Eth-1, the Neurospora crassa locus encoding S-adenosylmethionine synthetase: molecular cloning, sequence analysis and in vivo overexpression.
ABSTRACT: Intense biochemical and genetic research on the eth-1r mutant of Neurospora crassa suggested that this locus might encode S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (S-Adomet synthetase). We have used protoplast transformation and phenotypic rescue of a thermosensitive phenotype associated with the eth-1r mutation to clone the locus. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated that it encodes S-Adomet synthetase. Homology analyses of prokaryotic, fungal and higher eukaryotic S-Adomet synthetase polypeptide sequences show a remarkable evolutionary conservation of the enzyme. N. crassa strains carrying S-Adomet synthetase coding sequences fused to a strong heterologous promoter were constructed to assess the phenotypic consequences of in vivo S-Adomet synthetase overexpression. Studies of growth rates and microscopic examination of vegetative development revealed that normal growth and morphogenesis take place in N. crassa even at abnormally high levels of cellular S-Adomet. The degree of cytosine methylation of a naturally methylated genomic region was dependent on the cellular levels of S-Adomet. We conclude that variation in S-Adomet levels in N. crassa cells, which in addition to the status of genomic DNA methylation could modify the flux of other S-Adomet-dependent metabolic pathways, does not affect growth rate or morphogenesis.
Project description:eth-1r, a thermosensitive allele of the Neurospora crassa S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) synthetase gene that confers ethionine resistance, has been cloned and sequenced. Replacement of an aspartic amino acid residue (D48-->N48), perfectly conserved in prokaryotic, fungal and higher eukaryotic AdoMet synthetases, was found responsible for both thermosensitivity and ethionine resistance conferred by eth-1r. Gene fusion constructs, designed to overexpress eth-1r in vivo, render transformant cells resistant to ethionine. Dominance of ethionine resistance was further demonstrated in eth-1+/eth-1r partial diploids carrying identical gene doses of both alleles. Heterozygous eth-1+/eth-1r cells have, at the same time, both the thermotolerance conferred by eth-1+ and the ethionine-resistant phenotype conferred by eth-1r. AdoMet levels and AdoMet synthetase activities were dramatically decreased in heterozygous eth-1+/ eth-1r cells. We propose that this negative effect exerted by eth-1r results from the in vivo formation of heteromeric eth-1+/eth-1r AdoMet synthetase molecules.
Project description:Treatment of cultured L1210 cells with 1 mM-L-2-amino-4-methoxy-cis-but-3-enoic acid (L-cisAMB), a methionine-analogue inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) synthetase (EC 22.214.171.124), produced a rapid and near-total depletion of AdoMet by 4 h. After this, the pools recovered to 60% of control by 48 h, apparently because of an increase in AdoMet synthetase activity. Both AdoMet depletion and the accompanying increase in synthetase activity were substantially enhanced by lowering methionine concentrations in the media from 100 microM to 30 microM, the minimal concentration that supports cell growth at control values. During a 4 h incubation in media containing 30 microM-methionine, 1-5 mM-L-cisAMB depleted cellular AdoMet to undetectable values, and inhibited nucleic acid methylation by 44-72% and RNA methylation by 60-87%. Under these same treatment conditions, putrescine pools increased by about 3-fold, whereas spermidine pools decreased by only 20% and spermine pools remained the same. Pool changes were accompanied by a 2-4-fold increase in ornithine decarboxylase activities and AdoMet activities. Thus the rapid depletion of AdoMet pools by L-cisAMB results immediately in a decrease in methyl-transfer reactions involving nucleic acids, whereas, by contrast, biosynthesis of higher polyamines appears to be minimally affected, owing to compensatory increases in key enzyme activities.
Project description:S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet), the primary methyl donor in most biological methylation reactions, is produced from ATP and methionine in a multistep reaction catalyzed by AdoMet synthetase. The diversity of group-transfer reactions that involve AdoMet places this compound at a key crossroads in amino-acid, nucleic acid and lipid metabolism, and disruption of its synthesis has adverse consequences for all forms of life. The family of AdoMet synthetases is highly conserved, and structures of this enzyme have been determined from organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. Here, the structure of an AdoMet synthetase from the infectious parasite Cryptosporidium parvum has been determined as part of an effort to identify structural differences in this enzyme family that can guide the development of species-selective inhibitors. This enzyme form has a less extensive subunit interface than some previously determined structures, and contains some key structural differences from the human enzyme in an allosteric site, presenting an opportunity for the design of selective inhibitors against the AdoMet synthetase from this organism.
Project description:BACKGROUND: S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase (AdoMetS) catalyzes the formation of S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), the major methyl group donor in cells. AdoMet-mediated methylation of DNA is known to have regulatory effects on DNA transcription and chromosome structure. Transcription of environmental-responsive genes was demonstrated to be mediated via DNA methylation in dinoflagellates. RESULTS: A full-length cDNA encoding AdoMetS was cloned from the dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the CcAdoMetS gene, is associated with the clade of higher plant orthrologues, and not to the clade of the animal orthrologues. Surprisingly, three extra stretches of residues (8 to 19 amino acids) were found on CcAdoMetS, when compared to other members of this usually conserved protein family. Modeled on the bacterial AdeMetS, two of the extra loops are located close to the methionine binding site. Despite this, the CcAdoMetS was able to rescue the corresponding mutant of budding yeast. Southern analysis, coupled with methylation-sensitive and insensitive enzyme digestion of C. cohnii genomic DNA, demonstrated that the AdoMetS gene is itself methylated. The increase in digestibility of methylation-sensitive enzymes on AdoMet synthetase gene observed following the addition of DNA methylation inhibitors L-ethionine and 5-azacytidine suggests the presence of cytosine methylation sites within CcAdoMetS gene. During the cell cycle, both the transcript and protein levels of CcAdoMetS peaked at the G1 phase. L-ethionine was able to delay the cell cycle at the entry of S phase. A cell cycle delay at the exit of G2/M phase was induced by 5-azacytidine. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates a major role of AdoMet-mediated DNA methylation in the regulation of cell proliferation and that the CcAdoMetS gene is itself methylated.
Project description:Bacteria use quorum sensing to probe and respond to population densities in their external environment. The detection of quorum signaling molecules causes a virulence response in many pathogenic bacteria. Blocking this signaling pathway, without interfering with critical metabolic functions, would produce compounds that can disarm pathogens without killing them. By not blocking growth per se, this therapeutic approach would have a lower associated risk for the development of bacterial resistance. Modified forms of l-methionine can yield analogues of the essential methyl donor, S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet), by serving as substrates for AdoMet synthetase [Zano, S., et al. (2013) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 536, 64]. The AdoMet analogues examined here were chosen for their putative inability to serve as precursors for the synthesis of the acylhomoserine lactone class of quorum sensing molecules. We now show that these AdoMet analogues can still function as methyl donors, for methylation of both DNA and catechol-based neurotransmitters. The rates of methyl transfer for several of these altered AdoMet analogues are comparable to those observed with unmodified AdoMet. Additional refinement of these structures is expected to produce lead compounds to be tested as selective therapeutic agents against infections by a broad range of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:The regulation of expression of the gamma-S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) synthetase gene was investigated in T-cells during G0/G1 transition, as well as throughout the G1 phase. Stimulation of G0 T-lymphocytes with concanavalin A induces AdoMet synthetase gene expression, starting 8 h after stimulation. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) stimulates the induction of this gene expression and AdoMet synthetase activity in G1 lymphoblasts, in part by an increase in the transcription rate of the gene. Phorbol esters, which also stimulate the proliferation of G1 lymphoblasts, show a similar kinetics of AdoMet synthetase mRNA induction. In contrast, the mRNA levels of the S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, another enzyme of the methionine cycle, remain unchanged upon IL-2 or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate treatment. Dexamethasone and 8Br-cAMP, both inhibitors of lymphocyte proliferation, are able to block the expression of the AdoMet synthetase gene and, consequently, AdoMet synthetase activity. Together these findings indicate that the AdoMet synthetase gene is subject to cell-cycle regulation in T-lymphocytes.
Project description:Coronin plays a major role in the organization and dynamics of actin in yeast. To investigate the role of coronin in a filamentous fungus (Neurospora crassa), we examined its subcellular localization using fluorescent proteins and the phenotypic consequences of coronin gene (crn-1) deletion in hyphal morphogenesis, Spitzenkörper behavior and endocytosis. Coronin-GFP was localized in patches, forming a subapical collar near the hyphal apex; significantly, it was absent from the apex. The subapical patches of coronin colocalized with fimbrin, Arp2/3 complex, and actin, altogether comprising the endocytic collar. Deletion of crn-1 resulted in reduced hyphal growth rates, distorted hyphal morphology, uneven wall thickness, and delayed establishment of polarity during germination; it also affected growth directionality and increased branching. The Spitzenkörper of ?crn-1 mutant was unstable; it appeared and disappeared intermittently giving rise to periods of hyphoid-like and isotropic growth respectively. Uptake of FM4-64 in ?crn-1 mutant indicated a partial disruption in endocytosis. These observations underscore coronin as an important component of F-actin remodeling in N. crassa. Although coronin is not essential in this fungus, its deletion influenced negatively the operation of the actin cytoskeleton involved in the orderly deployment of the apical growth apparatus, thus preventing normal hyphal growth and morphogenesis.
Project description:Methylation and demethylation of DNA, RNA and proteins has emerged as a major regulatory mechanism. Studying the function of these modifications would benefit from tools for their site-specific inhibition and timed removal. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) analogs in combination with methyltransferases (MTases) have proven useful to map or block and release MTase target sites, however their enzymatic generation has been limited to aliphatic groups at the sulfur atom. We engineered a SAM synthetase from Cryptosporidium hominis (PC-ChMAT) for efficient generation of AdoMet analogs with photocaging groups that are not accepted by any WT MAT reported to date. The crystal structure of PC-ChMAT at 1.87?Å revealed how the photocaged AdoMet analog is accommodated and guided engineering of a thermostable MAT from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. PC-MATs were compatible with DNA- and RNA-MTases, enabling sequence-specific modification ("writing") of plasmid DNA and light-triggered removal ("erasing").
Project description:MATII biosynthesizes AdoMet, which supplies methyl group for methylation of molecules, including histone.MATII interacts with histone methyltransferase SETDB1 and inhibits COX-2 gene expression.AdoMet synthesis and histone methylation are coupled on chromatin by a physical interaction of MATII and SETDB1 at the MafK target genes.MATII may be important for both gene-specific and epigenome-wide regulation of histone methylation. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) synthesizes S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), which is utilized as a methyl donor in transmethylation reactions involving histones. MATII?, a MAT isozyme, serves as a transcriptional corepressor in the oxidative stress response and forms the AdoMet-integrating transcription regulation module, affecting histone methyltransferase activities. However, the identities of genes regulated by MATII? or its associated methyltransferases are unclear. We show that MATII? represses the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), encoded by Ptgs2, by specifically interacting with histone H3K9 methyltransferase SETDB1, thereby promoting the trimethylation of H3K9 at the COX-2 locus. We discuss both gene-specific and epigenome-wide functions of MATII?.
Project description:Maintenance of genome integrity is a crucial cellular focus that involves a wide variety of proteins functioning in multiple processes. Defects in many different pathways can result in genome instability, a hallmark of cancer. Utilizing a diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae model, we previously reported a collection of gene mutations that affect genome stability in a haploinsufficient state. In this work we explore the effect of gene dosage on genome instability for one of these genes and its paralog; SAM1 and SAM2 These genes encode S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) synthetases, responsible for the creation of AdoMet from methionine and ATP. AdoMet is the universal methyl donor for methylation reactions and is essential for cell viability. It is the second most used cellular enzyme substrate and is exceptionally well-conserved through evolution. Mammalian cells express three genes, MAT1A, MAT2A, and MAT2B, with distinct expression profiles and functions. Alterations to these AdoMet synthetase genes, and AdoMet levels, are found in many cancers, making them a popular target for therapeutic intervention. However, significant variance in these alterations are found in different tumor types, with the cellular consequences of the variation still unknown. By studying this pathway in the yeast system, we demonstrate that losses of SAM1 and SAM2 have different effects on genome stability through distinctive effects on gene expression and AdoMet levels, and ultimately separate effects on the methyl cycle. Thus, this study provides insight into the mechanisms by which differential expression of the SAM genes have cellular consequences that affect genome instability.