Characterization of an insulin from the three-toed amphiuma (Amphibia: Urodela) with an N-terminally extended A-chain and high receptor-binding affinity.
ABSTRACT: Insulin was isolated from an extract of the pancreas of a urodele, the three-toed amphiuma (Amphiuma tridactylum), and its primary structure established as Ala-Arg-Gly-Ile-Val-Glu-Gln-Cys-Cys-His10-Asn-Thr-Cys- Ser-Leu-Asn-Gln-Leu-Glu-Asn20-Tyr-Cys-Asn for the A-chain and Ile-Thr-Asn-Gln-Tyr-Leu-Cys-Gly-Ser-His10-Leu-Val-Glu-Ala- Leu-Tyr-Leu-Val-Cys-Gly20-Asp-Arg-Gly-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Ser-Pro-Lys for the B-chain. The N-terminus of the A-chain is extended by two amino acids (Ala-Arg) relative to all other known insulins suggesting an anomalous pathway of post-translational processing in the region of the C-peptide/A-chain junction of proinsulin. In common with chicken and Xenopus insulins, which contain a HisA8, amphiuma insulin was more potent (approx. 5-fold) than porcine insulin in inhibiting the binding of [125I-TyrA14]insulin to the soluble human insulin receptor from transfected 293EBNA cells (an adenovirus-transformed human kidney cell line). This result is consistent with previous data showing that insulin analogues extended at GlyA1 by uncharged groups have reduced binding affinity whereas high affinity is preserved in analogues extended by basic amino acid residues.
Project description:The holostean fishes are the extant representatives of the primitive ray-finned fishes from which the present-day teleosts may have evolved. The primary structure of insulin from a holostean fish, the bowfin (Amia calva), was established as: A-chain: Gly-Ile-Val-Glu-Gln-Cys-Cys-Leu-Lys-Pro-Cys-Thr-Ile-Tyr-Glu-Met-Glu- Lys-Tyr-Cys-Asn B-chain: Ala-Ala-Ser-Gln-His-Leu-Cys-Gly-Ser-His-Leu-Val-Glu-Ala-Leu-Phe-Leu- Val-Cys-Gly-Glu-Ser-Gly-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Asn-Pro-Asn-Lys-Ser This amino acid sequence contains several substitutions (methionine at A16, phenylalanine at B16 and serine at B22) at sites that have been strongly conserved in other vertebrate species and that may be expected to influence biological activity. Consistent with this prediction, bowfin insulin was approx. 14-fold less potent than pig insulin in inhibiting the binding of [125I-Tyr-A14](human insulin) to transfected mouse NIH 3T3 cells expressing the human insulin receptor.
Project description:An anti-epilepsy peptide (AEP) was isolated and purified from venom of the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. The purification procedure included CM-Sephadex C-50 chromatography, gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 and DEAE-Sephadex A-50 chromatography. Its homogeneity was demonstrated by pH 4.3 polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis, focusing electrophoresis and SDS/polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis. The Mr of this peptide, calculated from measurements in SDS/15%-polyacrylamide-disc-gel and SDS/20%-polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis, is 8300. The isoelectric point is 8.52 by pH 8-9.5-range isoelectric focusing. No haemorrhagic or toxic activities were found. No toxicity was found even after the dose reached 28 mg/kg. The pharmacological tests showed that the AEP had no effect on heart rate, blood pressure or electrocardiogram, but strongly inhibited epilepsy induced by coriaria lactone and cephaloridine. The fluorescence spectrum showed that the peptide has a strong emission peak at 337 nm. Amino acid analysis suggested that the AEP is composed of 66 residues from 18 amino acids and has an Mr of 8290. The sequence of the first 50 N-terminal residues is as follows: Asp-Gly-Tyr-Ile-Arg-Gly-Ser-Asp-Asn-Cys-Lys-Val-Ser-Cys-Leu-Leu-Gly-Asn- Glu-Gly - Cys-Asn-Lys-Glu-Cys-Arg-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Ala-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Tyr-Cys-Trp-Thr-Val- Lys-Leu - Ala-Gln-Asp-Cys-Glu-Gly-Leu-Pro-Asp-Thr-.
Project description:Several mechanisms have been proposed for the way in which glucose and its metabolites cause cataract, retinopathy and other complications of diabetes, the most convincing being glycation. Glycation, the reaction of sugars with free amino groups of proteins, is one of a variety of non-enzymic post-translational modifications. The aim of the present study was to identify some of the most reactive proteins in the lens when incubated under physiological conditions. Fresh intact bovine lenses were incubated with [14C]glucose in a conventional tissue-culture medium with added antibiotics. After 3 and 6 days of incubation, the water-soluble proteins were separated by size-exclusion chromatography. Glycated proteins from the water-soluble fractions were separated by using a sugar affinity column (Affi-Gel 601). Then the radioactive fractions were identified on SDS/polyacrylamide gels. In addition, the whole bovine lenses were incubated with 10 mM fructose and glucose for 3 and 6 days. The glycated proteins from the water-soluble fractions in parallel with the radioactive fractions were separated by affinity chromatography, and were identified further by amino-acid sequencing. A progressive uptake of radioactive label showed that the majority of proteins incorporating both glucose and fructose were water-soluble fractions. Chromatography and SDS/polyacrylamide gel results showed that alpha- and gamma-crystallin and some proteins of a mean molecular mass of 36-37 kDa incorporated sugars early during incubation. After 6 days of incubation, more crystallins were glycated compared with 3 days, in particular beta-crystallin. Affinity-chromatography results indicated that proteins with subunit masses of 36 kDa and 20 kDa were possibly radiolabelled at an early stage. The purified glycated proteins following incubation with both glucose and fructose, which corresponded to 20 kDa and 36 kDa bands on SDS/polyacrylamide gels, were sequenced by Edman degradation. N-terminal sequences of both 20 kDa bands were Gly-Lys-Ile-Thr, characteristic of gamma-crystallins, but the N-termini of both 36 kDa bands were blocked. Further sequencing after digestion of 36 kDa bands with trypsin and running on HPLC revealed that the glucose sample gave the peptide sequences as Gly-Glu-Tyr-Pro-Asp-Tyr-Gln-Gln and Tyr-Glu-Leu-Pro-Asn-Tyr-Arg, which match with bovine gammaIIIb-crystallin. The peptide sequence Tyr-Glu-Leu-Pro-Asn-Tyr-Arg is only present in the published sequence of bovine gammaIIIb-crystallin and not in any other type of gamma-crystallin. The fructose sample gave the peptide sequences Ile-Thr-Phe-Tyr-Glu-Asp-Arg, Arg-Gly-Asp-Tyr-Pro-Asp-Tyr-Gln-Gln-Trp, Gln-Tyr-Leu-Leu-Arg and Val-Val-Asp-Leu-Tyr, which all matched with bovine gammaIIIa-crystallin. The sequence Val-Val-Asp-Leu-Tyr only appears in the sequence of bovine gammaIIIa-crystallin. gammaIII-Crystallin is the most susceptible lens protein to glycation. The primary target of glucose is gammaIIIb-crystallin, whereas that of fructose is gammaIIIa-crystallin. The early glycation of gammaIII-crystallin by glucose and fructose could result in structural alterations, leading to aggregation of crystallin and eventually cataract formation.
Project description:1. RNAase (ribonuclease) U2, a purine-specific RNAase, was reduced, aminoethylated and hydrolysed with trypsin, chymotrypsin and thermolysin. On the basis of the analyses of the resulting peptides, the complete amino acid sequence of RNAase U2 was determined, 2. When the sequence was compared with the amino acid sequence of RNAase T1 (EC 184.108.40.206), the following regions were found to be similar in the two enzymes; Tyr-Pro-His-Gln-Tyr (38-42) in RNAase U2 and Tyr-Pro-His-Lys-Tyr (38-42) in RNAase T1, Glu-Phe-Pro-Leu-Val (61-65) in RNAase U2 and Glu-Trp-Pro-Ile-Leu (58-62) in RNAase T1, Asp-Arg-Val-Ile-Tyr-Gln (83-88) in RNAase U2 and Asp-Arg-Val-Phe-Asn (76-81) in RNAase T1 and Val-Thr-His-Thr-Gly-Ala (98-103) in RNAase U2 and Ile-Thr-His-Thr-Gly-Ala (90-95) in RNAase T1. All of the amino acid residues, histidine-40, glutamate-58, arginine-77 and histidine-92, which were found to play a crucial role in the biological activity of RNAase T1, were included in the regions cited here. 3. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequence of the sequence of the proteins has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50041 (33 PAGES) AT THE British Library (Lending Division)(formerly the National Lending Library for Science and Technology), Boston Spa, Yorks. LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1975), 145, 5.
Project description:On the periplasmic side of LacY, two conserved Gly-Gly pairs in helices II and XI (Gly46 and Gly370, respectively) and helices V and VIII (Gly159 and Gly262, respectively) allow close packing of each helix pair in the outward (periplasmic)-closed conformation. Previous studies demonstrate that replacing one Gly residue in each Gly-Gly pair with Trp leads to opening of the periplasmic cavity with abrogation of transport activity, but an increased rate of galactoside binding. To further investigate the role of the Gly-Gly pairs, 11 double-replacement mutants were constructed for each pair at positions 46 (helix II) and 262 (helix VIII). Replacement with Ala or Ser results in decreased but significant transport activity, while replacements with Thr, Val, Leu, Asn, Gln, Tyr, Trp, Glu, or Lys exhibit very little or no transport. Remarkably, however, the double mutants bind galactoside with affinities 10-20-fold higher than that of the pseudo-WT or WT LacY. Moreover, site-directed alkylation of a periplasmic Cys replacement indicates that the periplasmic cavity becomes readily accessible in the double-replacement mutants. Molecular dynamics simulations with the WT and double-Leu mutant in the inward-open/outward-closed conformation provide support for this interpretation.
Project description:A comprehensive analysis of crystallographic data of 565 high-resolution protein homodimers comprised of over 250,000 residues suggests that amino acids form two groups that differ in their tendency to distort or symmetrize the structure of protein homodimers. Residues of the first group tend to distort the protein homodimer and generally have long or polar side chains. These include: Lys, Gln, Glu, Arg, Asn, Met, Ser, Thr and Asp. Residues of the second group contribute to protein symmetry and are generally characterized by short or aromatic side chains. These include: Ile, Pro, His, Val, Cys, Leu, Trp, Tyr, Phe, Ala and Gly. The distributions of the continuous symmetry measures of the proteins and the continuous chirality measures of their building blocks highlight the role of side chain geometry and the interplay between entropy and symmetry in dictating the conformational flexibility of proteins.
Project description:The N-terminal 72 residues of an integral membrane fragment, P5, of the human erythrocyte anion-transport protein, which is known to be directly involved in the anion-exchange process, was shown to have the following amino acid sequence: Met-Val-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gly-Pro-Leu-Pro-Asn-Thr-Ala-Leu-Leu-Ser-Leu-Val-Leu-Met -Ala-Gly-Thr-Phe-Phe-Phe-Ala-Met-Met-Leu-Arg-Lys-Phe-Lys-Asn-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Phe-Pro-Gly-Lys-Leu-Arg-Arg-Val-Ile-Gly-Asp-Phe-Gly-Val-Pro-Ile-Ser-Ile-Leu-Ile-Met-Val-Leu-Val-Asp-Phe-Phe-Ile-Gln-Asp-Thr-Tyr-Thr-Gln- The structure of this fragment was analysed, with account being taken of the constraints that apply to the folding of integral membrane proteins and the topographical locations of various sites in the sequence. It was concluded that this sequence forms two transmembrane alpha-helices. These are probably part of a cluster of amphipathic transmembrane alpha-helices, which could comprise that part of the protein responsible for transport activity. The presently available evidence relating to the anion-exchange process was considered with the structural features noted in this study and a possible molecular mechanism is proposed. In this model the rearrangement of a network of intramembranous charged pairs mediates the translocation of an anion between anion-binding regions at each surface of the membrane, which are composed of clusters of positively charged amino acids. This model imposes a sequential exchange mechanism on the system. Supplementary material, including Tables and Figures describing the compositions of peptides determined by amino acid analysis and sequence studies, quantitative and qualitative data that provide a residue-by-residue justification for the sequence assignment and a description of modifications to and use of the solid-phase sequencer has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50123 (12 pages) with the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained as indicated in Biochem. J. (1983) 209, 5.
Project description:Amino acid residue-specific backbone and side-chain dissociations of peptide z ions in MS(3) spectra were elucidated for over 40 pentapeptides with arginine C-terminated sequences of the AAXAR and AAHXR type, nonapeptides of the AAHAAXX"AR and AAHAXAX"AR type, and AAHAAXX"AAR decapeptides. Peptide z(n) ions containing amino acid residues with readily transferrable benzylic or tertiary ?-hydrogen atoms (Phe, Tyr, His, Trp, Val) underwent facile backbone cleavages to form dominant z(n-2) or z(n-3) ions. These backbone cleavages are thought to be triggered by a side-chain ?-hydrogen atom transfer to the z ion C(?) radical site followed by homolytic dissociation of the adjacent C(?)-CO bond, forming x(n-2) cation-radicals that spontaneously dissociate by loss of HNCO. Amino acid residues that do not have readily transferrable ?-hydrogen atoms (Gly, Ala) do not undergo the z(n) ? z(n-2) dissociations. The backbone cleavages compete with side-chain dissociations in z ions containing Asp and Asn residues. Side-chain dissociations are thought to be triggered by ?-hydrogen atom transfers that activate the C(?)-C(?) or C(?)-heteroatom bonds for dissociations that dominate the MS(3) spectra of z ions from peptides containing Leu, Cys, Lys, Met, Ser, Arg, Glu, and Gln residues. The Lys, Arg, Gln, and Glu residues also participate in ?-hydrogen atom transfers that trigger other side-chain dissociations.
Project description:Radiolabeled bombesin analogs are promising probes for cancer imaging of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR). In this study, we developed (18)F-labeled GRPR agonists and antagonists for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of prostate cancer. GRPR antagonists ATBBN (D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-NHCH(2)CH(3)) and MATBBN (Gly-Gly-Gly-Arg-Asp-Asn-D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-NHCH(2)CH(3)), and agonists AGBBN (Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-MetNH(2)) and MAGBBN (Gly-Gly-Gly-Arg-Asp-Asn-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-MetNH(2)) were radiolabeled with (18)F via 4-nitrophenyl 2-(18)F-fluoropropionate. The in vitro receptor binding, cell uptake, and efflux properties of the radiotracers were studied on PC-3 cells. An in vivo PET study was performed on mice bearing PC-3 tumors. Direct (18)F-labeling of known GRPR antagonist ATBBN and agonist AGBBN did not result in good tumor targeting or appropriate pharmacokinetics. Modification was made by introducing a highly hydrophilic linker Gly-Gly-Gly-Arg-Asp-Asn. Higher receptor binding affinity, much higher cell uptake and slower washout were observed for the agonist (18)F-FP-MAGBBN over the antagonist (18)F-FP-MATBBN. Both tracers showed good tumor/background contrast, with the agonist (18)F-FP-MAGBBN having significantly higher tumor uptake than the antagonist (18)F-FP-MATBBN (P < 0.01). In conclusion, Gly-Gly-Gly-Arg-Asp-Asn linker significantly improved the pharmacokinetics of the otherwise hydrophobic BBN radiotracers. (18)F-labeled BBN peptide agonists may be the probes of choice for prostate cancer imaging due to their relatively high tumor uptake and retention as compared with the antagonist counterparts.
Project description:An adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was isolated from extracts of the pars distalis of the pituitary of the dogfish Squalus acanthias by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. It had 15% of the potency of human ACTH in promoting cortico-steroidogenesis in isolated rat adrenal cells. Sequence analysis revealed it to be a nonatria-contapeptide with the following primary structure: Ser-Tyr-Ser-Met-Glu-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-Pro-Met-Gly-Arg-Lys-Arg-Arg-Pro-Ile-Lys-Val-Tyr-Pro-Asn-Ser-Phe-Glu-Asp-Glu-Ser-Val-Glu-Asn-Met-Gly-Pro-Glu-Leu. The N-terminal tridecapeptide sequence was identical with the proposed structure of dogfish alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). On comparison with human ACTH eleven amino acid differences were seen, nine of which are in the 20-39 region of the molecule which is not essential for the steroidogenic activity of ACTH. A peptide identical with the 18-39 portion of this new ACTH was similarly isolated from the neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary where considerable amounts of dogfish alpha-MSH were found. This supported our view that ACTH as well as having a distinct biological role of its own is also the precursor of alpha-MSH.