High-resolution molecular characterization of 15q11-q13 rearrangements by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) with detection of gene dosage.
ABSTRACT: Maternally derived duplication of the imprinted region of chromosome 15q11-q14 leads to a complex neurobehavioral phenotype that often includes autism, cognitive deficits, and seizures. Multiple repeat elements within the region mediate a variety of rearrangements, including interstitial duplications, interstitial triplications, and supernumerary isodicentric marker chromosomes, as well as the deletions that cause Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. To elucidate the molecular structure of these duplication chromosomes, we designed a high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) platform. The array contains 79 clones that form a gapped contig across the critical region on chromosome 15q11-q14 and 21 control clones from other autosomes and the sex chromosomes. We used this array to examine a set of 48 samples from patients with segmental aneuploidy of chromosome 15q. Using the array, we were able to determine accurately the dosage, which ranged from 1 to 6 copies, and also to detect atypical and asymmetric rearrangements. In addition, the increased resolution of the array allowed us to position two previously reported breakpoints within the contig. These results indicate that array CGH is a powerful technique to study rearrangements of proximal chromosome 15q.
Project description:Several cytogenetic alterations affect the distal part of the long arm of human chromosome 15, including recurrent rearrangements between 12p13 and 15q25, which cause congenital fibrosarcoma (CFS). We present here the construction of a BAC/PAC contig map that spans 2 Mb from the neurotrophin-3 receptor (NTRK3) gene region on 15q25.3 to the proximal end of the Bloom's syndrome region on 15q26.1, and the identification of a set of new chromosome 15 duplicons. The contig reveals the existence of several regions of sequence similarity with other chromosomes (6q, 7p, and 12p) and with other 15q cytogenetic bands (15q11-q13 and 15q24). One region of similarity maps on 15q11-q13, close to the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndromes (PWS/AS) imprinting center. The 12p similar sequence maps on 12p13, at a distance to the ets variant 6 (ETV6) gene that is equivalent on 15q26.1 to the distance to the NTRK3 gene. These two genes are the targets of the CFS recurrent translocations, suggesting that misalignments between these two chromosomes regions could facilitate recombination. The most striking similarity identified is based on a low copy repeat sequence, mainly present on human chromosome 15 (LCR15), which could be considered a newly recognized duplicon. At least 10 copies of this duplicon are present on chromosome 15, mainly on 15q24 and 15q26. One copy is located close to a HERC2 sequence on the distal end of the PWS/AS region, three around the lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL1) gene on 15q24, and three on 15q26, one of which close to the IQ motif containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) gene on 15q26.1. These LCR15 span between 13 and 22 kb and contain high identities with the golgin-like protein (GLP) and the SH3 domain-containing protein (SH3P18) gene sequences and have the characteristics of duplicons. Because duplicons flank chromosome regions that are rearranged in human genomic disorders, the LCR15 described here could represent new elements of rearrangements affecting different regions of human chromosome 15q.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chromosome 15 contains many segmental duplications, including some at 15q11-q13 that appear to be responsible for the deletions that cause Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes and for other genomic disorders. The current version of the human genome sequence is incomplete, with seven gaps in the proximal region of 15q, some of which are flanked by duplicated sequence. We have investigated this region by conducting a detailed examination of the sequenced genomic clones in the public database, focusing on clones from the RP11 library that originates from one individual. RESULTS: Our analysis has revealed assembly errors, including contig NT_078094 being in the wrong orientation, and has enabled most of the gaps between contigs to be closed. We have constructed a map in which segmental duplications are no longer interrupted by gaps and which together reveals a complex region. There are two pairs of large direct repeats that are located in regions consistent with the two classes of deletions associated with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. There are also large inverted repeats that account for the formation of the observed supernumerary marker chromosomes containing two copies of the proximal end of 15q and associated with autism spectrum disorders when involving duplications of maternal origin (inv dup syndrome). CONCLUSION: We have produced a segmental map of 15q11-q14 that reveals several large direct and inverted repeats that are incompletely and inaccurately represented on the current human genome sequence. Some of these repeats are clearly responsible for deletions and duplications in known genomic disorders, whereas some may increase susceptibility to other disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Deletions of chromosome 22q11 are present in over 90% of cases of DiGeorge or Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome (DGS/VCFS). 15q11-q13 duplication is another recognized syndrome due to rearrangements of several genes, belonging to the category of imprinted genes. The phenotype of this syndrome varies but has been clearly associated with developmental delay and autistic spectrum disorders. Co-existence of the two syndromes has not been reported so far. RESULTS:Here we report a 6-year-old boy presenting growth retardation, dysmorphic features and who exhibited learning difficulties. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the proband revealed a deletion of DiGeorge Syndrome critical region (TUPLE). Array-CGH analysis revealed an interstitial duplication of 12 Mb in size in the area 15q11.2-q13.3, combined with a 3.2 Mb deletion at region 22q11.1-q11.21. FISH analysis in the mother showed a cryptic balanced translocation between chromosome 15 and chromosome 22 (not evident by classic karyotyping). DISCUSION: The clinical manifestations could be related to both syndromes and the importance of array-CGH analysis in cases of unexplained developmental delay is emphasized. The present case further demonstrates how molecular cytogenetic techniques applied in the parents were necessary for the genetic counseling of the family.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The 15q11-q13 region contains many low copy repeats and is well known for its genomic instability. Several syndromes are associated with genomic imbalance or copy-number-neutral uniparental disomy. We report on two patients: Patient 1 is a boy with developmental delay and autism; and Patient 2 is a girl with developmental delay, hypotonia and dysmorphism. We performed analyses to delineate their dosage in the 15q region, determine whether the patients' dosage correlates with phenotypic severity, and whether genes in the amplified regions are significantly associated with identified functional networks. RESULTS:For the proximal region of 15q, molecular cytogenetic analysis with Agilent oligonucleotide array showed a copy number of 3 for Patient 1 and a copy number of 4 for Patient 2. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis of Patient 2 showed two different populations of cells with different marker chromosomes. Methylation analysis of the amplified region showed that the extra copies of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N gene were of maternal origin. Phenotypic severity did not correlate with the size and dosage of 15q, or whether the amplification is interstitial or in the form of a supernumerary marker. Pathway analysis showed that in Patient 2, the main functional networks that are affected by the genes from the duplicated/triplicated regions are developmental disorder, neurological disease and hereditary disease. CONCLUSIONS:The 15q11-q13 gains that were found in both patients could explain their phenotypic presentations. This report expands the cohort of patients for which 15q11-q13 duplications are molecularly characterized.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Subtelomeric regions are gene rich and deletions in these chromosomal segments have been demonstrated to account for approximately 2.5% of patients displaying mental retardation with or without association of dysmorphic features. However, cases that report de novo terminal deletions on chromosome arm 15q are rare. METHODS: In this study we present the first example of a detailed molecular genetic mapping of a de novo deletion in involving 15q26.2-qter, caused by the formation of a dicentric chromosome 15, using metaphase FISH and tiling resolution (32 k) genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). RESULTS: After an initial characterization of the dicentric chromosome by metaphase FISH, array CGH analysis mapped the terminal deletion to encompass a 6.48 megabase (Mb) region, ranging from 93.86-100.34 Mb on chromosome 15. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we present an additional case to the growing family of reported cases with 15q26-deletion, thoroughly characterized at the molecular cytogenetic level. In the deleted regions, four candidate genes responsible for the phenotype of the patient could be delineated: IGFR1, MEF2A, CHSY1, and TM2D3. Further characterization of additional patients harboring similar 15q-aberrations might hopefully in the future lead to the description of a clear cut clinically recognizable syndrome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Large amounts of low copy number repeats in the 15q11.2q13.3 chromosomal region increase the possibility of misalignments and unequal crossover during meiosis in this region, leading to deletions, duplications, triplications and supernumerary chromosomes. Most of the reported cases with epilepsy, autism and Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome are in association with rearrangements of the proximal long arm of chromosome 15. RESULTS:Here we report the first two unrelated Hungarian patients with the same epileptic and dysmorphic features, who were investigated by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). By G-banded karyotype followed by FISH and array CGH we could detect partial tetrasomy of the 15q11.2q13.3 chromosomal region, supporting proximal 15q duplication syndrome. Findings of the array CGH gave fully explanation of the phenotypic features of these patients, including epileptic seizures, delayed development, hyperactivity and craniofacial dysmorphic signs. Besides the described features of isodicentric (15) (idic(15)) syndrome Patient 1. suffered from bigeminic extrasystoles and had postnatal growth retardation, which had been published only in a few articles. CONCLUSIONS:Dosage effect of some genes in the concerned genomic region is known, but several genes have no evidence to have dosage dependence. Our results expanded the previous literature data. We assume dosage dependence in the case of CHRNA7 and OTUD7A, which might be involved in growth regulation. On the other hand increased dosage of the KLF13 gene seems to have no direct causal relationship with heart morphology. The genomic environment of the affected genes may be responsible for the observed phenotype.
Project description:Chromosomal breakage followed by faulty DNA repair leads to gene amplifications and deletions in cancers. However, the mere assessment of the extent of genomic changes, amplifications and deletions may reduce the complexity of genomic data observed by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). We present here a novel approach to array CGH data analysis, which focuses on putative breakpoints responsible for rearrangements within the genome.We performed array comparative genomic hybridization in 29 primary tumors from high risk patients with breast cancer. The specimens were flow sorted according to ploidy to increase tumor cell purity prior to array CGH. We describe the number of chromosomal breaks as well as the patterns of breaks on individual chromosomes in each tumor. There were differences in chromosomal breakage patterns between the 3 clinical subtypes of breast cancers, although the highest density of breaks occurred at chromosome 17 in all subtypes, suggesting a particular proclivity of this chromosome for breaks. We also observed chromothripsis affecting various chromosomes in 41% of high risk breast cancers.Our results provide a new insight into the genomic complexity of breast cancer. Genomic instability dependent on chromosomal breakage events is not stochastic, targeting some chromosomes clearly more than others. We report a much higher percentage of chromothripsis than described previously in other cancers and this suggests that massive genomic rearrangements occurring in a single catastrophic event may shape many breast cancer genomes.
Project description:Miscarriage is a condition that affects 10%-15% of all clinically recognized pregnancies, most of which occur in the first trimester. Approximately 50% of first-trimester miscarriages result from fetal chromosome abnormalities. Currently, G-banded chromosome analysis is used to determine if large-scale genetic imbalances are the cause of these pregnancy losses. This technique relies on the culture of cells derived from the fetus, a technique that has many limitations, including a high rate of culture failure, maternal overgrowth of fetal cells, and poor chromosome morphology. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-array analysis is a powerful new molecular cytogenetic technique that allows genomewide analysis of DNA copy number. By hybridizing patient DNA and normal reference DNA to arrays of genomic clones, unbalanced gains or losses of genetic material across the genome can be detected. In this study, 41 product-of-conception (POC) samples, which were previously analyzed by G-banding, were tested using CGH arrays to determine not only if the array could identify all reported abnormalities, but also whether any previously undetected genomic imbalances would be discovered. The array methodology detected all abnormalities as reported by G-banding analysis and revealed new abnormalities in 4/41 (9.8%) cases. Of those, one trisomy 21 POC was also mosaic for trisomy 20, one had a duplication of the 10q telomere region, one had an interstitial deletion of chromosome 9p, and the fourth had an interstitial duplication of the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region on chromosome 15q, which, if maternally inherited, has been implicated in autism. This retrospective study demonstrates that the DNA-based CGH-array technology overcomes many of the limitations of routine cytogenetic analysis of POC samples while enhancing the detection of fetal chromosome aberrations.
Project description:Chromosome rearrangements associated with neoplasms provide a rich resource for definition of the pathways of tumorigenesis. The power of comparative genome hybridization (CGH) to identify novel genes depends on the existence of suitable markers, which are lacking throughout most of the genome. We now report a general approach that translates CGH data into higher-resolution genomic-clone data that are then used to define the genes located in aneuploid regions. We used CGH to study 33 thyroid-tumor DNAs and two tumor-cell-line DNAs. The results revealed amplifications of chromosome band 2p21, with less-intense amplification on 2p13, 19q13.1, and 1p36 and with least-intense amplification on 1p34, 1q42, 5q31, 5q33-34, 9q32-34, and 14q32. To define the 2p21 region amplified, a dense array of 373 FISH-mapped chromosome 2 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) was constructed, and 87 of these were hybridized to a tumor-cell line. Four BACs carried genomic DNA that was amplified in these cells. The maximum amplified region was narrowed to 3-6 Mb by multicolor FISH with the flanking BACs, and the minimum amplicon size was defined by a contig of 420 kb. Sequence analysis of the amplified BAC 1D9 revealed a fragment of the gene, encoding protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon), that was then shown to be amplified and rearranged in tumor cells. In summary, CGH combined with a dense mapped resource of BACs and large-scale sequencing has led directly to the definition of PKCepsilon as a previously unmapped candidate gene involved in thyroid tumorigenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The 15q11q13 region is subject to imprinting and is involved in various structural rearrangements. Less than 1% of Angelman Syndrome patients are due to translocations involving 15q11q13. These translocations can arise de novo or result from the segregation of chromosomes involved in a familial balanced translocation. RESULTS: A 5-year-old Mexican girl presented with developmental delay, minor dysmorphic features and history of exotropia. G-banding chromosome analysis established the diagnosis of Angelman Syndrome resulting from a familial translocation t(10;15) involving the 15q11.2 region. The available family members were studied using banding and molecular cytogenetic techniques, including Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization, which revealed additional unexpected results: a coincidental and smaller 15q deletion, asymptomatic duplications in 15q11.2 and Xp22.31 regions. CONCLUSIONS: This report demonstrates the usefulness of array CGH for a detailed characterization of familial translocations, including the detection of submicroscopic copy number variations, which would otherwise be missed by karyotype analysis alone. Our report also expands two molecularly characterized rare patient cohorts: Angelman Syndrome patients due to familial translocations and patients with 15q11.2 duplications of paternal origin.