The effects of polyuridylic acid on phenylalanine incorporation by subcellular fractions from carbon tetrachloride-poisoned rat liver.
ABSTRACT: 1. Ribosomes and microsomes isolated from the livers of rats that had received carbon tetrachloride 1hr. previously had decreased endogenous capacity to incorporate amino acid. 2. The capacity of the isolated structures to respond to a synthetic messenger, polyuridylic acid, and to incorporate phenylalanine was investigated. 3. It was found that ribosomes from carbon tetrachloride-treated animals, prepared with detergent and at high ionic strength, could be restored to the same specific activity as control particles with polyuridylic acid but that these particles required more Mg(2+) in the incubation mixture. 4. Microsomes could also be stimulated to control activities with polyuridylic acid, but had a narrow optimum range of Mg(2+) concentration. 5. Microsomes prepared from poisoned animals could be preprogrammed with polyuridylic acid to a significantly greater degree than could control particles, and this response was greater with increasing Mg(2+) concentrations. These data suggested that in carbon tetrachloride poisoning the messenger-ribosome interaction had been altered. 6. Attempts to deprogramme particles from control and treated animals resulted in decreased endogenous activity of both particles and a decreased capacity for the treated particles to be restored with the synthetic messenger. 7. It is suggested that two effects are present in carbon tetrachloride poisoning, namely an alteration of the messenger-ribosome interaction and an increased lability of the ribosome, as either separate or related events.
Project description:The attachment of polyuridylic acid to reticulocyte ribosomes was studied by using polyadenylic acid, which inhibits the attachment reaction only, while permitting translation of polyuridylic acid bound to ribosomes. After addition of polyadenylic acid the amount of polyphenylalanine synthesized under standard conditions was taken as a measure of the bound polyuridylic acid. In this way certain parameters of the attachment reaction and the subsequent translation of attached polyuridylic acid were defined: (1) polyuridylic acid-ribosome interaction at 37 degrees requires only Mg(2+) at an optimum concentration of 8mm; (2) K(+) (required for translation) is a non-competitive inhibitor of the attachment reaction; (3) optimum polyphenylalanine synthesis directed by attached polyuridylic acid occurs at 5mm-Mg(2+) concentration; (4) from kinetic studies single ribosomes appear to participate in the attachment reaction.
Project description:1. A system of microsomes and 105000g supernatant from livers of old mice is less able to promote the incorporation of [(14)C]phenylalanine into protein than a similar system from livers of young animals. 2. The decrease in [(14)C]phenylalanine incorporation is attributable to changes in microsomes from old animals rather than in the cell-sap fraction. 3. Decreased synthetic ability is found in various classes of microsomes from older animals, namely unfractionated, light and heavy microsomes, but not in detergent-washed ribonucleoprotein particles. 4. Deletions of certain detergent-soluble microsomal proteins accompany the decreased synthetic ability of microsomes from older animals. 5. Microsomes from old mice are less responsive to a synthetic messenger RNA, polyuridylic acid, and this is partly due to a higher rate of hydrolysis in the presence of cell sap from animals of extreme age. 6. Other more direct evidence, from the priming of a cell-free protein-synthesizing system from bacteria and the examination of ribonucleoprotein particles on sucrose density gradients, suggests that senescence is accompanied by a decrease in messenger RNA content.
Project description:The effect of administration of carbon tetrachloride and dimethylnitrosamine in vivo on hepatic microsomal function related to drug metabolism was measured. It was found that the capacity of isolated microsomes to demethylate dimethylaniline was diminished during the first hour after carbon tetrachloride poisoning and during the second hour after dimethylnitrosamine poisoning. Thereafter the microsomes from carbon tetrachloride-poisoned livers showed a continuous decline in activity so that at 24hr. there was little residual capacity to undertake demethylation. Microsomes from dimethylnitrosamine-poisoned animals were not different from controls at 24hr. During the first 3hr. there was a transient rise in the accumulation of the N-oxide intermediate in carbon tetrachloride-poisoned livers, with a subsequent fall to below control values. In dimethylnitrosamine poisoning there was a parallel decrease in N-oxide accumulation with decreased demethylation. In the latter part of the first 24hr. the ratio of N-oxide accumulation to demethylation was increased in both instances. At 2hr. after poisoning with either compound there was no evidence of altered NADPH(2)-dependent neotetrazolium reduction or lipid peroxidation. NADPH(2)-dependent azo-dye cleavage was decreased. There was no difference in microsomal cytochrome b(5) content, but there was a decrease in the amount of cytochrome P-450. This latter change was correlated with the decreased capacity for NADPH(2)-dependent oxidative demethylation. It is suggested that dimethylnitrosamine is associated with a defect in microsomal NADPH(2)-dependent electron transport at the level of cytochrome P-450. In addition to affecting cytochrome P-450, carbon tetrachloride is associated with a second severe block involving the release of formaldehyde from the N-oxide intermediate.
Project description:1. Rapidly labelled RNA from rat liver, either as a complex with DNA (m-RNA-DNA) or with ribosomal RNA (m-RNA-RNA) binds to ribosomes in the polysome region. No binding could be demonstrated with ribosomal RNA or native DNA from Bacillus subtilis. 2. With ribosomes from rat liver, Escherichia coli or hepatoma the m-RNA-DNA stimulated incorporation of amino acids with rat-liver ribosomes only, whereas the m-RNA-RNA complex was effective with ribosomes from E. coli or the hepatoma. 3. Polyuridylic acid was effective as messenger RNA with all three ribosomes but much greater stimulation was obtained with ribosomes from E. coli and the hepatoma. 4. The degree of incorporation of phenylalanine with polyuridylic acid and ribosomes from a hepatoma was decreased by about 50% when ribosomal RNA was present.
Project description:1. Collagenolytic activity towards acid-soluble collagen labelled with [(14)C]-proline was assayed in rat liver with and without carbon tetrachloride poisoning. The products of enzymic digestion were found to be free amino acids and peptides. 2. The hepatic collagenolytic activity increased under conditions of single-dose and subacute carbon tetrachloride poisoning, and correlated with hydroxyproline content. The highest activity was found during recovery from subacute poisoning. 3. Under the same experimental conditions, hepatic acid-proteinase activity changed independently of the collagenolytic activity and also of hepatic hydroxyproline content. 4. The increased collagenolytic activity during carbon tetrachloride poisoning was found mainly in the supernatant fraction. 5. The ratio of the collagenolytic activity to hepatic hydroxyproline content increased during recovery from single-dose and subacute poisoning, and decreased during subacute poisoning.
Project description:1. The activities of microsome fractions from the liver of adult and 5-day-old rats for the incorporation of [(14)C]phenylalanine into protein were similar in the presence and absence of polyuridylic acid. 2. The activity of a light-microsome fraction from adult liver was greater than that of a heavy-microsome fraction, and the light-microsome fraction was also more markedly stimulated by the presence of polyuridylic acid. 3. The light-microsome fraction, when analysed by density-gradient centrifugation, contained a higher ratio of free ribosomes to bound ribosomes, whereas the reverse was true for the heavy-microsome fraction. Similar results were obtained for liver from adult and 5-day-old rats. 4. When the light-microsome fraction was incubated under conditions in which amino acid was incorporated into protein there was only a small increase in the ratio of free to bound ribosomes. When such a fraction was incubated with [(14)C]leucine and was then subjected to density-gradient centrifugation the fraction with the highest specific activity based on RNA had a density between that of the bound and free ribosomes. Treatment of the incubated fraction with ribonuclease shifted the radioactivity towards the free ribosome peak. These properties are consistent with the presence of active free polysomes. Such a component appeared also to be present when the heavy-microsome fraction was incubated under similar conditions. 5. The effect of the presence of polyuridylic acid on the incorporation of [(14)C]phenylalanine by the light-microsome fractions from liver of adult and 5-day-old rats was greatest in the region of the free ribosomes, but it is probable that some small polysomes containing polyuridylic acid are formed. 6. Polyuridylic acid also stimulated the bound ribosomes to a small extent when the heavy-microsome fraction from the liver of young rats was incubated with [(14)C]phenylalanine. 7. The results are discussed in terms of the various morphological constituents in liver now known to play a role in the synthesis of protein for export and for the internal activity of the cell.
Project description:1. The effect on RNA synthesis in rat liver of thyroidectomy and the administration of thyroid hormone, especially during its physiological latent period, was studied by determining: (a) the activity of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in isolated nuclei; (b) the rate of synthesis of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA in vivo; (c) polyribosomal sedimentation profiles; (d) the response of microsomes and ribonucleoprotein particles to polyuridylic acid; (e) the effect of inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis on the biological activity of hormones. 2. The DNA-dependent RNA-polymerase activity of isolated rat-liver nuclei was lowered by thyroidectomy and stimulated by the administration of tri-iodo-l-thyronine or l-thyroxine (2-25mug./100g. body wt.) to both normal and thyroidectomized rats. In thyroidectomized rats, the activity of the Mg(2+)-activated RNA-polymerase reaction (for which the product is mainly ribosomal type of RNA) was stimulated at 10-12hr. after a single injection of tri-iodothyronine, reaching a peak value of 60-90% stimulation at 45hr. after hormone administration. The Mn(2+)/ammonium sulphate-activated RNA-polymerase reaction (for which the RNA product is more DNA-like) was not affected for 24hr. after hormone administration but stimulated by 30-40% at 45hr. The response of both RNA-polymerase reactions to the hormone in vivo paralleled the physiological response but the enzyme was not stimulated by the addition in vitro of the hormone to isolated nuclei. 3. Within 3-4hr. after tri-iodothyronine administration to thyroidectomized rats, the specific activity of rapidly labelled nuclear RNA, after a 10min. pulse of [6-(14)C]orotic acid, was 30-40% greater than the control values, the stimulation reaching 100 and 200% at 11 and 16hr. respectively after hormone administration. Longer exposures to [6-(14)C]orotic acid and [(32)P]phosphate showed that the hormone accelerated the synthesis of mitochondrial, microsomal (or ribosomal) and soluble RNA. The greater part of the labelled nuclear RNA was of the ribosomal type. The hormone-induced increases in the incorporation of radioactive precursors into RNA were not preceded, but followed, by enhanced uptake of the precursor. There was no change, per g. of liver, of DNA, nuclear RNA or soluble RNA, but there was a 40-60% increase in the amount of ribosomal RNA between 35 and 45hr. after a single injection of tri-iodothyronine to thyroidectomized rats. 4. Coinciding with the increase in ribosomal RNA after hormone administration was an increase in the average size and amount of polyribosomes. The newly formed ribonucleoprotein particles, or messenger RNA attached to them, or both, were more firmly bound to microsomal membranes after hormone treatment. 5. Polyuridylic acid caused a bigger stimulation of incorporation of [(14)C]phenyl-alanine by ribonucleoprotein particles, but not by microsomes, from thyroidectomized rats as compared with preparations from normal animals. The response of ribonucleoprotein particles to polyuridylic acid was lowered after tri-iodothyronine treatment of thyroidectomized rats. 6. Actinomycin D, 5-fluorouracil, puromycin and cycloheximide caused a 70-100% inhibition of the stimulatory effect of l-thyroxine and tri-iodo-l-thyronine on basal metabolic rate and growth rate in both normal and thyroidectomized animals. Administration of actinomycin D also abolished the stimulation of RNA polymerase by tri-iodothyronine. 7. It is concluded that regulation of nuclear and ribosomal RNA synthesis is an essential step leading to the biological action of thyroid hormones and that the formation of new ribosomes is an important aspect of the control of cytoplasmic protein synthesis by these hormones.
Project description:1. Ribosomes prepared from bovine lactating mammary gland are able to synthesize protein, whereas similar preparations from non-lactating glands are not. Washing the ribosome suspensions through a medium containing 0.5m-ammonium chloride enhanced their ability to incorporate phenylalanine into polyphenylalanine. 2. Ribosomes isolated from non-lactating bovine mammary gland, in contrast with those from rat liver and lactating mammary gland, contained significant amounts of extraneous nucleases. These enzymes could be removed by washing with a medium A buffer containing 0.5m-ammonium chloride. 3. Only those ribosomes from functionally active tissues were able to bind polyuridylic acid and phenylalanyl-tRNA.
Project description:1. Ribonuclease II of Escherichia coli degrades pulse-labelled RNA associated with ribosomes and polyuridylic acid on ribosomes and in solution to mononucleotides. 2. Ribosomal and pulse-labelled RNA in solution and ribosomal RNA in chloramphenicol particles (protein-deficient ribosomes) are degraded to oligonucleotides. 3. Ribosomal RNA in mature ribosomes is not attacked by the enzyme. 4. From the mode of action of ribonuclease II, which is specific for single-stranded polyribonucleotides and does not attack helical forms, it is inferred that pulse-labelled RNA associated with ribosomes of E. coli exists as a single-stranded structure and that ribosomal RNA in chloramphenicol particles has a pronounced helical character. 5. The different behaviour of ribonuclease II towards newly synthesized RNA, ribosomal RNA and chloramphenicol-particle RNA in E. coli ribosomes is discussed.
Project description:1. The collagen hydroxyproline in rat liver was composed of 3.5% neutral-soluble collagen, 4.9% acid-soluble collagen and 91.6% insoluble collagen. In labelling studies with [(14)C]proline in vitro, the specific radioactivities of neutral-soluble, acid-soluble and insoluble collagens in rat liver were found to be 233000, 69000 and 830d.p.m./mumol of hydroxyproline respectively after 1h. 2. During subacute carbon tetrachloride poisoning the hepatic content of insoluble collagen markedly increased, whereas those of soluble collagens did not change. During recovery from subacute poisoning hepatic contents of soluble collagens were markedly decreased. 3. After 8 weeks of carbon tetrachloride poisoning the specific radioactivities of hepatic soluble collagens increased, while that of insoluble collagen decreased. During recovery from subacute poisoning, the specific radioactivities of soluble collagens decreased to the normal range and that of insoluble collagen further decreased. 4. Hepatic collagenolytic activity solubilizing insoluble collagen, which differs from mammalian collagenase, decreased under the conditions of the subacute poisoning and also during recovery from subacute poisoning.