Studies on the role of polyamines associated with the ribosomes from Bacillus stearothermophilus.
ABSTRACT: 1. Spermine and spermidine were the main polyamines detectable in Bacillus stearothermophilus. 2. When grown at 65 degrees B. stearothermophilus contained lower concentrations of polyamines per mg. of RNA than when grown at 45 degrees or at 55 degrees . 3. Ribosomes isolated from B. stearothermophilus in 0.01m-tris-hydrochloric acid buffer (pH7.4)-0.01m-magnesium chloride contained sufficient polyamines to neutralize between 4% and 9% of their RNA phosphorus. 4. Removal of polyamines from the ribosomes by dialysis against m-potassium chloride did not appreciably alter the hypochromicity or thermal denaturation profiles of the ribosomes when measured in 0.01m-tris-hydrochloric acid buffer (pH7.4)-0.01m-magnesium chloride, though it did cause a loss of ribosome particles sedimenting at greater than 78s. 5. When ribosomes were dialysed against acridine orange solutions acridine orange bound to the ribosomes and did not displace spermine, but when a mixture of ribosomal RNA and spermine was dialysed against acridine orange the acridine orange displaced the spermine. It is concluded that polyamines in the ribosomes are less accessible for displacement by acridine orange than when polyamines are bound to ribosomal RNA.
Project description:1. The total intracellular concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), spermine, spermidine and RNA were measured in Bacillus stearothermophilus. 2. The binding of spermine to ribosomes and to ribosomal RNA from B. stearothermophilus was studied under various conditions by using a gel-filtration technique. 3. The affinity of spermine for ribosomes and for ribosomal RNA decreased with increasing ionic strength of the medium in which they were suspended. 4. The extent of spermine binding did not change appreciably in the temperature range 4-60 degrees . 5. Optimum binding occurred at about pH7.0. 6. The number of binding sites for spermine on either ribosomes or ribosomal RNA was 0.10-0.13/RNA phosphate group. 7. A high proportion of the intracellular spermine is likely to be bound to the ribosomes in vivo; spermine competes with Mg(2+) on equal terms for sites on the ribosomes.
Project description:1. Ribosomes isolated from the cortex tissue of goat brain contain very small amounts of spermidine and spermine. Ribosomes isolated from spermidine-treated slices have a higher spermidine content. 2. The polyamines partially prevent the temperature-dependent breakdown of ribosomes into acid-soluble nucleotides. 3. The ;melting' temperature of ribosomes rises slightly when the ribosomes are heated slowly in the presence of polyamines. 4. The pH-dependent breakdown of ribosomes into protein, RNA and acid-soluble nucleotide is markedly decreased by polyamines present in media in which ribosomes are suspended. 5. The breakdown of ribosomes in the presence of high concentrations of salts and EDTA is partially checked by the concurrent presence of polyamines. 6. Spermidine and spermine make ribosomes less susceptible to enzymic digestion by crystalline trypsin and ribonuclease.
Project description:1. When the binding of ethidium bromide to rRNA is measured both in the presence and in the absence of spermine, by spectrophotometric titrations, by gel filtration, or by the changes in fluorescence intensity, spermine competes with ethidium bromide for sites on the rRNA; under the conditions used in these experiments ethidium bromide is bound to the double-stranded regions of rRNA. 2. When an excess of ethidium bromide is added to ribosomes from Bacillus stearothermophilus approx. 80% of the endogenous spermine is displaced from the ribosomes. 3. [(14)C]Spermine is fixed to ribosomes by either formaldehyde or 1,5-difluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Most of the [(14)C]spermine, fixed to ribosomes by 1,5-difluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, attaches to the ribosomal protein. 4. It is concluded that most of the endogenous spermine is bound to the double-stranded RNA in ribosomes, and that some of these double-stranded regions to which spermine is attached also have ribosomal proteins bound to them.
Project description:Polyamine binding to 23S rRNA was investigated, using a photoaffinity labeling approach. This was based on the covalent binding of a photoreactive analog of spermine, N1-azidobenzamidino (ABA)-spermine, to Escherichia coli ribosomes or naked 23S rRNA under mild irradiation conditions. The cross-linking sites of ABA-spermine in 23S rRNA were determined by RNase H digestion and primer-extension analysis. Domains I, II, IV and V in naked 23S rRNA were identified as discrete regions of preferred cross-linking. When 50S ribosomal subunits were targeted, the interaction of the photoprobe with the above 23S rRNA domains was elevated, except for helix H38 in domain II whose susceptibility to cross-linking was greatly reduced. In addition, cross-linking sites were identified in domains III and VI. Association of 30S with 50S subunits, poly(U), tRNA(Phe) and AcPhe-tRNA to form a post-translocation complex further altered the cross-linking, in particular to helices H11-H13, H21, H63, H80, H84, H90 and H97. Poly(U)-programmed 70S ribosomes, reconstituted from photolabeled 50S subunits and untreated 30S subunits, bound AcPhe-tRNA in a similar fashion to native ribosomes. However, they exhibited higher reactivity toward puromycin and enhanced tRNA-translocation efficiency. These results suggest an essential role for polyamines in the structural and functional integrity of the large ribosomal subunit.
Project description:1. Polyamines were found to be associated with microsomes of rat cerebral cortex, the amount of spermine being about four times that of spermidine. Cell sap contained more spermidine than spermine. 2. Both polyamines were able to stimulate the incorporation of [(14)C]valine into microsomes in vitro with a maximum rate equal to 250% of the control. Polyamines stimulated at concentrations close to the amount of spermine and spermidine naturally present in the system. 3. Spermine (0.05mm) was used to study the mechanism of action of polyamines. The increasing of microsome and cell-sap concentration facilitated the action of spermine, but the same process was inhibited by increasing pH5-enzyme concentration. 4. Spermine did not affect the association of [(14)C]valine with tRNA in cell sap, but increased the rate of aminoacyl-tRNA formation in pH5 enzyme preparations. However, this process was not affected in any case when incorporating microsomes were present. 5. It is suggested that microsomes are the main site of action of polyamines.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>India ink microscopy on cerebrospinal fluid is still utilized in resource limited settings for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis despite its poor sensitivity. We hypothesized that staining fungal nucleic acids with fluorescent dyes instead of the capsule with India ink might improve sensitivity for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>We enrolled 96 HIV-infected participants with cryptococcal meningitis who provided 194 CSF specimens at serial time points in Kampala, Uganda. Cryptococcosis was diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) test and only positive samples were included. We stained CSF with India ink and acridine orange. We cultured the same samples on standard fungal media. We compared acridine orange to CrAg, India ink and CSF culture.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Acridine orange was more sensitive (96%) than India ink (79%) with reference to CSF CrAg. Acridine orange and India ink had a statistically significant difference (P<0.001) with a 25% correlation for detection of Cryptococcus yeasts. India ink had more negative results (22%) than acridine orange (4%). The sensitivity for India ink increased (86%) while that of acridine orange did not change (97%) when compared to CSF culture. However, both India ink and acridine orange had poor predictive values with reference to culture.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>Acridine orange is a better alternative to India ink in the rapid detection of cryptococcosis among CrAg positive HIV patients.
Project description:The interactions of polyamines with the lipolytic system were studied in isolated rat adipocytes. Spermine, spermidine and putrescine significantly inhibited adenosine deaminase-stimulated lipolysis. An antilipolytic effect of spermine was detectable at a concentration of 0.25 mM (P less than 0.05). At a concentration of 10 mM all three polyamines inhibited the stimulated lipolysis by 50-60% (P less than 0.001). In addition, spermine enhanced the antilipolytic sensitivity of insulin. Spermine (1 mM) decreased the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of insulin from 320 +/- 70 pM to 56 +/- 20 pM (P less than 0.01). The antilipolytic effects and the cyclic-AMP-lowering effects of the polyamines were almost completely prevented in the presence of different phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and RO 20-1724) and, in addition, polyamines had no effect on lipolysis stimulated by dibutyryl cyclic AMP, indicating that polyamines may inhibit lipolysis by activating the PDE enzyme. This latter suggestion was confirmed by demonstrating that spermine (5 mM) significantly enhanced the low-Km PDE enzyme activity (P less than 0.01). Finally, the amounts of polyamines present in isolated adipocytes were measured, and the estimated cytoplasmic concentrations were 0.02 mM (putrescine), 0.86 mM (spermidine), and 1.0 mM (spermine). It is concluded that polyamines may possibly be involved in the physiological regulation of triacylglycerol mobilization in adipocytes.
Project description:Polyamines are essential for various cell functions and are produced in most cells, as well as being taken up from extracellular sources. Polyamines, especially spermine, in blood cells increase when polyamines are supplied from the digestive tract. Altered polyamine metabolism has an impact on substrate concentrations and enzyme activities involved in gene methylation, and may affect gene expression. Therefore, we investigated the effect of decreased polyamine synthesis and extracellular spermine supply on substrate concentrations and enzyme activities involved in gene methylation and on changes of methylation in promoter regions using methylation arrays. In Jurkat cells and human mammary epithelial cells, changes in polyamine concentrations differed after polyamine synthesis inhibition. However, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity and the decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosyl-L-methionine ratio were decreased by spermine addition in both cells. After inhibiting polyamine synthesis in Jurkat cells by D,L-alpha-difluoromethylornithine, the protein levels of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1, 3A and 3B were not changed, but the activity of the three enzymes markedly decreased. The protein levels of these enzymes were not changed by addition of spermine; however, DNMT 3B was markedly activated and DNMT 3A was also activated. DNMT 1 was not activated. Effects on methylation of promoter regions included significant changes for tumor suppressor genes in response to altered polyamine metabolism. However, no significant changes in methylation status were found on genes of which methylation status and their related protein levels were affected by spermine. When considering these results, there are many genes for which polyamines have an impact on expression via methylation of promoter regions. Overall design: In order to asess the methylation status under depletion or supplementation of polyamine (Spermine), four DNA samples obtained from Jurkat cells cultured in were analyzed in four different conditon as follows; Control, D,L-alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO)(+), Spermine (+), DFMO+Spermine
Project description:1. Acridine Orange inhibits growth of Escherichia coli K12 when incubated at pH 7.9, but not at pH 7.4.2. At a non-permissive temperature for DNA polymerase I, Acridine Orange inhibits growth of a temperature-sensitive strain and also increases the rate of elimination of the F'-Lac plasmid. 3. DNA isolated from cells treated with Acridine Orange under conditions that inhibit growth contains material of low molecular weight, which is absent from DNA isolated from cells treated under conditions in which growth is not impaired. 4. Cells incubated with Acridine Orange at both pH 7.4 and 7.9 suffer degradation of DNA, as shown by loss of labelled DNA from the acid-insoluble fraction, which is not observed with untreated cells at either pH. 5. The results suggest that elimination of the F'-Lac plasmid by Acridine Orange requires inactivation of repair processes.
Project description:Treatment of rats with spermidine, spermine or sym-norspermidine led to a substantial induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity in liver, kidney and lung. The increase in this enzyme, which was determined independently of other acetylases by using a specific antiserum, accounted for all of the increased acetylase activity in extracts from rats treated with these polyamines. Spermine was the most active inducer, and the greatest effect was seen in liver. Liver spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity was increased about 300-fold within 6 h of treatment with 0.3 mmol/kg doses of spermine; activity in kidney increased 30-fold and activity in the lung 15-fold under these conditions. The increased spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity led to a large increase in the liver putrescine content and a decline in spermidine. These changes are due to the oxidation by polyamine oxidase of the N1-acetylspermidine formed by the acetyltransferase. Our results indicated that spermidine was the preferred substrate in vivo of the acetylase/oxidase pathway for the conversion of the higher polyamines into putrescine. The induction of the spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase by polyamines may provide a mechanism by which excess polyamines can be removed.