Interaction between Ustilago maydis REC2 and RAD51 genes in DNA repair and mitotic recombination.
ABSTRACT: A gene encoding a Ustilago maydis Rad51 orthologue has been isolated, rad51-1, a mutant constructed by disrupting the gene, was as sensitive to killing by ultraviolet light and gamma radiation as the rec2-1 mutant and slightly more sensitive to killing by methyl methanesulfonate. There was no suppression of killing by ultraviolet light when a rec2-1 strain was transformed with a multicopy plasmid containing RAD51, nor was there suppression when rad51-1 was transformed with a multicopy plasmid containing REC2. Recombination proficiency as measured by a gap repair assay was diminished in both rec2-1 and rad51-1 strains. In rec2-1 the frequency of recombination was decreased, but the spectrum of events was similar to that observed in wild type, while in rad51-1 the frequency as well as the spectrum of recombination events were different. Studies with the rec2-1 rad51-1 double mutant indicated that there was epistasis in the action of REC2 and RAD51 in certain repair and recombination functions, but some measure of independent action in other functions.
Project description:To identify Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes involved in recombination repair, we identified seven mutants that were hypersensitive to both methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and gamma-rays and that contained mutations that caused synthetic lethality when combined with a rad2 mutation. One of the mutants was used to clone the corresponding gene from a genomic library by complementation of the MMS-sensitive phenotype. The gene obtained encodes a protein of 354 amino acids whose sequence is 32% identical to that of the Rad57 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An rhp57 (RAD57 homolog of S. pombe) deletion strain was more sensitive to MMS, UV, and gamma-rays than the wild-type strain and showed a reduction in the frequency of mitotic homologous recombination. The MMS sensitivity was more severe at lower temperature and was suppressed by the presence of a multicopy plasmid bearing the rhp51 gene. An rhp51 rhp57 double mutant was as sensitive to UV and gamma-rays as an rhp51 single mutant, indicating that rhp51 function is epistatic to that of rhp57. These characteristics of the rhp57 mutants are very similar to those of S. cerevisiae rad57 mutants. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that Rhp57 and Rad57 are evolutionarily closest to human Xrcc3 of the RecA/Rad51 family of proteins.
Project description:The hop2 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae arrests in meiosis with extensive synaptonemal complex (SC) formation between nonhomologous chromosomes. A screen for multicopy suppressors of a hop2-ts allele identified the MND1 gene. The mnd1-null mutant arrests in meiotic prophase, with most double-strand breaks (DSBs) unrepaired. A low level of mature recombinants is produced, and the Rad51 protein accumulates at numerous foci along chromosomes. SC formation is incomplete, and homolog pairing is severely reduced. The Mnd1 protein localizes to chromatin throughout meiotic prophase, and this localization requires Hop2. Unlike recombination enzymes such as Rad51, Mnd1 localizes to chromosomes even in mutants that fail to initiate meiotic recombination. The Hop2 and Mnd1 proteins coimmunoprecipitate from meiotic cell extracts. These results suggest that Hop2 and Mnd1 work as a complex to promote meiotic chromosome pairing and DSB repair. The identification of Hop2 and Mnd1 homologs in other organisms suggests that the function of this complex is conserved among eukaryotes.
Project description:Deficiency in several of the classical human RAD51 paralogs [RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2 and XRCC3] is associated with cancer predisposition and Fanconi anemia. To investigate their functions, isogenic disruption mutants for each were generated in non-transformed MCF10A mammary epithelial cells and in transformed U2OS and HEK293 cells. In U2OS and HEK293 cells, viable ablated clones were readily isolated for each RAD51 paralog; in contrast, with the exception of RAD51B, RAD51 paralogs are cell-essential in MCF10A cells. Underlining their importance for genomic stability, mutant cell lines display variable growth defects, impaired sister chromatid recombination, reduced levels of stable RAD51 nuclear foci, and hyper-sensitivity to mitomycin C and olaparib, with the weakest phenotypes observed in RAD51B-deficient cells. Altogether these observations underscore the contributions of RAD51 paralogs in diverse DNA repair processes, and demonstrate essential differences in different cell types. Finally, this study will provide useful reagents to analyze patient-derived mutations and to investigate mechanisms of chemotherapeutic resistance deployed by cancers.
Project description:A Kluyveromyces lactis mutant, hypersensitive to the DNA-targeting drugs ethidium bromide (EtBr), berenil, and HOE15030, can be complemented by a wild-type gene with homology to SIR2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScSIR2). The deduced amino acid sequence of the K. lactis Sir2 protein has 53% identity with ScSir2 protein but is 108 residues longer. K. lactis sir2 mutants show decreased mating efficiency, deficiency in sporulation, an increase in recombination at the ribosomal DNA locus, and EtBr-induced death. Some functional equivalence between the Sir2 proteins of K. lactis and S. cerevisiae has been demonstrated by introduction of ScSIR2 into a sir2 mutant of K. lactis. Expression of ScSIR2 on a multicopy plasmid restores resistance to EtBr and complements sporulation deficiency. Similarly, mating efficiency of a sir2 mutant of S. cerevisiae is partially restored by K. lactis SIR2 on a multicopy plasmid. Although these observations suggest that there has been some conservation of Sir2 protein function, a striking difference is that sir2 mutants of S. cerevisiae, unlike their K. lactis counterparts, are not hypersensitive to DNA-targeting drugs.
Project description:The MutS protein of Escherichia coli is part of the dam-directed MutHLS mismatch repair pathway which rectifies replication errors and which prevents recombination between related sequences. In order to more fully understand the role of MutS in these processes, dominant negative mutS mutations on a multicopy plasmid were isolated by screening transformed wild-type cells for a mutator phenotype, using a Lac+ papillation assay. Thirty-eight hydroxylamine- and 22 N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced dominant mutations were isolated. Nine of these mutations altered the P-loop motif of the ATP-binding site, resulting in four amino acid substitutions. With one exception, the remaining sequenced mutations all caused substitution of amino acids conserved during evolution. The dominant mutations in the P-loop consensus caused severely reduced repair of heteroduplex DNA in vivo in a mutS mutant host strain. In a wild-type strain, the level of repair was decreased by the dominant mutations to between 12 to 90% of the control value, which is consistent with interference of wild-type MutS function by the mutant proteins. Increasing the wild-type mutS gene dosage resulted in a reversal of the mutator phenotype in about 60% of the mutant strains, indicating that the mutant and wild-type proteins compete. In addition, 20 mutant isolates showed phenotypic reversal by increasing the gene copies of either mutL or mutH. There was a direct correlation between the levels of recombination and mutagenesis in the mutant strains, suggesting that these phenotypes are due to the same function of MutS.
Project description:Lagging strand synthesis is mechanistically far more complicated than leading strand synthesis because it involves multistep processes and requires considerably more enzymes and protein factors. Due to this complexity, multiple fail-safe factors are required to ensure successful replication of the lagging strand DNA. We attempted to identify novel factors that are required in the absence of the helicase activity of Dna2, an essential enzyme in Okazaki-fragment maturation. In this article, we identified Rim11, a GSK-3?-kinase homolog, as a multicopy suppressor of dna2 helicase-dead mutant (dna2-K1080E). Subsequent epistasis analysis revealed that Ume6 (a DNA binding protein, a downstream substrate of Rim11) also acted as a multicopy suppressor of the dna2 allele. We found that the interaction of Ume6 with the conserved histone deacetylase complex Sin3-Rpd3 and the catalytic activity of Rpd3 were indispensable for the observed suppression of the dna2 mutant. Moreover, multicopy suppression by Rim11/Ume6 requires the presence of sister-chromatid recombination mediated by Rad52/Rad59 proteins, but not vice versa. Interestingly, the overexpression of Rim11 or Ume6 also suppressed the MMS sensitivity of rad59?. We also showed that the lethality of dna2 helicase-dead mutant was attributed to checkpoint activation and that decreased levels of deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) by overexpressing Sml1 (an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase) rescued the dna2 mutant. We also present evidence that indicates Rim11/Ume6 works independently but in parallel with that of checkpoint inhibition, dNTP regulation, and sister-chromatid recombination. In conclusion, our results establish Rim11, Ume6, the histone deacetylase complex Sin3-Rpd3 and Sml1 as new factors important in the events of faulty lagging strand synthesis.
Project description:Nocardia farcinica strains showing high-level resistance to amikacin were isolated from clinical cases in a Canada-wide bovine mastitis epizootic. Shotgun cloning of the resistance genes in the amikacin-resistant mastitis isolate N. farcinica IFM 10580 (W6220 [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]) using a multicopy vector system revealed that the 16S rRNA gene with an A-to-G single-point mutation at position 1408 (in Escherichia coli numbering) conferred "moderate" cross-resistance to amikacin and other aminoglycosides to an originally susceptible N. farcinica strain IFM 10152. Subsequent DNA sequence analyses revealed that, in contrast to the susceptible strain, all three chromosomal 16S rRNA genes of IFM 10580, the epizootic clinical strain, contained the same A1408G point mutations. Mutant colonies showing high-level aminoglycoside resistance were obtained when the susceptible strain N. farcinica IFM 10152 was transformed with a multicopy plasmid carrying the A1408G mutant 16S rRNA gene and was cultured in the presence of aminoglycosides for 3 to 5 days. Of these transformants, at least two of the three chromosomal 16S rRNA genes contained A1408G mutations. A triple mutant was easily obtained from a strain carrying the two chromosomal A1408G mutant genes and one wild-type gene, even in the absence of the plasmid. The triple mutant showed the highest level of resistance to aminoglycosides, even in the absence of the plasmid carrying the mutant 16S rRNA gene. These results suggest that the homozygous mutations in the three 16S rRNA genes are responsible for the high-level aminoglycoside resistance found in N. farcinica isolates of the bovine mastitis epizootic.
Project description:The FAD1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been selected from a genomic library on the basis of its ability to partially correct the respiratory defect of pet mutants previously assigned to complementation group G178. Mutants in this group display a reduced level of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and an increased level of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in mitochondria. The restoration of respiratory capability by FAD1 is shown to be due to extragenic suppression. FAD1 codes for an essential yeast protein, since disruption of the gene induces a lethal phenotype. The FAD1 product has been inferred to be yeast FAD synthetase, an enzyme that adenylates FMN to FAD. This conclusion is based on the following evidence. S. cerevisiae transformed with FAD1 on a multicopy plasmid displays an increase in FAD synthetase activity. This is also true when the gene is expressed in Escherichia coli. Lastly, the FAD1 product exhibits low but significant primary sequence similarity to sulfate adenyltransferase, which catalyzes a transfer reaction analogous to that of FAD synthetase. The lower mitochondrial concentration of FAD in G178 mutants is proposed to be caused by an inefficient exchange of external FAD for internal FMN. This is supported by the absence of FAD synthetase activity in yeast mitochondria and the presence of both extramitochondrial and mitochondrial riboflavin kinase, the preceding enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. A lesion in mitochondrial import of FAD would account for the higher concentration of mitochondrial FMN in the mutant if the transport is catalyzed by an exchange carrier. The ability of FAD1 to suppress impaired transport of FAD is explained by mislocalization of the synthetase in cells harboring multiple copies of the gene. This mechanism of suppression is supported by the presence of mitochondrial FAD synthetase activity in S. cerevisiae transformed with FAD1 on a high-copy-number plasmid but not in mitochondrial of a wild-type strain.
Project description:Recombination is important for repairing DNA lesions, yet it can also lead to genomic rearrangements. This process must be regulated, and recently, sumoylation-mediated mechanisms were found to inhibit Rad51-dependent recombination. Here, we report that the absence of the Slx5-Slx8 complex, a newly identified player in the SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) pathway, led to increased Rad51-dependent and Rad51-independent recombination. The increases were most striking during S phase, suggesting an accumulation of DNA lesions during replication. Consistent with this view, Slx8 protein localized to replication centers. In addition, like SUMO E2 mutants, slx8Delta mutants exhibited clonal lethality, which was due to the overamplification of 2 microm, an extrachromosomal plasmid. Interestingly, in both SUMO E2 and slx8Delta mutants, clonal lethality was rescued by deleting genes required for Rad51-independent recombination but not those involved in Rad51-dependent events. These results suggest that sumoylation negatively regulates Rad51-independent recombination, and indeed, the Slx5-Slx8 complex affected the sumoylation of several enzymes involved in early steps of Rad51-independent recombination. We propose that, during replication, the Slx5-Slx8 complex helps prevent DNA lesions that are acted upon by recombination. In addition, the complex inhibits Rad51-independent recombination via modulating the sumoylation of DNA repair proteins.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae Srs2, in addition to its well-documented antirecombination activity, has been proposed to play a role in promoting synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA). Here we report the identification and characterization of an SRS2 mutant with a single amino acid substitution (srs2-F891A) that specifically affects the Srs2 pro-SDSA function. This residue is located within the Srs2-Rad51 interaction domain and embedded within a protein sequence resembling a BRC repeat motif. The srs2-F891A mutation leads to a complete loss of interaction with Rad51 as measured through yeast two-hybrid analysis and a partial loss of interaction as determined through protein pull-down assays with purified Srs2, Srs2-F891A, and Rad51 proteins. Even though previous work has shown that internal deletions of the Srs2-Rad51 interaction domain block Srs2 antirecombination activity in vitro, the Srs2-F891A mutant protein, despite its weakened interaction with Rad51, exhibits no measurable defect in antirecombination activity in vitro or in vivo Surprisingly, srs2-F891A shows a robust shift from noncrossover to crossover repair products in a plasmid-based gap repair assay, but not in an ectopic physical recombination assay. Our findings suggest that the Srs2 C-terminal Rad51 interaction domain is more complex than previously thought, containing multiple interaction sites with unique effects on Srs2 activity.