Scalloped wings is the Lucilia cuprina Notch homologue and a candidate for the modifier of fitness and asymmetry of diazinon resistance.
ABSTRACT: The Scalloped wings (Scl) gene of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, is shown to be the homologue of the Drosophila melanogaster Notch gene by comparison at the DNA sequence and genetic levels. A L. cuprina genomic fragment, which shows strong identity with the Notch (N) gene at the molecular level, hybridizes to the location of the Scl gene on polytene chromosomes. The two genes are functionally homologous; the dominant and recessive Notch-like phenotypes produced by mutations in the Scl gene allow these alleles to be classed as N-like or Abruptex-like. The Scl gene is under investigation as a candidate for the fitness and asymmetry Modifier (M) of diazinon resistance. We show that M affects the penetrance of wing and bristle phenotypes associated with two Scl alleles in a manner consistent with the M being an allele of Scl. In addition, we report a phenotypic interaction between the diazinon-resistance mutation, Rop-1, and the same alleles of Scl. We propose that the product of Rop-1, an esterase, may be involved in cell adhesion in developmental processes involving the Scl gene product.
Project description:Mutations of esterase 3 confer two forms of organophosphate resistance on contemporary Australasian Lucilia cuprina. One form, called diazinon resistance, is slightly more effective against commonly used insecticides and is now more prevalent than the other form, called malathion resistance. We report here that the single amino acid replacement associated with diazinon resistance and two replacements associated with malathion resistance also occur in esterase 3 in the sibling species Lucilia sericata, suggesting convergent evolution around a finite set of resistance options. We also find parallels between the species in the geographic distributions of the polymorphisms: In both cases, the diazinon-resistance change is absent or rare outside Australasia where insecticide pressure is lower, whereas the changes associated with malathion resistance are widespread. Furthermore, PCR analysis of pinned specimens of Australasian L. cuprina collected before the release of organophosphate insecticides reveals no cases of the diazinon-resistance change but several cases of those associated with malathion resistance. Thus, the early outbreak of resistance in this species can be explained by the preexistence of mutant alleles encoding malathion resistance. The pinned specimen analysis also shows much higher genetic diversity at the locus before organophosphate use, suggesting that the subsequent sweep of diazinon resistance in Australasia has compromised the scope for the locus to respond further to the ongoing challenge of the insecticides.
Project description:There is growing recognition of the significance of the gut microbiome to human health, and the association between a perturbed gut microbiome with human diseases has been established. Previous studies also show the role of environmental toxicants in perturbing the gut microbiome and its metabolic functions. The wide agricultural use of diazinon, an organophosphate insecticide, has raised serious environmental health concerns since it is a potent neurotoxicant. With studies demonstrating the presence of a microbiome-gut-brain axis, it is possible that gut microbiome perturbation may also contribute to diazinon toxicity.We investigated the impact of diazinon exposure on the gut microbiome composition and its metabolic functions in C57BL/6 mice.We used a combination of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomics sequencing, and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics profiling in a mouse model to examine the functional impact of diazinon on the gut microbiome.16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that diazinon exposure significantly perturbed the gut microbiome, and metagenomic sequencing found that diazinon exposure altered the functional metagenome. Moreover, metabolomics profiling revealed an altered metabolic profile arising from exposure. Of particular significance, these changes were more pronounced for male mice than for female mice.Diazinon exposure perturbed the gut microbiome community structure, functional metagenome, and associated metabolic profiles in a sex-specific manner. These findings may provide novel insights regarding perturbations of the gut microbiome and its functions as a potential new mechanism contributing to diazinon neurotoxicity and, in particular, its sex-selective effects. Citation: Gao B, Bian X, Mahbub R, Lu K. 2017. Sex-specific effects of organophosphate diazinon on the gut microbiome and its metabolic functions. Environ Health Perspect 125:198-206; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP202.
Project description:Pesticide exposure has repeatedly been associated with cancers. However, molecular mechanisms are largely undetermined. In this study, we examined whether exposure to diazinon, a common organophosphate that has been associated with cancers, could induce DNA methylation alterations. We conducted genome-wide DNA methylation analyses on DNA samples obtained from human hematopoietic K562 cell exposed to diazinon and ethanol using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. Bayesian-adjusted t-tests were used to identify differentially methylated gene promoter CpG sites. We identified 1069 CpG sites in 984 genes with significant methylation changes in diazinon-treated cells. Gene ontology analysis demonstrated that some genes are tumor suppressor genes, such as TP53INP1 (3.0-fold, q-value <0.001) and PTEN (2.6-fold, q-value <0.001), some genes are in cancer-related pathways, such as HDAC3 (2.2-fold, q-value=0.002), and some remain functionally unknown. Our results provided direct experimental evidence that diazinon may modify gene promoter DNA methylation levels, which may play a pathological role in cancer development.
Project description:Cochliomyia hominivorax and Lucilia cuprina are major pests of livestock. Their larvae infest warm-blooded vertebrates and feed on host's tissues, resulting in severe industry losses. As they are serious pests, considerable effort has been made to develop genomic resources and functional tools aiming to improve their management and control. Here, we report a significant addition to the pool of genome manipulation tools through the establishment of efficient CRISPR/Cas9 protocols for the generation of directed and inheritable modifications in the genome of these flies. Site-directed mutations were introduced in the C hominivorax and L cuprina yellow genes (ChY and LcY) producing lightly pigmented adults. High rates of somatic mosaicism were induced when embryos were injected with Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) pre-assembled with guide RNAs (sgRNAs) at high concentrations. Adult flies carrying disrupted yellow alleles lacked normal pigmentation (brown body phenotype) and efficiently transmitted the mutated alleles to the subsequent generation, allowing the rapid creation of homozygous strains for reverse genetics of candidate loci. We next used our established CRISPR protocol to disrupt the C hominivorax transformer gene (Chtra). Surviving females carrying mutations in the Chtra locus developed mosaic phenotypes of transformed ovipositors with characteristics of male genitalia while exhibiting abnormal reproductive tissues. The CRISPR protocol described here is a significant improvement on the existing toolkit of molecular methods in calliphorids. Our results also suggest that Cas9-based systems targeting Chtra and Lctra could be an effective means for controlling natural populations of these important pests.
Project description:Genetic approaches, including the sterile insect technique (SIT), have previously been considered for control of the Australian sheep blow fly Lucilia cuprina, a major pest of sheep. In an SIT program, females consume 50% of the diet but are ineffective as control agents and compete with females in the field for mating with sterile males, thereby decreasing the efficiency of the program. Consequently, transgenic sexing strains of L. cuprina were developed that produce 100% males when raised on diet that lacks tetracycline. However, as females die mostly at the pupal stage, rearing costs would not be significantly reduced. Here we report the development of transgenic embryonic sexing strains of L. cuprina. In these strains, the Lsbnk cellularization gene promoter drives high levels of expression of the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) in the early embryo. In the absence of tetracycline, tTA activates expression of the Lshid proapoptotic gene, leading to death of the embryo. Sex-specific RNA splicing of Lshid transcripts ensures that only female embryos die. Embryonic sexing strains were also made by combining the Lsbnk-tTA and tetO-Lshid components into a single gene construct, which will facilitate transfer of the technology to other major calliphorid livestock pests.
Project description:Organophosphate pesticides are developmental neurotoxicants. We gave diazinon via osmotic minipumps implanted into dams prior to conception, with exposure continued into the second postnatal week, at doses (0.5 or 1?mg/kg/day) that did not produce detectable brain cholinesterase inhibition. We evaluated the impact on acetylcholine (ACh) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) systems in brain regions from adolescence through full adulthood. Diazinon produced deficits in presynaptic ACh activity with regional and sex selectivity: cerebrocortical regions and the hippocampus were affected to a greater extent than were the striatum, midbrain or brainstem, and females were more sensitive than males. Diazinon also reduced nicotinic ACh receptors and 5HT1A receptors, with the same regional and sex preferences. These patterns were similar to those of diazinon given in a much more restricted period (postnatal day 1-4) but were of greater magnitude and consistency; this suggests that the brain is vulnerable to diazinon over a wide developmental window. Diazinon's effects differed from those of the related organophosphate, chlorpyrifos, with regard to regional and sex selectivity, and more importantly, to the effects on receptors: chlorpyrifos upregulates nicotinic ACh receptors and 5HT receptors, effects that compensate for the presynaptic ACh deficits. Diazinon can thus be expected to have worse neurodevelopmental outcomes than chlorpyrifos. Further, the disparities between diazinon and chlorpyrifos indicate the problems of predicting the developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphates based on a single compound, and emphasize the inadequacy of cholinesterase inhibition as an index of safety.
Project description:Diazinon is an imminent and hazardous chemical organophosphate multiplex that is generally used as a pesticide but is toxic for many species particularly vertebrates. Berberry (Berberis vulgaris L., family Berberidaceae) is a plant that flourishes in Europe and Asia that has been largely investigated for its therapeutic effects. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effects of B. vulgaris on diazinon-induced brain damage in young male mice. Twenty-one young male albino mice weighing 18±2 g were divided in three equal groups of seven mice, and treated orally with either olive oil (control), diazinon 50 mg/kg+B. vulgaris extract 200 mg/kg, or diazinon 50 mg/kg. After three weeks, cerebrum and cerebellum samples were collected for antioxidant assays. The results indicated that diazinon increased oxidative stress in the brain of mice. The glutathione content and proceedings of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, were significantly reduced in both the cerebellum and cerebrum of diazinon-treated mice, compared with the control group. In addition, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was inhibited by exposure to this pesticide. Administration of 200 mg/kg B. vulgaris extract with diazinon significantly decreased oxidative stress indices in all experiments. The results indicated that B. vulgaris extract has protective effects against lipid peroxidation of the cerebellum and cerebrum, and in regenerating AChE activity in the brain induced by diazinon.
Project description:Hybrids of Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina have been shown to exist in previous studies using molecular methods, but no study has shown explicitly that these hybrids can be identified morphologically. Published morphological characters used to identify L. sericata and L. cuprina were reviewed, and then scored and tested using specimens of both species and known hybrids. Ordination by multi-dimensional scaling indicated that the species were separable, and that hybrids resembled L. cuprina, whatever their origin. Discriminant function analysis of the characters successfully separated the specimens into three unambiguous groups - L. sericata, L. cuprina and hybrids. The hybrids were morphologically similar irrespective of whether they were from an ancient introgressed lineage or more modern. This is the first evidence that hybrids of these two species can be identified from their morphology. The usefulness of the morphological characters is also discussed and photographs of several characters are included to facilitate their assessment.
Project description:The genome of the metal sulfide-oxidizing, thermoacidophilic strain Metallosphaera cuprina Ar-4 has been completely sequenced and annotated. Originally isolated from a sulfuric hot spring, strain Ar-4 grows optimally at 65°C and a pH of 3.5. The M. cuprina genome has a 1,840,348-bp circular chromosome (2,029 open reading frames [ORFs]) and is 16% smaller than the previously sequenced Metallosphaera sedula genome. Compared to the M. sedula genome, there are no counterpart genes in the M. cuprina genome for about 480 ORFs in the M. sedula genome, of which 243 ORFs are annotated as hypothetical protein genes. Still, there are 233 ORFs uniquely occurring in M. cuprina. Genome annotation supports that M. cuprina lives a facultative life on CO(2) and organics and obtains energy from oxidation of sulfidic ores and reduced inorganic sulfuric compounds.
Project description:Lucilia cuprina is a parasitic fly of major economic importance worldwide. Larvae of this fly invade their animal host, feed on tissues and excretions and progressively cause severe skin disease (myiasis). Here we report the sequence and annotation of the 458-megabase draft genome of Lucilia cuprina. Analyses of this genome and the 14,544 predicted protein-encoding genes provide unique insights into the fly's molecular biology, interactions with the host animal and insecticide resistance. These insights have broad implications for designing new methods for the prevention and control of myiasis.