Corticotropin-releasing hormone inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB pathway in human HaCaT keratinocytes.
ABSTRACT: Treatment of human HaCaT keratinocytes with corticotropin-releasing hormone modulates cell proliferation and expression of inflammation markers. In this study we report that corticotropin-releasing hormone also inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB binding and transcriptional activity. Incubating cells in the absence of growth factors increased nuclear factor-kappaB activity; this effect was significantly attenuated by corticotropin-releasing hormone. Specifically, corticotropin-releasing hormone downregulated p50/p50 and p50/p65 dimers of nuclear factor-kappaB, diminished kappaB-driven CAT reporter gene activity and inhibited IkappaB-beta degradation. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing hormone inhibited the trans-cription of the nuclear factor-kappaB responsive genes, interleukin-2 and heat shock protein 90.
Project description:The potential anti-inflammatory role of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)-related tripeptide, lysine(11)-D-proline-valine(13) (KDPV), an analogue of interleukin (IL)-1beta(193-195) and an antagonist of IL-1beta/prostaglandin E(2), is not well characterized in the alveolar epithelium. In a model of foetal alveolar type II epithelial cells in vitro, we showed that lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) differentially, but selectively, induced the nuclear subunit composition of nuclear factor kappaB(1) (NF-kappaB(1)) (p50), RelA (p65) and c-Rel (p75), in parallel to up-regulating the DNA-binding activity (supershift indicating the presence of the p50-p65 complex). LPS accelerated the degradation of inhibitory kappaB-alpha (IkappaB-alpha), accompanied by enhancing its phosphorylation in the cytosolic compartment but not in the nucleus. KDPV suppressed, in a dose-dependent manner, the nuclear localization of p50, p65 and p75, an effect that led to the subsequent inhibition of NF-kappaB activation. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) decreased the nuclear abundance of p50, p65 and p75, and subsequently depressed the DNA-binding activity induced by LPS. Analysis of the mechanism involved in the KDPV- and IL-1ra-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB nuclear localization revealed a reversal in IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation and degradation, followed by cytosolic accumulation. LPS induced endogenous IL-1beta biosynthesis in a time-dependent manner; the administration of exogenous recombinant human interleukin 1 (rhIL-1) resulted in a dose-dependent activation of NF-kappaB. KDPV and IL-1ra abrogated the effect of rhIL-1. Pretreatment with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kappaB. These results indicate the involvement of prostanoid-dependent (NSAID-sensitive) and IL-1-dependent (IL-1ra-sensitive) mechanisms mediating LPS-induced NF-kappaB translocation and activation, a pathway that is regulated, in part, by a negative feedback mechanism transduced through IkappaB-alpha, the major cytosolic inhibitor of NF-kappaB.
Project description:Corticotropin-releasing hormone is produced in response to acute and chronic stress. Previous studies have shown that activation of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) by corticotropin-releasing hormone results in the rapid loss of dendritic spines which correlates with cognitive dysfunction associated with stress. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC2), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase Rap, plays a critical role in regulating dendritic spine morphology and has been linked with CRHR1 signalling. In this study, we have tested whether EPAC2 links corticotropin-releasing hormone with dendritic spine remodelling. In primary rat cortical neurons, we show that CRHR1 is highly enriched in the dendritic spines. Furthermore, we find that EPAC2 and CRHR1 co-localize in cortical neurons and that acute exposure to corticotropin-releasing hormone induces spine loss. To establish whether EPAC2 was required for corticotropin-releasing hormone-mediated spine loss, we knocked-down EPAC2 in cortical neurons using a short hairpin RNA-mediated approach. In the presence of Epac2 knocked-down, corticotropin-releasing hormone was no longer able to induce spine loss. Taken together, our data indicate that EPAC2 is required for the rapid loss of dendritic spines induced by corticotropin-releasing hormone and may ultimately contribute to responses to acute stress.
Project description:1. The transcription factors of the NF-kappaB/Rel family form dimeric complexes that control expression of various genes involved in inflammation and proliferation. 2. During transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) induced by Citrobacter rodentium, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in isolated colonic crypts increased 3 day's post-infection and continued over 12 days paralleling peak hyperplasia. Antibody supershifts for both p65/p50 hetero- and p50/p50 homodimers occurred. Expression levels of both p50 and p65 subunits increased in cytosolic/nuclear extracts and correlated with NF-kappaB activation kinetics. IkappaB alpha levels decreased during this time. 3. Phosphorylation of IKK alpha (at Ser(176/180)) and -beta (at Ser(177/181)) increased significantly during TMCH suggesting activation in vivo. 4. p65-Ser536 (p65(536)) exhibited increased phosphorylation on immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) both at day 6 and 12 TMCH. p65(536) translocated to nucleus and interacted with transcriptional coactivator CREB binding protein (CBP). 5. Proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade) caused accumulation of Ser(32/36)-phosphorylated IkappaB alpha and significant inhibition of NF-kappaB activity in vivo. Velcade also blocked nuclear translocation of activated p65: both immunoblotting and IHC failed to detect p65(536) nuclear immunoreactivity. Velcade, however, did not abrogate TMCH. 6. p65 interacted strongly with ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK-1) during coimmunoprecipitation but not with IKK alpha or -beta. 7. Thus, NF-kappaB activation during TMCH involves both IkappaB alpha degradation and p65-Ser536 phosphorylation. p65/RSK-1 interaction and concomitant increase in p65(536) complexed with CBP may be important in modulating NF-kappaB activity in vivo. Activated NF-kappaB, besides modulating proliferation, may aid in providing protective immunity against C. rodentium infection in vivo.
Project description:GSK-3 is active in the absence of growth factor stimulation and generally acts to induce apoptosis or inhibit cell proliferation. We previously identified a subset of growth factor-inducible genes that can also be induced in quiescent T98G cells solely by inhibition of GSK-3 in the absence of growth factor stimulation. Computational predictions verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays identified NF-kappaB binding sites in the upstream regions of 75% of the genes regulated by GSK-3. p50 bound to most of these sites in quiescent cells, and for one-third of the genes, binding of p65 to the predicted sites increased upon inhibition of GSK-3. The functional role of p65 in gene induction following inhibition of GSK-3 was demonstrated by RNA interference experiments. Furthermore, inhibition of GSK-3 in quiescent cells resulted in activation of IkappaB kinase, leading to phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaB alpha and nuclear translocation of p65 and p50. Taken together, these results indicate that the high levels of GSK-3 activity in quiescent cells repress gene expression by negatively regulating NF-kappaB through inhibition of IkappaB kinase. This inhibition of NF-kappaB is consistent with the role of GSK-3 in the induction of apoptosis or cell cycle arrest in cells deprived of growth factors.
Project description:Translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus is required for the regulation of gene expression by transcription factors of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) family. The p65:p50 NF-kappaB heterodimer that predominates in many cell types can undergo stimulated movement, following degradation of the IkappaB inhibitor, as well as shuttling in the absence of stimulation with IkappaB bound. Disruption of the dynactin complex and knockdown of endogenous dynein were used to investigate the nuclear translocation requirements for stimulated and shuttling movement of NF-kappaB. A differential dependence of these two modes of transport on the dynein molecular motor and dynactin was found. NF-kappaB used active dynein-dependent transport following stimulation while translocation during shuttling was mediated by a dynein-independent pathway that could be potentiated by dynactin disruption, consistent with a process of facilitated diffusion. Nuclear translocation and activation of NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression showed a dependence on endogenous dynein in a variety of cell types and in response to diverse activating stimuli, suggesting that dynein-dependent transport of NF-kappaB may be a conserved mechanism in the NF-kappaB activation pathway and could represent a potential point of regulation.
Project description:The human promoter region of JFC1, a phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate binding ATPase, was isolated by amplification of a 549 bp region upstream of the jfc1 gene by the use of a double-PCR system. By primer extension analysis we mapped the transcription initiation site at nucleotide -321 relative to the translation start site. Putative regulatory elements were identified in the jfc1 TATA-less promoter, including three consensus sites for nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). We analysed the three putative NF-kappaB binding sites by gel retardation and supershift assays. Each of the putative NF-kappaB sites interacted specifically with recombinant NF-kappaB p50, and the complexes co-migrated with those formed by the NF-kappaB consensus sequence and p50. An antibody to p50 generated a supershifted complex for these NF-kappaB sites. These sites formed specific complexes with nuclear proteins from tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-treated WEHI 231 cells, which were supershifted with antibodies against p50 and p65. The jfc1 promoter was transcriptionally active in various cell lines, as determined by luciferase reporter assays following transfection with a jfc1 promoter luciferase vector. Co-transfection with NF-kappaB expression vectors or stimulation with TNFalpha resulted in significant transactivation of the jfc1 promoter construct, although transactivation of a mutated jfc1 promoter was negligible. The expression of a dominant negative IkappaB (inhibitor kappaB) decreased basal jfc1 promoter activity. The cell lines PC-3, LNCaP and DU-145, but not Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes, showed a dramatic increase in the expression of JFC1 after treatment with TNFalpha, suggesting that transcriptional activation of JFC1 by the TNFalpha/NF-kappaB pathway is significant in prostate carcinoma cell lines.
Project description:Inducible activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) is classically mediated by proteasomal degradation of its associated inhibitors, IkappaBalpha (inhibitory kappaBalpha) and IkappaBbeta. However, certain B-lymphocytes maintain constitutively nuclear NF-kappaB activity (a p50-c-Rel heterodimer) which is resistant to inhibition by proteasome inhibitors. This activity in the WEHI-231 B-cell line is associated with continual and preferential degradation of IkappaBalpha, which is also unaffected by proteasome inhibitors. Pharmacological studies indicated that there was a correlation between inhibition of IkappaBalpha degradation and constitutive p50-c-Rel activity. Domain analysis of IkappaBalpha by deletion mutagenesis demonstrated that an N-terminal 36-amino-acid sequence of IkappaBalpha represented an instability determinant for constitutive degradation. Moreover, domain grafting studies indicated that this sequence was sufficient to cause IkappaBbeta, but not chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, to be rapidly degraded in WEHI-231 B-cells. However, this sequence was insufficient to target IkappaBbeta to the non-proteasome degradation pathway, suggesting that there was an additional cis-element(s) in IkappaBalpha that was required for complete targeting. Nevertheless, the NF-kappaB pool associated with IkappaBbeta now became constitutively active by virtue of IkappaBbeta instability in these cells. These findings further support the notion that IkappaB instability governs the maintenance of constitutive p50-c-Rel activity in certain B-cells via a unique degradation pathway.
Project description:GSH synthesis occurs via two enzymatic steps catalysed by GCL [glutamate-cysteine ligase, made up of GCLC (GCL catalytic subunit), and GCLM (GCL modifier subunit)] and GSS (GSH synthetase). Co-ordinated up-regulation of GCL and GSS further enhances GSH synthetic capacity. The present study examined whether TNFalpha (tumour necrosis factor alpha) influences the expression of rat GSH synthetic enzymes. To facilitate transcriptional studies of the rat GCLM, we cloned its 1.8 kb 5'-flanking region. TNFalpha induces the expression and recombinant promoter activities of GCLC, GCLM and GSS in H4IIE cells. TNFalpha induces NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) and AP-1 (activator protein 1) nuclear-binding activities. Blocking AP-1 with dominant negative c-Jun or NF-kappaB with IkappaBSR (IkappaB super-repressor, where IkappaB stands for inhibitory kappaB) lowered basal expression and inhibited the TNFalpha-mediated increase in mRNA levels of all three genes. While all three genes have multiple AP-1-binding sites, only GCLC has a NF-kappaB-binding site. Overexpression with p50 or p65 increased c-Jun mRNA levels, c-Jun-dependent promoter activity and the promoter activity of GCLM and GSS. Blocking NF-kappaB also lowered basal c-Jun expression and blunted the TNFalpha-mediated increase in c-Jun mRNA levels. TNFalpha treatment resulted in increased c-Jun and Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) nuclear binding to the antioxidant response element of the rat GCLM and if this was prevented, TNFalpha no longer induced the GCLM promoter activity. In conclusion, both c-Jun and NF-kappaB are required for basal and TNFalpha-mediated induction of GSH synthetic enzymes in H4IIE cells. While NF-kappaB may exert a direct effect on the GCLC promoter, it induces the GCLM and GSS promoters indirectly via c-Jun.
Project description:The mechanism of inhibition of the transcriptional activator nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) by the inhibitor IkappaB* is central to the understanding of the control of transcriptional activity via this widely employed pathway. Previous studies suggested that IkappaB* , a modular protein with an NF-kappaB binding domain consisting of six ankyrin repeat domains (ANKs), shows differential flexibility, with ANK 1-4 apparently more rigid in solution in the absence of NF-kappaB than ANK 5 and 6. Here we report NMR studies that confirm the enhanced flexibility of ANK 5 and 6 in free IkappaB* . Upon binding of NF-kappaB, ANK 5 and 6 become well structured and rigid, but, somewhat surprisingly, other domains of the IkappaB* , which were relatively rigid in the free protein, become significantly more flexible. Due to the high molecular masses of the component proteins and the complexes, we employ a hierarchical experimental plan to maximize the available information on local flexibility in the ankyrin repeat domains. Backbone resonances of the 221-residue IkappaB* protein were assigned firstly in a smaller construct consisting of ankyrin repeats 1-4. These assignments could be readily transferred to the spectra of the construct containing six repeats, both free and complexed with various combinations of the NF-kappaB p50 and p65 domains. Transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy-type NMR experiments on differentially labeled proteins enabled information on backbone structure and dynamics to be obtained, even in complexes with molecular masses approaching 100 kDa. Changes in the flexibility and stability of the various ankyrin repeat domains of IkappaB* complex formation take a variety of forms depending on the position of the domain in the complex, providing a variety of examples of the structural and functional utility of intrinsically unstructured or partly folded protein domains.
Project description:The corticotropin-releasing factor is a stress-related neuropeptide that modulates locus coeruleus activity. As locus coeruleus has been involved in pain and stress-related patologies, we tested whether the pain-induced anxiety is a result of the corticotropin-releasing factor released in the locus coeruleus.Complete Freund's adjuvant-induced monoarthritis was used as inflammatory chronic pain model. ?-Helical corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist was microinjected into the contralateral locus coeruleus of 4-week-old monoarthritic animals. The nociceptive and anxiety-like behaviors, as well as phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors expression, were quantified in the paraventricular nucleus and locus coeruleus.Monoarthritic rats manifested anxiety and increased phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 levels in the locus coeruleus and paraventricular nucleus, although the expression of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors was unaltered. ?-Helical corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist administration reversed both the anxiogenic-like behavior and the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 levels in the locus coeruleus.Pain-induced anxiety is mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor neurotransmission in the locus coeruleus through extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 signaling cascade.