose homogenates freed from nuclei was dependent on the presence of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ATP. Propionate removal was stimulated 250% by Mg(2+) ions and 670% by cytochrome c. 5. In the complete medium 2.39(+/-s.e.m. 0.15)mumoles of propionate were consumed/mg. of N/hr. 6. The ratio of oxygen consumption to propionate utilization was sufficient to account for the complete oxidation of half the propionate consumed. 7. The only products detected under these conditions were succinate, fumarate and malate. Propionate had no effect on the production of lactate from endogenous sources and did not itself give rise to lactate. 8. Methylmalonate did not accumulate when propionate was metabolized and was not oxidized. It was detected as an intermediate in the conversion of propionyl-CoA into succinate. The rate of this reaction sequence was adequate to account for the rate of propionate metabolism by sucrose homogenates or slices, provided that the rate of formation of propionyl-CoA was not limiting. 9. The methylmalonate pathway was predominantly a mitochondrial function. 10. The metabolism of propionate appeared to be dependent on active oxidative phosphorylation.
Project description:1. Whole cell suspensions of Prototheca zopfii grown on propionate oxidize propionate, acrylate, malonic semialdehyde and acetate immediately, whereas acetate-grown cells only oxidize acrylate or propionate rapidly after a lag of 20-30min. This adaptation to propionate is slowed down by 8-azaguanine or p-fluorophenylalanine, and is not influenced by adding an ammonium salt or an amino acid mixture. 2. The adaptation involves induction of the enzymes of beta-oxidation of propionate. 3. A small proportion (5-8%) of the activities of propionyl-CoA dehydrogenase, beta-hydroxypropionate dehydrogenase and malonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase are consistently associated with mitochondria isolated from propionate-grown cells. 4. Such mitochondria will oxidize propionyl-CoA, beta-hydroxypropionate and malonic semialdehyde, and the respiration rates with these substrates in the presence of inorganic phosphate are ADP-dependent. 5. Mitochondria from acetate-grown cells do not contain detectable activities of the enzymes of propionate oxidation.
Project description:Fungi of the complex Paracoccidioides spp. are thermodimorphic organisms that cause Paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most prevalent mycoses in Latin America. These fungi present metabolic mechanisms that contribute to the fungal survival in host tissues. Paracoccidioides lutzii activates glycolysis and fermentation while inactivates aerobic metabolism in iron deprivation, a condition found during infection. In lungs Paracoccidioides brasiliensis face a glucose poor environment and relies on the beta-oxidation to support energy requirement. During mycelium to yeast transition P. lutzii cells up-regulate transcripts related to lipid metabolism and cell wall remodeling in order to cope with the host body temperature. Paracoccidioides spp. cells also induce transcripts/enzymes of the methylcitrate cycle (MCC), a pathway responsible for propionyl-CoA metabolism. Propionyl-CoA is a toxic compound formed during the degradation of odd-chain fatty acids, branched chain amino acids and cholesterol. Therefore, fungi require a functional MCC for full virulence and the ability to metabolize propionyl-CoA is related to the virulence traits in Paracoccidioides spp. On this way we sought to characterize the propionate metabolism in Paracoccidioides spp. The data collected showed that P. lutzii grows in propionate and activates the MCC by accumulating transcripts and proteins of methylcitrate synthase (MCS), methylcitrate dehydratase (MCD) and methylisocitrate lyase (MCL). Biochemical characterization of MCS showed that the enzyme is regulated by phosphorylation, an event not yet described. Proteomic analyses further indicate that P. lutzii yeast cells degrades lipids and amino acids to support the carbon requirement for propionate metabolism. The induction of a putative propionate kinase suggests that fungal cells use propionyl-phosphate as an intermediate in the production of toxic propionyl-CoA. Concluding, the metabolism of propionate in P. lutzii is under regulation at transcriptional and phosphorylation levels and that survival on this carbon source requires additional mechanisms other than activation of MCC.
Project description:High-resolution 13C n.m.r. spectroscopy has been used to examine propionate metabolism in the perfused rat heart. A number of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates are observable by 13C n.m.r. in hearts perfused with mixtures of pyruvate and propionate. When the enriched 13C-labelled nucleus originates with pyruvate, the resonances of the intermediates appear as multiplets due to formation of multiply-enriched 13C-labelled isotopomers, whereas when the 13C-labelled nucleus originates with propionate, these same intermediates appear as singlets in the 13C spectrum since entry of propionate into the TCA cycle occurs via succinyl-CoA. An analysis of the isotopomer populations in hearts perfused with [3-13C]pyruvate plus unlabelled propionate indicates that about 27% of the total pyruvate pool available to the heart is derived directly from unlabelled propionate. This was substantiated by perfusing a heart for 2 h with [3-13C]propionate as the only available exogenous substrate. Under these conditions, all of the propionate consumed by the heart, as measured by conventional chemical analysis, ultimately entered the oxidative pathway as [2-13C] or [3-13C]pyruvate. This is consistent with entry of propionate into the TCA cycle intermediate pools as succinyl-CoA and concomitant disposal of malate to pyruvate via the malic enzyme. 13C resonances arising from enriched methylmalonate and propionylcarnitine are also detected in hearts perfused with [3-13C] or [1-13C]propionate which suggests that 13C n.m.r. may be useful as a non-invasive probe in vivo of metabolic abnormalities involving the propionate pathway, such as methylmalonic aciduria or propionic acidaemia.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa phylum. The Coccidia are obligate intracellular pathogens that establish infection in their mammalian host via the enteric route. These parasites lack a mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex but have preserved the degradation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) as a possible pathway to generate acetyl-CoA. Importantly, degradation of leucine, isoleucine and valine could lead to concomitant accumulation of propionyl-CoA, a toxic metabolite that inhibits cell growth. Like fungi and bacteria, the Coccidia possess the complete set of enzymes necessary to metabolize and detoxify propionate by oxidation to pyruvate via the 2-methylcitrate cycle (2-MCC). Phylogenetic analysis provides evidence that the 2-MCC was acquired via horizontal gene transfer. In T.?gondii tachyzoites, this pathway is split between the cytosol and the mitochondrion. Although the rate-limiting enzyme 2-methylisocitrate lyase is dispensable for parasite survival, its substrates accumulate in parasites deficient in the enzyme and its absence confers increased sensitivity to propionic acid. BCAA is also dispensable in tachyzoites, leaving unresolved the source of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA.