CARBOHYDRASES OF THE RUMEN CILIATE EPIDINIUM ECAUDATUM (CRAWLEY). HYDROLYSIS OF PLANT HEMICELLULOSE FRACTIONS AND BETA-LINKED GLUCOSE POLYMERS.
ABSTRACT: 1. Cell-free extracts from Epidinium ecaudatum (Crawley) hydrolysed the three hemicellulose fractions of pasture plants, but at different rates. 2. All of the constituent monosaccharides are released from the hemicellulose fractions, galactose and uronic acids being liberated at much slower rates than pentoses. 3. An arabinofuranosidase, which removes arabinose from highly branched arabinoxylan before the xylan chain can be hydrolysed, was isolated free from other pentosanases. 4. A xylanase hydrolysing xylan (by random cleavage) and xylodextrins of degree of polymerization (D.P.) > 3 to xylotriose and xylobiose was isolated free from other pentosanases. 5. A separate xylodextrinase hydrolysing (by random cleavage) xylodextrins of D.P. > 2 to xylobiose and xylose was also obtained; this enzyme did not hydrolyse xylan or xylobiose and the original extracts themselves possessed very weak xylobiase activity. 6. The epidinial extracts hydrolysed laminaribiose, laminarin, lichenin and cellodextrins of D.P. < 7 rapidly, cellobiose and gentiobiose slowly but cellulose not at all. 7. Polysaccharide glucose associated with plant linear B hemicellulose was liberated with cellobiose and possibly laminaribiose as intermediates. 8. The cellodextrinase hydrolysed cellopentaose initially to cellobiose plus cellotriose and is a distinctly different enzyme from the xylanase and xylodextrinase. 9. Extracts from Entodinium species and Eremoplastron bovis also hydrolysed all three types of plant hemicellose.
Project description:A genomic library of Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa DNA constructed in pUC18 and expressed in Escherichia coli was screened for recombinants expressing 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-glucoside hydrolysing activity (MUGase). A single MUGase-positive clone was isolated. The MUGase hydrolysed cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, cellopentaose and cellohexaose to glucose, by sequentially cleaving glucose residues from the non-reducing end of the cello-oligosaccharides. The Km values for cellobiose and cellohexaose hydrolysis were 1.2 mM and 28 microM respectively. The enzyme exhibited no activity against soluble or insoluble cellulose, xylan and xylobiose. Thus the MUGase is classified as a 1,4-beta-D-glucan glucohydrolase (EC 126.96.36.199) and is designated 1,4-beta-D-glucan glucohydrolase D (CELD). When expressed by E. coli, CELD was located in the cell-envelope fraction; a significant proportion of the native enzyme was also associated with the cell envelope when synthesized by its endogenous host. The nucleotide sequence of the gene, celD, which encodes CELD, revealed an open reading frame of 2607 bp, encoding a protein of M(r) 92,000. The deduced primary structure of CELD was confirmed by the M(r) of CELD (85,000) expressed by E. coli and P. fluorescens subsp. cellulosa, and by the experimentally determined N-terminus of the enzyme purified from E. coli, which showed identity with residues 52-67 of the celD translated sequence. The structure of the N-terminal region of full-length CELD was similar to the signal peptides of P. fluorescens subsp. cellulosa plant-cell-wall hydrolases. Deletion of the N-terminal 47 residues of CELD solubilized MUGase activity in E. coli. CELD exhibited sequence similarity with beta-glucosidase B of Clostridium thermocellum, particularly in the vicinity of the active-site aspartate residue, but did not display structural similarity with the mature forms of cellulases and xylanases expressed by P. fluorescens subsp. cellulosa.
Project description:Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus 6A, an anaerobic and extremely thermophilic bacterium, uses natural xylan as carbon source. The encoded genes of C. lactoaceticus 6A for glycoside hydrolase (GH) provide a platform for xylan degradation. The GH family 10 xylanase (Xyn10A) and GH67 ?-glucuronidase (Agu67A) from C. lactoaceticus 6A were heterologously expressed, purified and characterized. Both Xyn10A and Agu67A are predicted as intracellular enzymes as no signal peptides identified. Xyn10A and Agu67A had molecular weight of 47.0 kDa and 80.0 kDa respectively as determined by SDS-PAGE, while both appeared as homodimer when analyzed by gel filtration. Xyn10A displayed the highest activity at 80 °C and pH 6.5, as 75 °C and pH 6.5 for Agu67A. Xyn10A had good stability at 75 °C, 80 °C, and pH 4.5-8.5, respectively, and was sensitive to various metal ions and reagents. Xyn10A possessed hydrolytic activity towards xylo-oligosaccharides (XOs) and beechwood xylan. At optimum conditions, the specific activity of Xyn10A was 44.6 IU/mg with beechwood xylan as substrate, and liberated branched XOs, xylobiose, and xylose. Agu67A was active on branched XOs with methyl-glucuronic acids (MeGlcA) sub-chains, and primarily generated XOs equivalents and MeGlcA. The specific activity of Agu67A was 1.3 IU/mg with aldobiouronic acid as substrate. The synergistic action of Xyn10A and Agu67A was observed with MeGlcA branched XOs and xylan as substrates, both backbone and branched chain of substrates were degraded, and liberated xylose, xylobiose, and MeGlcA. The synergism of Xyn10A and Agu67A provided not only a thermophilic method for natural xylan degradation, but also insight into the mechanisms for xylan utilization of C. lactoaceticus.
Project description:Xylanases decrease the xylan content in pretreated biomass releasing it from hemicellulose, thus improving the accessibility of cellulose for cellulases. In this work, an endo-?-1,4-xylanase from Aspergillus fumigatus var. niveus (AFUMN-GH10) was successfully expressed. The structural analysis and biochemical characterization showed this AFUMN-GH10 does not contain a carbohydrate-binding module. The enzyme retained its activity in a pH range from 4.5 to 7.0, with an optimal temperature at 60?°C. AFUMN-GH10 showed the highest activity in beechwood xylan. The mode of action of AFUMN-GH10 was investigated by hydrolysis of APTS-labeled xylohexaose, which resulted in xylotriose and xylobiose as the main products. AFUMN-GH10 released 27% of residual xylan from hydrothermally-pretreated corn stover and 14% of residual xylan from hydrothermally-pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The results showed that environmentally friendly pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with AFUMN-GH10 in low concentration is a suitable method to remove part of residual and recalcitrant hemicellulose from biomass.
Project description:Bacterial strain Bacillus tequilensis BT21 isolated from marine sediments was found to produce extracellular xylanase. The xynBT21 gene encoding xylanase enzyme was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene encoded a protein consisting of 213 amino acid residues with calculated molecular mass of 23.3 kDa. Puri?ed recombinant xylanase had optimum activity at 60 °C and pH=6. The enzyme was highly stable in alkaline pH, at pH=7 it remained 100% active for 24 h, while its activity increased at pH=8 and 9 during incubation. B. tequilensis BT21 xylanase had alkaline pI of 9.4 and belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 11. The mode of action of XynBT21 on beechwood xylan and xylooligosaccharides was studied. It hydrolysed xylooligosaccharides and beechwood xylan yielding mainly xylobiose (X2) with a small amount of xylose (X1), indicating that XynBT21 was probably an endo-acting xylanase. Enzymatic hydrolysis using wheat bran as a substrate revealed that xylanase reported here has the potential to produce xylobiose from wheat bran. Xylooligosaccharides, especially xylobiose, have strong bifidogenic properties and are increasingly used as a prebiotic. This is the ?rst report that describes this novel xylanase enzyme from marine B. tequilensis BT21 used for the release of xylobiose from wheat bran.
Project description:Background:The bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass in various industrial processes, such as the production of biofuels, requires the degradation of hemicellulose. Clostridium stercorarium is a thermophilic bacterium, well known for its outstanding hemicellulose-degrading capability. Its genome comprises about 50 genes for partially still uncharacterised thermostable hemicellulolytic enzymes. These are promising candidates for industrial applications. Results:To reveal the hemicellulose-degrading potential of 50 glycoside hydrolases, they were recombinantly produced and characterised. 46 of them were identified in the secretome of C. stercorarium cultivated on cellobiose. Xylanases Xyn11A, Xyn10B, Xyn10C, and cellulase Cel9Z were among the most abundant proteins. The secretome of C. stercorarium was active on xylan, ?-glucan, xyloglucan, galactan, and glucomannan. In addition, the recombinant enzymes hydrolysed arabinan, mannan, and galactomannan. 20 enzymes are newly described, degrading xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, and aryl-glycosides of ?-d-xylose, ?-d-glucose, ?-d-galactose, ?-l-arabinofuranose, ?-l-rhamnose, ?-d-glucuronic acid, and N-acetyl-?-d-glucosamine. The activities of three enzymes with non-classified glycoside hydrolase (GH) family modules were determined. Xylanase Xyn105F and ?-d-xylosidase Bxl31D showed activities not described so far for their GH families. 11 of the 13 polysaccharide-degrading enzymes were most active at pH 5.0 to pH 6.5 and at temperatures of 57-76 °C. Investigation of the substrate and product specificity of arabinoxylan-degrading enzymes revealed that only the GH10 xylanases were able to degrade arabinoxylooligosaccharides. While Xyn10C was inhibited by ?-(1,2)-arabinosylations, Xyn10D showed a degradation pattern different to Xyn10B and Xyn10C. Xyn11A released longer degradation products than Xyn10B. Both tested arabinose-releasing enzymes, Arf51B and Axh43A, were able to hydrolyse single- as well as double-arabinosylated xylooligosaccharides. Conclusions:The obtained results lead to a better understanding of the hemicellulose-degrading capacity of C. stercorarium and its involved enzyme systems. Despite similar average activities measured by depolymerisation tests, a closer look revealed distinctive differences in the activities and specificities within an enzyme class. This may lead to synergistic effects and influence the enzyme choice for biotechnological applications. The newly characterised glycoside hydrolases can now serve as components of an enzyme platform for industrial applications in order to reconstitute synthetic enzyme systems for complete and optimised degradation of defined polysaccharides and hemicellulose.
Project description:Hemicellulose is the next most abundant plant cell wall component after cellulose. The abundance of hemicellulose such as xylan suggests that their hydrolysis and conversion to biofuels can improve the economics of bioenergy production. In an effort to understand xylan hydrolysis at high temperatures, we sequenced the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus. Analysis of the partial genome sequence revealed a gene cluster that contained both hydrolytic enzymes and also enzymes key to the pentose-phosphate pathway. The hydrolytic enzymes in the gene cluster were demonstrated to convert products from a large endoxylanase (Xyn10A) predicted to anchor to the surface of the bacterium. We further use structural and calorimetric studies to demonstrate that the end products of Xyn10A hydrolysis of xylan are recognized and bound by XBP1, a putative solute-binding protein, likely for transport into the cell. The XBP1 protein showed preference for xylo-oligosaccharides as follows: xylotriose > xylobiose > xylotetraose. To elucidate the structural basis for the oligosaccharide preference, we solved the co-crystal structure of XBP1 complexed with xylotriose to a 1.8-Å resolution. Analysis of the biochemical data in the context of the co-crystal structure reveals the molecular underpinnings of oligosaccharide length specificity.
Project description:By means of chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex, two arylamidases (hydrolysing L-arginine 2-naphthylamide) and three dipeptidyl peptidases (hydrolysing dipeptide 2-naphthylamides) were distinguished in extracts of rat muscle. However, the arylamidase from the larger peak also hydrolysed the dipeptide 2-naphthylamides. Glycyl-L-arginine amide, an alternative substrate for dipeptidyl peptidase I, was not hydrolysed by arylamidase. L-Leucine amide was hydrolysed by an enzyme, presumed to be leucine aminopeptidase, from a separate peak, but was also hydrolysed by arylamidase. Arylamidase, dipeptidyl peptidase III and most of the leucine aminopeptidase could be extracted from the muscle with a neutral salt solution, but dipeptidyl peptidase I was extracted only in the presence of Triton X-100; dipeptidyl peptidase II showed an intermediate extraction behaviour.
Project description:Acetyl xylan esterase (AXE), which hydrolyzes the ester linkages of the naturally acetylated xylan and thus known to have an important role for hemicellulose degradation, was isolated from the anaerobic rumen fungus Neocallimastix frontatlis PMA02, heterologously expressed in Escherichi coli (E.coli) and characterized. The full-length cDNA encoding NfAXE1 was 1,494 bp, of which 978 bp constituted an open reading frame. The estimated molecular weight of NfAXE1 was 36.5 kDa with 326 amino acid residues, and the calculated isoelectric point was 4.54. The secondary protein structure was predicted to consist of nine α-helixes and 12 β-strands. The enzyme expressed in E.coli had the highest activity at 40°C and pH 8. The purified recombinant NfAXE1 had a specific activity of 100.1 U/mg when p-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NA) was used as a substrate at 40°C, optimum temperature. The amount of liberated acetic acids were the highest and the lowest when p-NA and acetylated birchwood xylan were used as substrates, respectively. The amount of xylose released from acetylated birchwod xylan was increased by 1.4 fold when NfAXE1 was mixed with xylanase in a reaction cocktail, implying a synergistic effect of NfAXE1 with xylanase on hemicellulose degradation.
Project description:Hemicellulose is one of the major forms of biomass in lignocellulose, and its essential component is xylan. We used a cell surface engineering system based on alpha-agglutinin to construct a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain codisplaying two types of xylan-degrading enzymes, namely, xylanase II (XYNII) from Trichoderma reesei QM9414 and beta-xylosidase (XylA) from Aspergillus oryzae NiaD300, on the cell surface. In a high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, xylose was detected as the main product of the yeast strain codisplaying XYNII and XylA, while xylobiose and xylotriose were detected as the main products of a yeast strain displaying XYNII on the cell surface. These results indicate that xylan is sequentially hydrolyzed to xylose by the codisplayed XYNII and XylA. In a further step toward achieving the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of xylan, a xylan-utilizing S. cerevisiae strain was constructed by codisplaying XYNII and XylA and introducing genes for xylose utilization, namely, those encoding xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from Pichia stipitis and xylulokinase from S. cerevisiae. After 62 h of fermentation, 7.1 g of ethanol per liter was directly produced from birchwood xylan, and the yield in terms of grams of ethanol per gram of carbohydrate consumed was 0.30 g/g. These results demonstrate that the direct conversion of xylan to ethanol is accomplished by the xylan-utilizing S. cerevisiae strain.
Project description:We cloned a novel beta-1,3-xylanase gene, consisting of a 1728-bp open reading frame encoding 576 amino acid residues, from a marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain AX-4. Sequence analysis revealed that the beta-1,3-xylanase is a modular enzyme composed of a putative catalytic module belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 26 and two putative carbohydrate-binding modules belonging to family 31. The recombinant enzyme hydrolysed beta-1,3-xylan to yield xylo-oligosaccharides with different numbers of xylose units, mainly xylobiose, xylotriose and xylotetraose. However, the enzyme did not hydrolyse beta-1,4-xylan, beta-1,4-mannan, beta-1,4-glucan, beta-1,3-xylobiose or p-nitrophenyl-beta-xyloside. When beta-1,3-xylo-oligosaccharides were used as the substrate, the kcat value of the enzyme for xylopentaose was found to be 40 times higher than that for xylotetraose, and xylotriose was extremely resistant to hydrolysis by the enzyme. A PSI-BLAST search revealed two possible catalytic Glu residues (Glu-138 as an acid/base catalyst and Glu-234 as a nucleophile), both of which are generally conserved in glycoside hydrolase superfamily A. Replacement of these two conserved Glu residues with Asp and Gln resulted in a significant decrease and complete loss of enzyme activity respectively, without a change in their CD spectra, suggesting that these Glu residues are the catalytic residues of beta-1,3-xylanase. The present study also clearly shows that the non-catalytic putative carbohydrate-binding modules play an important role in the hydrolysis of insoluble beta-1,3-xylan, but not that of soluble glycol-beta-1,3-xylan. Furthermore, repeating a putative carbohydrate-binding module strongly enhanced the hydrolysis of the insoluble substrate.