Inositol phosphates in the duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza L.
ABSTRACT: We have undertaken an analysis of the inositol phosphates of Spirodela polyrhiza at a developmental stage when massive accumulation of InsP6 indicates that a large net synthesis is occurring. We have identified Ins3P, Ins(1,4)P2, Ins(3,4)P2 and possibly Ins(4,6)P2, Ins(3,4,6)P3, Ins(3,4,5,6)P4, Ins (1,3,4,5,6)P5, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5 and InsP6 and revealed the likely presence of a second InsP3 with chromatographic properties similar to Ins(1,4,5)P3. The higher inositol phosphates identified show no obvious direct link to pathways of metabolism of second messengers purported to operate in higher plants, nor do they resemble the immediate products of plant phytase action on InsP6.
Project description:The aquatic monocotyledonous plant Spirodela polyrhiza was labelled with [33P]Pi for short periods under non-equilibrium conditions. An InsP6 fraction was obtained and dissected by using enantiospecific (enzymic) and non-enantiospecific (chemical) means to determine the relative labelling of individual phosphate substituents on the inositol ring of InsP6. Phosphates in positions D-1, -2, -3, -4, -5 and -6 contained approx. 21%, 32-39%, 9-10%, 14-16%, 19-23% and 16-18% of the label respectively. We conclude from the foregoing, together with identities [described in the preceding paper, Brearley and Hanke (1996) Biochem. J. 314, 215-225] of inositol phosphates found in this plant at a developmental stage associated with massive accumulation of InsP6, that synthesis of InsP6 from myo-inositol proceeds according to the sequence Ins3P-->Ins(3,4)P2-->Ins(3,4,6)P3-->Ins(3,4,5,6)P4-->Ins(1,3,4,5,6 ) P5-->InsP6 in Spirodela polyrhiza. These results represent the first description of the synthetic sequence to InsP6 in the plant kingdom and the only comprehensive description of endogenous inositol phosphates in any plant tissue. The sequence described differs from that reported in the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum.
Project description:Partisphere SAX HPLC analysis of endogenous inositol phosphates in [3H]inositol-labelled barley aleurone tissue revealed a range of isomers, including D- and/or L-Ins3P, D- and/or L-Ins(1,4)P2, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2)P2, a third unidentified InsP2, Ins(1,2,3)P3, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,6)P3, D-and/or L-Ins(1,2,3,4)P4, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,5,6)P4, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5, Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P5, InsP6 and a molecule with the chromatographic properties of an inositol pyrophosphate. The striking match between the identities of the stereoisomers, and in some cases enantiomers, detected in vivo and those stereoisomers produced in vitro by the action of wheat-bran phytase on InsP6 [Cosgrove (1980) Inositol Phosphates: Their Chemistry, Bio-chemistry and Physiology. Elsevier, Amsterdam] strongly suggests that most of the inositol phosphates identified are products of the breakdown of InsP4 by endogenous phytase(s) with stereospecificity similar to that of the wheat-bran enzyme(s).
Project description:1. Temporal changes in the levels of many inositol phosphates, whose structural characterization is presented in the preceding paper [Wong, Barker, Morris, Craxton, Kirk & Michell (1991) Biochem. J. 286, 459-468], have been monitored in vasopressin-stimulated WRK-1 cells. 2. Upon stimulation, Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulated within 1 s, consistent with its role as a rapidly acting second messenger produced by receptor activation of phosphoinositidase C. Ins(1,4)P2 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, both of which are immediate products of Ins(1,4,5)P3 metabolism, also accumulated quickly. Ins4P, Ins(1,3,4)P3, Ins(3,4)P2, Ins(1,3)P2, Ins1P and Ins3P, which are intermediates in the metabolism of Ins(1,4)P2 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 to inositol, accumulated after seconds or within a few minutes, and in a temporal sequence consistent with their known metabolic interrelationships. 3. The stimulated accumulation of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 was delayed, as expected if it is formed by phosphorylation of Ins(1,3,4)P3. 4. Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 accumulated 2-3-fold in a few minutes, and mainly before Ins(1,3,4,6)P4. 5. Using a [3H]-/[14C]-inositol double-labelling protocol, we obtained evidence that all of the compounds that accumulated upon stimulation, except Ins(3,4,5,6)P4, originated from lipid-derived Ins(1,4,5)P3, but that the newly formed Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 came from a different source. 6. There were no consistent changes in the levels of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 and InsP6 during stimulation. 7. Alongside the gradual accumulation of Ins(1:2-cyclic,4,5)P3 during stimulation [Wong, Barker, Shears, Kirk & Michell (1988) Biochem. J. 252, 1-5], there was an accumulation of Ins(1:2-cyclic,4)P2 and Ins(1:2-cyclic)P, probably as either minor side products of phosphoinositidase C action or metabolites of Ins(1:2-cyclic,4,5)P3. 8. When Li+ was present during stimulation, it redirected the dephosphorylation pathways downstream of Ins(1,4,5)P3 in the manner expected from its inhibition of inositol monophosphatase and Ins(1,4)P2/Ins(1,3,4)P3 1-phosphatase: there were marked increases in the accumulation of Ins(1,4)P2 and Ins(1,3,4)P3 and of monophosphates. Moreover, Li+ shifted the Ins1P/Ins3P balance in favour of Ins1P, thus demonstrating redirection of the metabolism of the accumulated Ins(1,3,4)P3 towards Ins(1,3)P2 rather than Ins(3,4)P2.
Project description:The influence of highly phosphorylated inositol phosphates on the Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 3-phosphatase enriched from the soluble fraction of pig brain was tested, using [5-32P]Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 as substrate. Both Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 and InsP6 were very potent inhibitors of the Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 3-phosphatase. The Ki values were approximately 60 nM and approximately 3 nM for Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 and InsP6 respectively. Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 and InsP6 also inhibited the Ins(1,4,5)P3/Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 5-phosphatase. Using Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 as substrate, the Ki values were about 35 microM and 15 microM for Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 and InsP6 respectively. The concentrations which led to a 50% inhibition of Ins(1,4,5)P3 (0.5 microM) degradation by the 5-phosphatase were about 20 and 10 microM for the pentakis- and hexakis-phosphate respectively. As the intracellular concentrations of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 and InsP6 are high (up to 60 microM) compared with those of the inositol trisphosphates and tetrakisphosphates, it is possible that the highly phosphorylated inositol phosphates act as regulators in the metabolism of Ca(2+)-mobilizing inositol phosphates.
Project description:1. A detailed structural survey has been made of the inositol phosphates of unstimulated and vasopressin-stimulated WRK-1 rat mammary tumour cells. Inositol phosphate peaks were separated by h.p.l.c., and structural assignments were made for more than 20 compounds by combinations of: (a) co-chromatography with labelled standards; (b) site-specific enzymic dephosphorylation; (c) complete and partial periodate oxidation, followed by h.p.l.c. of polyols and their stereospecific oxidation by dehydrogenases; and (d) ammoniacal hydrolysis. 2. The 'inositol monophosphates' fraction from unstimulated cells included an uncharacterized peak, probably containing some glycerophosphoinositol, and Ins(1:2-cyclic)P. Stimulation provoked accumulation of both Ins1P and Ins3P, of Ins2P, and of Ins5P and/or the enantiomers Ins4P and Ins6P. The proportions of Ins1P and Ins3P were determined by partial periodate oxidation and enantiomeric identification of the resulting glucitols. 3. Three inositol bisphosphate peaks were detected in unstimulated cells: Ins(1,4)P2 [this was distinguished chemically from its enantiomer Ins(3,6)P2], Ins(3,4)P2 and/or Ins(1,6)P2, and Ins(4,5)P2 and/or Ins(5,6)P2. On stimulation, Ins(1,4)P2 and Ins(3,4)P2 [and/or Ins(1,6)P2] levels increased, and Ins(1:2-cyclic,4)P2 and Ins(1,3)P2 were also formed. 4. Three inositol trisphosphate peaks were obtained from unstimulated cells: all increased during stimulation. These were Ins(1,3,4)P3 [with some Ins(1:2-cyclic,4,5)P3], Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(3,4,5)P3 [and/or Ins(1,5,6)P3]. During stimulation, another compound, probably Ins(1,4,6)P3, appeared in the 'Ins(1,4,5)P3 peak'. The 'Ins(3,4,5)P3 peak' contained a second trisphosphate, probably Ins(2,4,5)P3. 5. Three inositol tetrakisphosphates, namely Ins(1,3,4,6)P4, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, were present in unstimulated cells, and all accumulated during stimulation. 6. Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5, which is the most abundant inositol polyphosphate in these cells, a less abundant inositol pentakisphosphate and inositol hexakisphosphate were all unresponsive to stimulation.
Project description:The spectrum of inositol phosphate isomers present in avian erythrocytes was investigated in qualitative and quantitative terms. Inositol phosphates were isolated in micromolar quantities from turkey blood by anion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and subjected to proton n.m.r. and h.p.l.c. analysis. We employed a h.p.l.c. technique with a novel, recently described complexometric post-column detection system, called 'metal-dye detection' [Mayr (1988) Biochem. J. 254, 585-591], which enabled us to identify non-radioactively labelled inositol phosphate isomers and to determine their masses. The results indicate that avian erythrocytes contain the same inositol phosphate isomers as mammalian cells. Denoted by the 'lowest-locant rule' [NC-IUB Recommendations (1988) Biochem. J. 258, 1-2] irrespective of true enantiomerism, these are Ins(1,4)P2, Ins(1,6)P2, Ins(1,3,4)P3, Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, Ins(1,3,4,6)P4, Ins(1,4,5,6)P4, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5, and InsP6. Furthermore, we identified two inositol trisphosphate isomers hitherto not described for mammalian cells, namely Ins(1,5,6)P3 and Ins(2,4,5)P3. The possible position of these two isomers in inositol phosphate metabolism and implications resulting from absolute abundances of inositol phosphates are discussed.
Project description:Coatomer is an oligomeric complex of coat proteins that regulates vesicular traffic through the Golgi complex and from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum [Pelham (1994) Cell 79, 1125-1127]. We have investigated whether the binding of InsP6 to mammalian coatomer [Fleischer, Xie, Mayrleitner, Shears and Fleischer (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 17826-17832] is conserved in the genetically amenable model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have isolated coatomer from S. cerevisiae and found it to bind InsP6 at two apparent classes of binding sites (KD1 = 0.8 +/- 0.2 nM; KD2 = 361 +/- 102 nM). Ligand specificity was studied by displacing 4.5 nM [3H]InsP6 from coatomer with various Ins derivatives. The following IC50 values (nM) were obtained: myo-InsP6 = 6; bis(diphospho)inositol tetrakisphosphate = 6; diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate = 6; scyllo-InsP6 = 12; Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 = 13; Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5 = 22; Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 = 22; 1-O-(1,2-di-O-octanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho)-D-Ins(3,4,5)P3 = 290. Less than 10% of the 3H label was displaced by 1 microM of either Ins(1,4,5)P3 or inositol hexakis-sulphate. A cell-free lysate of S. cerevisiae synthesized diphosphoinositol polyphosphates (PP-InsPn) from InsP6, but our binding data, plus measurements of the relative levels of inositol polyphosphates in intact yeast [Hawkins, Stephens and Piggott (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 3374-3383], indicate that InsP6 is the major physiologically relevant ligand. Thus a reconstituted vesicle trafficking system using coatomer and other functionally related components isolated from yeast should be a useful model for elucidating the functional significance of the binding of InsP6 by coatomer.
Project description:myo-Inositol phosphates (IPs) are important bioactive molecules that have multiple activities within eukaryotic cells, including well-known roles as second messengers and cofactors that help regulate diverse biochemical processes such as transcription and hormone receptor activity. Despite the typical absence of IPs in prokaryotes, many of these organisms express IPases (or phytases) that dephosphorylate IPs. Functionally, these enzymes participate in phosphate-scavenging pathways and in plant pathogenesis. Here, we determined the X-ray crystallographic structures of two catalytically inactive mutants of protein-tyrosine phosphatase-like myo-inositol phosphatases (PTPLPs) from the non-pathogenic bacteria Selenomonas ruminantium (PhyAsr) and Mitsuokella multacida (PhyAmm) in complex with the known eukaryotic second messengers Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and Ins(1,4,5)P3 Both enzymes bound these less-phosphorylated IPs in a catalytically competent manner, suggesting that IP hydrolysis has a role in plant pathogenesis. The less-phosphorylated IP binding differed in both the myo-inositol ring position and orientation when compared with a previously determined complex structure in the presence of myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate (InsP6 or phytate). Further, we have demonstrated that PhyAsr and PhyAmm have different specificities for Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5, have identified structural features that account for this difference, and have shown that the absence of these features results in a broad specificity toward Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5 These features are main-chain conformational differences in loops adjacent to the active site that include the extended loop prior to the penultimate helix, the extended ?-loop, and a ?-hairpin turn of the Phy-specific domain.
Project description:Substantial amounts of three [3H]InsP5 isomers were detected in [3H]inositol-labelled human lymphoblastoid (T5-1) cells. Their structures were determined by h.p.l.c. [Phillippy & Bland (1988) Anal. Biochem. 175, 162-166], and by utilizing a stereospecific D-inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 3-kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum [Stephens & Irvine (1990) Nature (London) 346, 580-583]. The structures were: inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate, D-inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate and L-inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate. The relative proportions of these isomers (approx. 73:14:14 respectively) were unaffected by cross-linking anti-IgD receptors. The T5-1 cells also contained InsP6 and three Ins P4s, which were identified as the 1,3,4,5, 1,3,4,6 and 3,4,5,6 isomers. In incubations with permeabilized T5-1 cells, both 1,3,4,6 and 3,4,5,6 isomers of InsP4 were phosphorylated solely to Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5. Permeabilized cells also dephosphorylated InsP6, even in the presence of a large excess of glucose 6-phosphate to saturate non-specific phosphatases. In the latter experiments the following isomers of InsP5 accumulated: D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5, plus D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5. This demonstration that multiple isomers of InsP5 may be formed in vivo and in vitro by a transformed lymphocyte cell line adds a new level of complexity to the study of inositol polyphosphate metabolism and function.
Project description:We examined whether a phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain from the human insulin receptor substrate-1 (hIRS-1) is capable of binding inositol phosphates/phosphoinositides. The binding specificity was compared with that of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain derived from the same protein because the three dimensional structure was found to be very similar to that of the PH domain, despite the lack of sequence similarity. We also attempted to locate the site of binding of the inositol compounds. The PTB domain bound [3H]Ins(1,4, 5)P3, which was displaced most strongly by Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 and InsP6, indicating that these inositol polyphosphates show the highest affinity. The PTB domain bound to liposomes containing PtdIns(4,5)P2, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2, but not phosphatidylinositol. In contrast, the PH domain showed a preference for Ins(1,4,5)P3, the polar head of PtdIns(4,5)P2. Site-directed mutagenesis studies were performed to map the binding site for inositol phosphates in the PTB domain. Mutation of K169Q, K171Q or K177Q, located in the loop connecting the beta1 and beta2 strands, which is partially responsible for binding inositol phosphates/phosphoinositides in the PH domains of several other proteins, reduced binding activity, probably because of a reduction in affinity. Mutation of R212Q or R227Q, shown to be involved in the binding of a phosphotyrosine, had little effect on the binding capacity. These results indicate that the PTB domain of hIRS-1 can bind inositol phosphates/phosphoinositides. Therefore signalling through the PTB domain could be regulated by the binding not only of proteins with phosphotyrosine but also of inositol phosphates/phosphoinositides, implying that PTB domains could be involved in a myriad of interconnections between intracellular signalling pathways.